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ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(33): 38969-38978, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399054


Controlling the microstructure of materials by means of phase separation is a versatile tool for optimizing material properties. Phase separation has been exploited to fabricate intricate microstructures in many fields including cell biology, tissue engineering, optics, and electronics. The aim of this study was to use phase separation to tailor the spatial location of drugs and thereby generate release profiles of drug payload over periods ranging from 1 week to months by exploiting different mechanisms: polymer degradation, polymer diluent dissolution, and control of microstructure. To achieve this, we used drop-on-demand inkjet three-dimensional (3D) printing. We predicted the microstructure resulting from phase separation using high-throughput screening combined with a model based on the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter and were able to show that drug release from 3D-printed objects can be predicted from observations based on single drops of mixtures. We demonstrated for the first time that inkjet 3D printing yields controllable phase separation using picoliter droplets of blended photoreactive oligomers/monomers. This new understanding gives us hierarchical compositional control, from droplet to device, allowing release to be "dialled up" without manipulation of device geometry. We exemplify this approach by fabricating a biodegradable, long-term, multiactive drug delivery subdermal implant ("polyimplant") for combination therapy and personalized treatment of coronary heart disease. This is an important advance for implants that need to be delivered by cannula, where the shape is highly constrained and thus the usual geometrical freedoms associated with 3D printing cannot be easily exploited, which brings a hitherto unseen level of understanding to emergent material properties of 3D printing.

Anti-Hipertensivos/química , Doença das Coronárias/tratamento farmacológico , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Excipientes/química , Indóis/química , Polímeros/química , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Dioxanos/química , Composição de Medicamentos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Humanos , Indóis/farmacologia , Metacrilatos/química , Transição de Fase , Poliésteres/química , Impressão Tridimensional , Pirrolidinonas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 93: 975-986, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30274136


In this study, bone tissue engineered scaffolds fabricated via powder-based 3D printing from hydroxyapatite (HA) and calcium sulphate (CaSO4) powders were investigated. The combination of using a fast resorbing CaSO4 based powder and the relatively slower HA powder represents a promising prospect for tuning the bioresorption of 3D printed (3DP) scaffolds. These properties could then be tailored to coincide with tissue growth rate for different surgical procedures. The manufactured scaffolds were infiltrated with poly(ε­caprolactone) (PCL). The PCL infiltrated the inter-particle spacing within the 3DP structures due to the nature of a loosely-packed powder bed and also covered the surface of ceramic-based scaffolds. Consequently, the average compressive strength, compressive modulus and toughness increased by 314%, 465% and 867%, respectively. The resorption behaviour of the 3DP scaffolds was characterised in vitro using a high-throughput system that mimicked the physiological environment and dynamic flow conditions relevant to the human body. A rapid release of CaSO4 between Day 0 and 28 was commensurate with a reduction in scaffold mass and compressive properties, as well as an increase in medium absorption. In spite of this, HA particles, connected by PCL fibrils, remained within the microstructure after 56 days resorption under dynamic conditions. Consequently, a high level of structural integrity was maintained within the 3DP scaffold. This study presented a porous PCL-HA-CaSO4 3DP structure with the potential to encourage new tissue growth during the initial stages of implantation and also offering sufficient structural and mechanical support during the bone healing phase.

Cerâmica/química , Força Compressiva , Poliésteres/química , Impressão Tridimensional , Tecidos Suporte/química , Cerâmica/farmacocinética , Humanos , Poliésteres/farmacocinética
J Vis Exp ; (123)2017 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28518077


Inkjet printing is a modern method for polymer processing, and in this work, we demonstrate that this technology is capable of producing polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) multilayer structures. A polyvinyl alcohol aqueous solution was formulated. The intrinsic properties of the ink, such as surface tension, viscosity, pH, and time stability, were investigated. The PVOH-based ink was a neutral solution (pH 6.7) with a surface tension of 39.3 mN/m and a viscosity of 7.5 cP. The ink displayed pseudoplastic (non-Newtonian shear thinning) behavior at low shear rates, and overall, it demonstrated good time stability. The wettability of the ink on different substrates was investigated, and glass was identified as the most suitable substrate in this particular case. A proprietary 3D inkjet printer was employed to manufacture polymer multilayer structures. The morphology, surface profile, and thickness uniformity of inkjet-printed multilayers were evaluated via optical microscopy.

Álcool de Polivinil/química , Impressão/métodos , Vidro , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Tinta , Reologia , Soluções , Tensão Superficial , Viscosidade
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 70: 68-83, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27233445


Powder-based inkjet three-dimensional printing (3DP) to fabricate pre-designed 3D structures has drawn increasing attention. However there are intrinsic limitations associated with 3DP technology due to the weak bonding within the printed structure, which significantly compromises its mechanical integrity. In this study, calcium sulphate ceramic structures demonstrating a porous architecture were manufactured using 3DP technology and subsequently post-processed with a poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) coating. PCL concentration, immersion time, and number of coating layers were the principal parameters investigated and improvement in compressive properties was the measure of success. Interparticle spacing within the 3DP structures were successfully filled with PCL material. Consequently the compressive properties, wettability, morphology, and in vitro resorption behaviour of 3DP components were significantly augmented. The average compressive strength, Young׳s modulus, and toughness increased 217%, 250%, and 315%, following PCL coating. Addition of a PCL surface coating provided long-term structural support to the host ceramic material, extending the resorption period from less than 7 days to a minimum of 56 days. This study has demonstrated that application of a PCL coating onto a ceramic 3DP structure was a highly effective approach to addressing some of the limitations of 3DP manufacturing and allows this advanced technology to be potentially used in a wider range of applications.

Poliésteres/química , Impressão Tridimensional , Tecidos Suporte , Força Compressiva , Módulo de Elasticidade , Teste de Materiais , Porosidade , Engenharia Tecidual
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 38: 1-10, 2014 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24656346


In this study, calcium phosphate (CaP) powders were blended with a three-dimensional printing (3DP) calcium sulfate (CaSO4)-based powder and the resulting composite powders were printed with a water-based binder using the 3DP technology. Application of a water-based binder ensured the manufacture of CaP:CaSO4 constructs on a reliable and repeatable basis, without long term damage of the printhead. Printability of CaP:CaSO4 powders was quantitatively assessed by investigating the key 3DP process parameters, i.e. in-process powder bed packing, drop penetration behavior and the quality of printed solid constructs. Effects of particle size, CaP:CaSO4 ratio and CaP powder type on the 3DP process were considered. The drop penetration technique was used to reliably identify powder formulations that could be potentially used for the application of tissue engineered bone scaffolds using the 3DP technique. Significant improvements (p<0.05) in the 3DP process parameters were found for CaP (30-110 µm):CaSO4 powders compared to CaP (<20 µm):CaSO4 powders. Higher compressive strength was obtained for the powders with the higher CaP:CaSO4 ratio. Hydroxyapatite (HA):CaSO4 powders showed better results than beta-tricalcium phosphate (ß-TCP):CaSO4 powders. Solid and porous constructs were manufactured using the 3DP technique from the optimized CaP:CaSO4 powder formulations. High-quality printed constructs were manufactured, which exhibited appropriate green compressive strength and a high level of printing accuracy.

Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Fosfatos de Cálcio/farmacologia , Sulfato de Cálcio/farmacologia , Impressão/métodos , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Tecidos Suporte/química , Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Força Compressiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Durapatita/farmacologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Porosidade , Pós , Engenharia Tecidual/instrumentação , Molhabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Difração de Raios X