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1.
Pharmacol Res ; 153: 104679, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014571

RESUMO

In the effort to identify anti-diabetic drug, we discovered a novel free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1) agonist CPU025, which is structurally different from previously reported FFA1 agonists. The present study revealed CPU025 is a potent FFA1 agonist (EC50 = 38.7 nM) with moderate agonistic activity on PPARδ (EC50 = 625.6 nM), and promotes insulin secretion at a glucose-dependent manner. Modeling study also illuminated CPU025 forms interaction with key residues closely related to the agonistic effects of FFA1 and PPARδ. Long-term treatment of CPU025 exerted better glycemic control and lipid profile than TAK-875, the most advanced FFA1 partial agonist in this field. Moreover, CPU025 improved ß-cell function and alleviated fatty liver in ob/ob mice. Further study suggested CPU025 could alleviate fatty liver through regulating the expression of genes involved in fatty acid ß-oxidation, lipoprotein lipolysis, lipid synthesis, oxidative stress and mitochondrial function. These results indicate that long-term treatment of CPU025 improves glucose and lipid metabolism, and may be useful for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and fatty liver.

2.
Br J Pharmacol ; 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1) plays an important role in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion making it an attractive anti-diabetic target. This study characterizes the pharmacological profile of HWL-088 (2-(2-fluoro-4-((2'-methyl-[1,1'- biphenyl]-3-yl)methoxy)phenoxy)acetic acid), a novel highly potent FFAR1 agonist in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we investigated the long-term effects of HWL-088 alone and in combination with metformin in diabetic mice. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: In vitro effects of HWL-088 on FFAR1 and PPARα/γ/δ were studied in cell-based assays. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic effects were evaluated in MIN6 cell line and in rats. Long-term effects on glucose and lipid metabolism were investigated in ob/ob mice. KEY RESULTS: HWL-088 is a highly potent FFAR1 agonist (EC50 = 18.9 nM) with moderate PPARδ activity (EC50 = 570.9 nM) and promotes glucose-dependent insulin secretion in vitro and in vivo. Long-term administration of HWL-088 exhibited better glucose control and plasma lipid profiles than those of another FFAR1 agonist, TAK-875, and synergistic improvements were observed when combined with metformin. Moreover, HWL-088 and combination therapy improved ß-cell function by up-regulation of pancreas duodenum homeobox-1, reduced fat accumulation in adipose tissue and alleviated fatty liver in ob/ob mice. The effect of HWL-088 involves a reduction in hepatic lipogenesis and oxidative stress, increased lipoprotein lipolysis, glucose uptake, mitochondrial function and fatty acid ß-oxidation. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: These data indicate that long-term treatment with HWL-088, a highly potent FFAR1 agonist, improves glucose and lipid metabolism and may be useful for the treatment of diabetes mellitus by mono-therapy or combination with metformin.

3.
Expert Opin Ther Pat ; 30(1): 27-38, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771391

RESUMO

Introduction: The activation of free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1) induces insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner, and thereby is considered as an attractive anti-diabetic target. The clinical studies provided a lot of evidence that FFAR1 agonists improved glucose control in T2DM without the risk of hypoglycemia. The field of FFAR1 agonists is extremely competitive with many patent applications filed in recent years identifying potent candidates.Area covered: The present review summarizes patent applications (2016-2019) filing for FFAR1 modulators, including FFAR1 partial/full agonists, atypical agonists, and multiple target agonists, along with in vitro and in vivo evaluation.Expert opinion: The clinical studies of FFAR1 agonists have proved their potential for the improvement of glucose control. However, there are a few issues still to be solved in this field since TAK-875 terminated in Phase III studies due to liver toxicity. The biggest challenge on the development of FFAR1 agonists may not be the identification of a highly potent compound, but finding out the exact mechanisms of hepatotoxicity and avoid it. Moreover, the further exploration of chemical spaces on FFAR1 full agonists and multi-targeted agonists, as well as corresponding clinical studies, will be expected and might open up new directions in this field.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/agonistas , Animais , Benzofuranos/efeitos adversos , Benzofuranos/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Insulina/metabolismo , Secreção de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Patentes como Assunto , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Sulfonas/efeitos adversos , Sulfonas/farmacologia
4.
Bioorg Chem ; 92: 103254, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518760

