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1.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 209(Pt 2): 112185, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749191

RESUMO

We report a general strategy to generate linear and circular gradients of active proteins or polymeric microparticles on planar surfaces by controlling the distribution of electrostatic field during electrohydrodynamic jet printing or electrospray process. Taking fibronectin as an example, we generated a circular gradient of fibronectin and investigated its effect on accelerating the migration of fibroblasts to suit for use in wound closure. In another demonstration, we created linear gradients of laminin in unidirectional and bidirectional patterns, respectively. We showed that such gradations significantly promoted the migration of human neuroblastoma cells with the increase of laminin content. When we changed fibronectin/laminin to electrosprayed poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles, we found similar results in terms of guiding cell migration, except that the guidance cues varied from biological signal to topographic structure. Taken together, this method for generating linear/circular gradients of fibronectin/laminin and PLGA microparticles can be readily extended to different types of bioactive proteins and polymeric microparticles to suit wound closure, nerve repair, and related applications involving cell migration.

2.
Front Nutr ; 8: 734580, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34805240

RESUMO

Background: The association between plasma vitamin E levels and first stroke risk in men and women remains unclear. Objective: We aimed to examine the prospective association between plasma vitamin E and first stroke, and evaluate the effect modifiers for the association, among hypertensive patients. Design: The study sample was drawn from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT), which randomized a total of 20,702 hypertensive patients to a double-blind, daily treatment with either 10 mg enalapril and 0.8 mg folic acid or 10 mg enalapril alone. This nested case-control study, including 618 first stroke cases and 618 controls matched for age, sex, treatment group, and study site, was conducted after the completion of the CSPPT. Results: The median follow-up duration was 4.5 years. Among men, a significantly higher risk of first stroke (adjusted OR, 1.67; 95%CI: 1.01, 2.77) was found for those with plasma vitamin E ≥7.1 µg/mL (≥quartile 1) compared with those with plasma vitamin E < 7.1 µg/mL. Subgroup analyses further showed that the association between vitamin E (≥7.1 vs. <7.1 µg/mL) and first stroke in men was significantly stronger in non-drinkers (adjusted OR, 2.64; 95%CI: 1.41, 4.96), compared to current drinkers (adjusted OR, 0.84; 95% CI: 0.43, 1.66, P-interaction = 0.008). However, there was no significant association between plasma vitamin E and first stroke in women (P-interaction between sex and plasma vitamin E = 0.048). Conclusions: Among Chinese hypertensive patients, there was a statistically significant positive association between baseline plasma vitamin E and the risk of first stroke in men, but not in women. Clinical Trial Registration: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00794885, Identifier: NCT00794885.

3.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(22): e022502, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755533

RESUMO

Background Cardiovascular health (CVH) status is associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). However, evidence for association of CVH change with risk of CVD is scarce. Methods and Results Seven metrics (smoking status, body mass index, physical activity, diet, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose) were used to evaluate the CVH status. Having 0 to 2, 3 to 4, and 5 to 7 ideal cardiovascular metrics were categorized as low, moderate, and high CVH status, respectively. Change in CVH status was assessed from 2006/2007 to 2010/2011. We calculated lifetime risk of CVD using a modified Kaplan-Meier method, and life expectancy was evaluated via the multistate lifetable method. There were 82 349 participants included in our analysis. At 35 years index age, the age-adjusted incident rate and lifetime risk of CVD were increased with decreasing number of ideal CVH metrics. The direction of change in status of CVH was consistently associated with age-adjusted incident rate and lifetime risk of CVD. At 35 years index age, improvement from low to moderate (37.6% [95% CI, 32.8%-42.4%]) or to high status (24.4% [95% CI, 12.7%-36.0%]) had lower lifetime risk of CVD compared with consistently low status (44.6% [95% CI, 40.8%-48.5%]). The improvement in CVH could prolong the years of life free from CVD. The pattern of incident rate and lifetime risk across change in CVH status was similar at 45 and 55 years index age. Conclusions Higher number of CVH metrics was associated with lower lifetime risk of CVD. The improvement of CVH status could reduce the lifetime risk of CVD and prolonged the year of life free from CVD.