RESUMO

The free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) were considered as potential anti-diabetic targets, and the dual FFA1/PPARδ agonists might provide synergistic effect in insulin secretion and sensibility. Herein, we further develop dual agonists by screening 7 series of heterocycles, resulting in the discovery of compound 19 with considerable oral pharmacokinetic profile. Compound 19 exhibited a balanced potency between FFA1 and PPARδ, and high selectivity over PPARα and PPARγ. Moreover, compound 19 exerted improved glucose-lowering effects and insulin sensitivity in a dose-dependent manner, which might be attributed to its dual effects to simultaneously regulate insulin secretion and resistance. Our results extended the existing chemical space, and provided a potent tool compound 19.

5.
Bioorg Chem ; 92: 103209, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487621

RESUMO

Based on a previously reported phenoxyacetic acid scaffold, compound 7 (HWL-088) has been identified as a superior free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1) agonist by comprehensive structure-activity relationship study. Our results indicated that the introduction of ortho-fluoro greatly increased the activity of phenoxyacetic acid series, and the unique structure-activity relationship in biphenyl moiety is different from previously reported FFA1 agonists. Moreover, the modeling study was also performed to better understand the binding mode of present series. Compound 7 significantly improved glucose tolerance both in normal and diabetic models, and even exerted greater potential on glucose control than that of TAK-875. These findings provided a novel candidate HWL-088, which is currently in preclinical study to evaluate its potential for the treatment of diabetes.

6.
Eur J Med Chem ; 164: 352-365, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30605833

RESUMO

The free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1 or GPR40) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) have attracted a lot of attention due to their role in promoting insulin secretion and sensibility, respectively, which are two major features of diabetes. Therefore, the dual FFA1/PPARδ agonists would increase insulin secretion and sensibility by FFA1 and PPARδ activation. In this study, we hybrid FFA1 agonist AM-4668 with PPARδ agonist GW501516, leading to the identification of orally bioavailable dual agonist 32, which revealed high selectivity over other PPARs. Moreover, compound 32 exhibited good pharmacokinetic profiles with high plasma concentration, sustained half-life and low clearance in vivo. During the hypoglycemic test, a dual agonist 32 enhanced the tolerance of ob/ob mice for glucose loading in a dose-dependent manner. Our results suggest that dual FFA1/PPARδ agonist could be a valuable therapy for type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Descoberta de Drogas , Hipoglicemiantes/química , PPAR delta/agonistas , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/agonistas , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Animais , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacocinética , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Camundongos , Tiazóis/química , Tiazóis/farmacocinética
7.
Eur J Med Chem ; 159: 267-276, 2018 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30296685

RESUMO

The free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have attracted interest as potent targets for the treatment of metabolic syndrome such as type 2 diabetes. Based on the hypothesis that the dual agonists of PPARs and FFA1 would act as insulin sensitizers and secretagogues by simultaneous activation of PPARs and FFA1, we developed the design strategy to obtain dual PPARs/FFA1 agonist by hybrid FFA1 agonist 1 with PPARδ agonist 2 in consideration of their structural similarity. As expected, systematic exploration of structure-activity relationship and molecular modeling, results in the discovery of lead compound 15, a pan agonist with relative balanced activities between FFA1, PPARγ and PPARδ. The dose-response relationship studies suggested that the pan agonist 15 suppressed the excursion of blood glucose levels in a dose-dependent manner. During a 5-days treatment in ob/ob mice, the pan agonist 15 (100 mg/kg) revealed sustained hypoglycemic effect, even proximity to the most advanced FFA1 agonist (TAK-875, 40 mg/kg), which might be attributed to its pan PPARs/FFA1 activities to simultaneous regulate the mechanism of insulin secretion and resistance. These positive results suggest that the dual PPARs/FFA1 agonists such as lead compound 15 might be novel therapeutic strategy to modulate the complex pathological mechanisms of type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , PPAR delta/agonistas , PPAR gama/agonistas , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/agonistas , Animais , Células CHO , Cricetulus , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Desenho de Drogas , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Células HEK293 , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/síntese química , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Camundongos Obesos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
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