4.
Front Robot AI ; 8: 724138, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34765648

RESUMO

Dynamic quadrupedal locomotion over rough terrains reveals remarkable progress over the last few decades. Small-scale quadruped robots are adequately flexible and adaptable to traverse uneven terrains along the sagittal direction, such as slopes and stairs. To accomplish autonomous locomotion navigation in complex environments, spinning is a fundamental yet indispensable functionality for legged robots. However, spinning behaviors of quadruped robots on uneven terrain often exhibit position drifts. Motivated by this problem, this study presents an algorithmic method to enable accurate spinning motions over uneven terrain and constrain the spinning radius of the center of mass (CoM) to be bounded within a small range to minimize the drift risks. A modified spherical foot kinematics representation is proposed to improve the foot kinematic model and rolling dynamics of the quadruped during locomotion. A CoM planner is proposed to generate a stable spinning motion based on projected stability margins. Accurate motion tracking is accomplished with linear quadratic regulator (LQR) to bind the position drift during the spinning movement. Experiments are conducted on a small-scale quadruped robot and the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified on versatile terrains including flat ground, stairs, and slopes.

5.
Front Genet ; 12: 682082, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34745200

RESUMO

Background: Immune checkpoint blockers (ICBs) are increasingly being used to treat patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but only a third of these patients are sensitive to ICBs. Emerging evidence suggests that ferroptosis could be a novel target for antitumor treatment, and combined treatment with ferroptosis inducers might enhance sensitivity to immunotherapy. However, there is a lack of information on the crosstalk between ferroptosis-related lncRNAs and anti-tumor immunity. Therefore, we aim to explore prognostic value of ferroptosis-related lncRNAs and clarify potential role in ICBs of HCC. Methods: We obtained mRNA and lncRNA expression data from two independent cohorts (TCGA and GEO database). Univariate Cox, the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) algorithm and multivariate Cox analysis were used to construct a lncRNA signature, which was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and Kaplan-Meier curves. Tumor-infiltrating cell (TIC) profiling and the tumor immune dysfunction and exclusion (TIDE) algorithm were used to validate the signature model and immunotherapy. Finally, we adopted RT-PCR assay to evaluate the differential expression of lncRNAs in HCC tissues in our hospital. Results: The ferroptosis-related lncRNA signature included five lncRNAs, most of which were positively correlated with clinical stage and grade. The signature could stratify patients into two risk groups, with the high-risk group associated with a shorter overall survival (OS, p < 0.05) in TCGA-LIHC and GSE76427. Besides, the AUCs of the 1-, 3-, and 5-years OS were 0.772, 0.707, and 0.666, respectively. Gene set enrichment analysis (GESA) of lncRNAs revealed enrichment of oncogenic and immune-related pathways. The TIC profiling indicated a close correlation between the signature and immune cells. Furthermore, the high-risk group had a better response to immunotherapy than low-risk group. RT-PCR demonstrated these five lncRNAs were upregulated in cancerous tissue than normal tissues. Conclusions: The ferroptosis-related lncRNA signature could accurately predict the OS of HCC patients and may serve as an independent clinical factor for patients' outcomes. Ferroptosis-related lncRNAs may remodel the tumor microenvironment (TME) and affect the anti-cancer ability of ICBs, and therefore, could potentially act as an indicator for the response to immunotherapy in HCC.

6.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In experimental animal models, implantation location might influence the heterogeneity and overall development of the tumor, leading to an interpretation bias. PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of implantation location in experimental tumor model using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and pathological findings. STUDY TYPE: Prospective. SUBJECTS: Forty-five breast cancer-bearing mice underwent orthotopic (N = 15) and heterotopic (intrahepatic [N = 15] and subcutaneous [N = 15]) implantation. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: Sequences including: T1-weighted turbo spin echo sequence, T2-weighted blade sequence, diffusion-weighted imaging, pre- and post-contrast T1 mapping, multi-echo T2 mapping at 3.0 T. ASSESSMENT: MRI was performed at 7, 14, and 21 days after implantation. Native T1, post-contrast T1, T2, and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of tumors, the tumor volume and necrosis volume within tumor were obtained. Lymphocyte cells from H&E staining, Ki67-positive, and CD31-positive cells from immunohistochemistry were determined. STATISTICAL TESTS: One-way analysis of variance and Spearman's rank correlation were performed. P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The tumor volume (intrahepatic vs. orthotopic vs. subcutaneous: 587.50 ± 77.62 mm3 vs. 814.00 ± 43.85 mm3 vs. 956.13 ± 119.22 mm3 ), necrosis volume within tumor (89.10 ± 26.60 mm3 vs. 292.41 ± 57.92 mm3 vs. 179.91 ± 31.73 mm3 , respectively), ADC at day 21 (543.41 ± 42.28 vs. 542.92 ± 99.67 vs. 369.83 ± 42.90, respectively), and post-contrast T1 at all timepoints (day 7: 442.00 ± 11.52 vs. 435.00 ± 22.90 vs. 394.33 ± 29.95; day 14: 459.00 ± 26.11 vs. 436.83 ± 26.01 vs. 377.00 ± 27.83; day 21: 463.50 ± 23.49 vs. 458.00 ± 34.28 vs. 375.00 ± 30.55) were significantly different between three groups. Necrosis volumes of subcutaneous and intrahepatic tumors were significantly lower than those of orthotopic tumors. The CD31-positive rate in the intrahepatic implantation was significantly higher than in orthotopic and subcutaneous groups. Necrosis volume (r = -0.71), ADC (r = -0.85), and post-contrast T1 (r = -0.75) were strongly correlated with vascular invasion index. DATA CONCLUSION: Orthotopic and heterotopic tumors have their unique growth kinetics, necrosis volume, and vascular invasion. Non-invasive MR quantitative parameters, including ADC and post-contrast T1, may reflect vascular invasion in mice. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 1 TECHNICAL EFFICACY: Stage 3.

7.
J Nutr ; 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Associations between vitamin D and stroke remain inconsistent. One major risk factor for stroke is high blood glucose, but the role it plays in this association is not well-studied. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the individual association between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and risk of first stroke stratified by fasting blood glucose (FBG), and the joint associations between plasma 25(OH)D, glycemic status and first stroke in hypertensive adults. METHODS: This study was a nested, case-control design utilizing data from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT). This analysis included 591 first stroke cases (of which 475 were ischemic stroke, 114 were hemorrhagic stroke, and 2 were uncertain type) and 591 matched controls. The age range of the study population was 45-75 years. The normal FBG (NFG) group had FBG < 5.6 mmol/L,  and the impaired FBG (IFG) group had FBG ≥ 5.6 mmol/L and < 7.0 mmol/L. Diabetes was defined as participants with FBG ≥ 7 mmol/L or who were receiving treatment with hypoglycemic agents. Odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence intervals) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression models. RESULTS: Multivariable adjusted models revealed an inverse association between quartiles of 25(OH) D and risk of first stroke among participants with NFG, but the opposite trend was observed for those with IFG or diabetes. The largest odds ratios (>2) were observed among patients with diabetes, compared to the reference group of NFG and high 25(OH)D. Those with NFG and low 25(OH)D (OR = 1.73, 95%CI = 1.22 to 2.44) or those with IFG and high 25(OH)D (OR = 1.74, 95%CI = 1.14 to 2.67) both had higher risk of total stroke. There was a significant interaction between 25(OH)D and a combined group of IFG and diabetes (P = 0.001). Similar results were observed for ischemic stroke. CONCLUSIONS: In a hypertensive population, the relation between plasma 25(OH)D and risk of first stroke was significantly modified by fasting blood glucose.Registration-URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00794885.

8.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34549258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies indicated that selenium (Se) may play an important role in cardio-cerebrovascular disease. However, the relationship between circulating selenium and risk of first stroke remains inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a secondary analysis of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT), using a nested case-control design, and aimed to investigate the correlation between Se concentration and first stroke risk in adults with hypertension and examine the potential effect modifiers. METHODS: In the CSPPT, a total of 20,702 adults with hypertension were randomly assigned to a double-blind, daily treatment with either 10 mg enalapril and 0.8 mg folic acid or 10 mg enalapril alone. A total of 618 first stroke cases and 618 controls matched for age, sex, treatment group, and study site were included in this study. RESULTS: During a median follow-up duration of 4.5 years (IQR, 4.2-4.6 y), there was a significant inverse association between plasma Se and the risk of first stroke (per SD increment; adjusted OR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.96) and ischemic stroke (per SD increment; adjusted OR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.62, 0.93). Furthermore, a stronger inverse association between plasma Se and first stroke was observed in participants with higher folate concentrations at baseline (≥ 7.7 (median), adjusted OR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.54, 0.85, versus <7.7 ng/mL adjusted OR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.80, 1.21; P for interaction = 0.008), and those with higher time-averaged systolic blood pressure (SBP) over the treatment period (≥ 140, adjusted OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.86, versus <140 mmHg, adjusted OR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.77, 1.20; P for interaction = 0.023). CONCLUSIONS: In summary, there was a significant inverse association between plasma Se and risk of first stroke in Chinese adults with hypertension, especially among those with higher baseline folate concentrations and those with higher time-averaged SBP over the treatment period.Trial registration number: NCT00794885URL of registration: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00794885?term=NCT00794885&draw=2&r.

9.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 128: 112342, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474892

RESUMO

Owing to the structural replication of native extracellular matrix, nonwoven mats of electrospun nanofibers have great potential for use in wound healing. Herein, we report the design and fabrication of a sandwich wound dressing to balance its antimicrobial activity and biocompatibility. This success mainly relies on the incorporation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) into electrospun nanofibers, together with the rational design of a sandwich structure for the dressing. The bottom layer was composed of hydrophilic nanofibers made from a blend of polycaprolactone (PCL) and gelatin (Gel). The top layer consisted of hydrophobic PCL nanofibers. AgNP-loaded PCL/Gel nanofibers were sandwiched between the two layers. When compared with a commercial silver sulfadiazine dressing, the designed wound dressing showed competitive antimicrobial properties, lower cell toxicity, and accelerated wound closure for mouse skin injury. By balancing the biocompatibility of electrospun nanofibers and the broad-spectrum antibacterial activity of AgNPs within a sandwich structure, the novel multifunctional wound dressing could be valuable for effective wound healing and related applications.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanofibras , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bandagens , Camundongos , Prata , Sulfadiazina de Prata/farmacologia , Sulfadiazina , Cicatrização
10.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Partial bile duct ligation (PBDL) model is a reliable cholestatic fibrosis experimental model that showed complex histopathological changes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of PBDL have not been well characterized. PURPOSE: To investigate the potential of MRI parameters in assessing fibrosis in PBDL and explore the relationships between MRI and pathological features. ANIMAL MODEL: Established PBDL models. POPULATION: Fifty-four mice were randomly divided into four timepoints PBDL groups and one sham group. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: 3.0 T; MRI sequences included T1-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE), T2-weighted single shot FSE, variable flip angle T1 mapping, multi-echo SE T2 mapping, multi-echo gradient-echo T2* mapping, and multi-b-value diffusion-weighted imaging. ASSESSMENT: MRI examination was performed at the corresponding timepoints after surgery. Native T1, ΔT1 (T1native-T1post), T2, T2*, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values, histogram parameters (skewness and kurtosis), intravoxel incoherent motion parameters (f, D, and D* ) within the entire ligated (PBDL), non-ligated liver (PBDL), and whole liver (sham) were obtained. Fibrosis and inflammation were assessed in Masson and H&E staining slices using the Metavir and activity scoring system. STATISTICAL TESTS: One-way ANOVA, Spearman's rank correlation, and receiver operating characteristic curves were performed. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Fibrosis and inflammation were finally staged as F3 and A3 in ligated livers but were not observed in non-ligated or sham livers. Ligated livers displayed significantly elevated native T1, ΔT1, T2, and reduced ADC and T2* than other livers. Spearman's correlation showed better correlation with inflammation (r = 0.809) than fibrosis (r = 0.635) in T2 and both ΔT1 and ADC showed stronger correlation with fibrosis (r = 0.704 and r = -0.718) than inflammation (r = 0.564 and r = -0.550). Area under the curve (AUC) for ΔT1 performed the highest (0.896). When combined with all relative parameters, AUC increased to 0.956. DATA CONCLUSION: Multiparametric MRI can evaluate and differentiate pathological changes in PBDL. ΔT1 and ADC better correlated with fibrosis while T2 stronger with inflammation. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 1 TECHNICAL EFFICACY: Stage 2.

11.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e045495, 2021 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462277

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) and all-cause mortality in a Chinese rural population. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: This study was conducted from 2003 to 2018 in Anqing, Anhui Province, China. PARTICIPANTS: 17 851 participants aged 25-64 years (49.4% female) attending physical examinations and questionnaire were included in this study. The inclusion criterion was families having a minimum of three participating siblings. The exclusion criteria included participants without family number and BMI data at baseline. OUTCOME MEASURES: The outcome measure was all-cause mortality. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression analysis was performed to determine the association between baseline BMI and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up period of 14.1 years, 730 deaths (8.0%) occurred among men, and 321 deaths (3.6%) occurred among women. The mean BMI for males was 21.3[Formula: see text] kg/m2, and for female it was 22.1±3.1 kg/m2. Baseline BMI was significantly inversely associated with all-cause mortality risk for per SD increase (OR, 0.79 (95% CI, 0.72 to 0.87) for males; OR, 0.88 (95% CI, 0.76 to 1.01) for females). When BMI was stratified with cut points at 20 and 24 kg/m2, compared with the low BMI group, a significantly lower risk of death was found in the high BMI group (BMI ≥24: OR, 0.57 (95% CI, 0.43 to 0.77) in males; 0.65 (95% CI, 0.46 to 0.93) in females) after adjustment for relevant factors. CONCLUSIONS: In this relatively lean rural Chinese population, the risk of all-cause mortality decreased with increasing BMI. The excess risk of all-cause mortality associated with a high BMI was not seen among this rural population.


Assuntos
Mortalidade , População Rural , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
12.
Dis Markers ; 2021: 6258865, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422136

RESUMO

While the received traditional predictors are still the mainstay in the diagnosis and prognosis of CVD events, increasing studies have focused on exploring the ancillary effect of biomarkers for the aspiring of precision. Under which circumstances, soluble ST2 (sST2), lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and procalcitonin (PCT) have recently emerged as promising markers in the field of both acute and chronic cardiovascular diseases. Existent clinical studies have demonstrated the significant associations between these markers with various CVD outcomes, which further verified the potentiality of markers in helping risk stratification and diagnostic and therapeutic work-up of patients. The current review article is aimed at illuminating the applicability of these four novels and often neglected cardiac biomarkers in common clinical scenarios, including acute myocardial infarction, acute heart failure, and chronic heart failure, especially in the emergency department. By thorough classification, combination, and discussion of biomarkers with clinical and instrumental evaluation, we hope the current study can provide insights into biomarkers and draw more attention to their importance.

13.
Diabetes Metab ; : 101266, 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252500

RESUMO

AIMS: - Evidence for the effects of metabolically healthy obese (MHO) status on heart failure (HF) is limited and ignores the dynamic change of metabolic health and obesity phenotypes. We aimed to investigate the associations of metabolic health and its transition with HF across body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) categories. METHODS: - This prospective cohort study was conducted with 93,288 Chinese adults who were free of cardiovascular disease, cancer or HF at baseline (2006-2007). Metabolic health was defined as having no or only one abnormality in blood pressure, glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or triglyceride levels. Participants were cross-classified at baseline by metabolic health and obesity (defined by BMI and WC criteria). Transitions in metabolic health status from 2006-2007 to 2010-2011 were considered. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for HF were assessed by Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: - During a mean ± standard deviation follow-up of 9.7 ± 1.5 years, 1,628 participants developed HF. Individuals with MHO (HR: 1.78, 95% CI: 1.45, 2.19 for BMI criteria; HR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.30, 1.76 for WC criteria) had higher risk of HF than those with metabolically healthy normal weight (MH-NW). Individuals with initial MHO who shifted to metabolically unhealthy phenotype during follow-up had higher risk of HF compared with stable MH-NW individuals (HR 3.12; 95% CI: 2.01, 4.85 for BMI categories; HR 1.98; 95% CI: 1.42, 2.77 for WC categories). Even stable MHO individuals were at an increased risk of HF compared with stable MH-NW individuals (HR: 2.17; 95% CI: 1.39, 3.39 for BMI categories; HR: 1.33; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.85 for WC categories). CONCLUSIONS: - MHO phenotype is dynamic and its transition to metabolically unhealthy phenotype or even stable MHO is associated with increased risk of HF. Maintaining metabolic health may provide a clue for preventing HF.

14.
Diabetologia ; 64(9): 1963-1972, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109441

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: People with obesity and a normal metabolic profile are sometimes referred to as having 'metabolically healthy obesity' (MHO). However, whether this group of individuals are actually 'healthy' is uncertain. This study aims to examine the associations of MHO with a wide range of obesity-related outcomes. METHODS: This is a population-based prospective cohort study of 381,363 UK Biobank participants with a median follow-up of 11.2 years. MHO was defined as having a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 and at least four of the six metabolically healthy criteria. Outcomes included incident diabetes and incident and fatal atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD), heart failure (HF) and respiratory diseases. RESULTS: Compared with people who were not obese at baseline, those with MHO had higher incident HF (HR 1.60; 95% CI 1.45, 1.75) and respiratory disease (HR 1.20; 95% CI 1.16, 1.25) rates, but not higher ASCVD. The associations of MHO were generally weaker for fatal outcomes and only significant for all-cause (HR 1.12; 95% CI 1.04, 1.21) and HF mortality rates (HR 1.44; 95% CI 1.09, 1.89). However, when compared with people who were metabolically healthy without obesity, participants with MHO had higher rates of incident diabetes (HR 4.32; 95% CI 3.83, 4.89), ASCVD (HR 1.18; 95% CI 1.10, 1.27), HF (HR 1.76; 95% CI 1.61, 1.92), respiratory diseases (HR 1.28; 95% CI 1.24, 1.33) and all-cause mortality (HR 1.22; 95% CI 1.14, 1.31). The results with a 5 year landmark analysis were similar. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Weight management should be recommended to all people with obesity, irrespective of their metabolic status, to lower risk of diabetes, ASCVD, HF and respiratory diseases. The term 'MHO' should be avoided as it is misleading and different strategies for risk stratification should be explored.

15.
Water Res ; 201: 117302, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126471

RESUMO

The first-order model is the most widely utilized model for chlorine decay due to its having only one parameter and an analytical solution. While variable reaction coefficient type models have higher accuracy and wider application range, their widespread uses are hindered by their complexity and the non-existence of an analytical solution. The objective of this study was to develop a variable parabolic reaction coefficient model to simulate and predict chlorine decay in bulk water. The decreasing reactivity of the reacting agents is included in a variable coefficient, which decreases with increasing consumption of the chlorine-reactive species concentration. The model includes minimal parameters that must be calculated, and an analytical solution was derived. Experimental data, including chlorination with different initial chlorine concentrations or temperatures, rechlorination, and water mixing, were utilized to evaluate the accuracy of the variable parabolic reaction coefficient model under different conditions. The relationship between the parameters and temperature was established utilizing the Arrhenius equation. On the basis of assumptions that the chlorine consumed by reactions with the pipe wall does not decrease the variable rate coefficient, this study subtracted the instantaneous aggregate chlorine wall consumption from the total chlorine consumption, so that the parameter values in the VPRC model (derived from laboratory decay tests) can be used in the system model. For output water at the entrance of the WDN with unknown initial chlorine concentration and unknown decay duration from disinfection to entry into the water distribution network, an effective method to determine the model parameter is proposed.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Purificação da Água , Cloro , Desinfecção , Halogenação , Água , Abastecimento de Água
16.
Biol Sex Differ ; 12(1): 39, 2021 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To date, there is no clearly defined association between plasma selenium levels and first stroke. We aimed to investigate the association between baseline plasma selenium and first stroke risk in a community-based Chinese population. METHODS: Using a nested case-control study design, a total of 1255 first stroke cases and 1255 matched controls were analyzed. Participant plasma selenium concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the association of plasma selenium with first stroke risk was estimated by conditional logistic regression models. RESULTS: Overall, a non-linear negative association between plasma selenium and first total stroke and first ischemic stroke risks was found in males but not in females. Compared with participants with lower selenium levels (tertile 1-2, < 94.1 ng/mL), participants with higher selenium levels (tertile 3, ≥ 94.1 ng/mL) had significantly lower risks of first total stroke (OR 0.63; 95% CI 0.48, 0.83) and first ischemic stroke (OR 0.61; 95% CI 0.45, 0.83) in males but not in females with first total stroke (OR 0.92; 95% CI 0.69, 1.22) and first ischemic stroke (OR 0.89; 95% CI 0.65, 1.22). Furthermore, a stronger association between plasma selenium and first total stroke was found in males with higher vitamin E levels (≥ 13.5 µg/mL vs. < 13.5 µg/mL P-interaction = 0.007). No significant association was observed between plasma selenium and first hemorrhagic stroke risk in either males or females. CONCLUSION: Our study indicated a significant, non-linear, negative association between plasma selenium and first stroke in males but not in females. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR1800017274 .

17.
Eur J Public Health ; 31(3): 613-618, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33954663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary recommendations regarding egg intake remain controversial topic for public health. We hypothesized that there was a positive association between egg consumption and all-cause mortality. METHODS: To test this hypothesis, we enrolled 9885 adults from a community-based cohort in Anhui Province, China during 2003-05. Egg consumption was assessed by food questionnaire. Stratified analyses were performed for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, smoking, drinking and laboratory tests. RESULTS: After an average follow-up of 14.1 years, 9444 participants were included for analysis. A total of 814 deaths were recorded. Participants' BMI and lipid profile had no significantly difference between three egg consumption groups. BMI was 21.6±2.7 of the whole population, especially BMI>24 was only 17.3%. A bivariate association of egg consumption >6/week with increased all-cause mortality was observed compared with ≤6/week (RR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.73, P = 0.018). A significant interaction was observed for BMI ≥ 21.2 kg/m2 vs. BMI<21.2 kg/m2 (P for interaction: 0.001). No other significant interactions were found. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, consuming >6 eggs/week increased risk of all-cause mortality, even among lean participants, especially who with BMI ≥ 21.2 kg/m2. Eggs are an easily accessible and constitute an affordable food source in underdeveloped regions. Consuming <6 eggs/week may be the most suitable intake mode.


Assuntos
Dieta , Ovos , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Seguimentos , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
18.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 696, 2021 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: According to the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017, smoking is one of the leading four risk factors contributing to deaths in China. We aimed to evaluate the associations of smoking with all-cause mortality in a Chinese rural population. METHODS: Male participants over age 45 (n = 5367) from a large familial aggregation study in rural China, were included in the current analyses. A total of 528 former smokers and 3849 current smokers accounted for 10 and 71.7% of the cohort, respectively. Generalized Estimating Equations were used to evaluate the association between baseline smoking status and mortality, adjusting for pertinent covariates. RESULTS: There were 579 recorded deaths during the 15-year follow-up. Current smokers (odds ratio [OR],1.60; 95% CI,1.23-2.08) had higher all-cause mortality risks than nonsmokers. Relative to nonsmokers, current smokers of more than 40 pack-years ([OR],1.85; 95% CI,1.33-2.56) had a higher all-cause mortality risk. Compared to nonsmokers, current smokers who started smoking before age 20 ([OR],1.91; 95% CI,1.43-2.54) had a higher all-cause mortality risk, and former smokers in the lower pack-year group who quit after age 41 (median) ([OR],3.19; 95% CI,1.83-5.56) also had a higher risk of death after adjustment. Furthermore, former smokers who were also former drinkers had the highest significant risk of mortality than never smokers or drinkers. (P for interaction = 0.034). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that current smokers and former smokers have a higher mortality risk than nonsmokers and would benefit from cessation at a younger age.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , Adulto Jovem
19.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 628317, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33777937

RESUMO

The current treatment for ocular pathological angiogenesis mainly focuses on anti-VEGF signals. This treatment has been confirmed as effective despite the unfavorable side effects and unsatisfactory efficiency. Recently, endothelial cell metabolism, especially glycolysis, has been attracting attention as a potential treatment by an increasing number of researchers. Emerging evidence has shown that regulation of endothelial glycolysis can influence vessel sprouting. This new evidence has raised the potential for novel treatment targets that have been overlooked for a long time. In this review, we discuss the process of endothelial glycolysis as a promising target and consider regulation of the enzyme 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase as treatment for ocular pathological angiogenesis.

20.
Sci Total Environ ; 768: 144604, 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444867

RESUMO

Fe-modified biochar (FeBC) has been considered for aqueous hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) removal, but a better understanding is needed with respect to the removal behavior, chemical processes, and removal mechanisms under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Aqueous Cr(VI) removal was evaluated using unmodified (BC) and FeBC. The Cr(VI) was completely removed in a pH range of 2-10. The removal behavior was properly depicted using pseudo-second-order (PSO) and Langmuir models under aerobic conditions, and using PSO and Freundlich models under anaerobic conditions. Removal rate and capacity were enhanced by up to 3.8 times under anaerobic conditions. Desorption experiments indicated removed Cr in FeBC was stable except under strong acid condition. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) analysis suggested removed Cr in FeBC was 100% in Cr(III) form and bound to Fe with a bond length of 3.01 Å in the stable form of Fe(III)nCr(III)(1-n)(OOH). The removal mechanisms of Cr(VI) under aerobic conditions by FeBC mainly included electrostatic adsorption, chemical reduction, and complex precipitation.


Assuntos
Síncrotrons , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Anaerobiose , Carvão Vegetal , Cromo/análise , Compostos Férricos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
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