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1.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(10): 1043-1048, 2019 Oct 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607053

RESUMO

Objectives: To understand the status of studies about influenza economic burden in mainland China and summarize their major results. Methods: The words of influenza, flu, cost, economic, burden, effectiveness, benefit, utility, China, and Chinese, were used as search keywords. Journal papers published during 2000-2018 were searched from Chinese electronic databases (CNKI and Wanfang) and English electronic databases (PubMed, Web of science, EconLit and Cochrane Library). The language of literature was restricted to Chinese and English. A total of 23 effective documents were included, and the descriptive characteristics, research indexes and methods included in the literature were analyzed. The monetary unit used in this review is Chinese Yuan (CNY). Results: The 23 study sites were mainly in the relatively developed and populous regions. The total cost per capita of laboratory-confirmed influenza,of all age-group was reported in 6 literatures, and only 4 literatures reported it in out-patients (range: 768.0-999.9 CNY), Only one study reported this indicator in inpatients (9 832.0 CNY). One literature reported the total cost per capita of influenza-like illness,, which was 205.1 CNY. And one literature reported that the direct medical cost of inpatients per capita in children under 5 years of age was 6 072.0 CNY while two literature reported this index for the elderly over 60 years of age, ranging from 14 250.0 to 19 349.1 CNY. Four articles reported the economic burden of influenza in urban and rural areas, one of which showed that the related expenses of urban influenza inpatients accounted for 31% of the average annual income, while which for the rural flow was 113%. Conclusion: The average economic burden of lab-confirmed influenza case is higher than that of influenza-like illness, and there are differences in outpatient indirect expenses and inpatients direct medical expenses. The direct medical burden for the hospitalized 60-years-and-beyond influenza case group is heavier thar other age group. By region, the influenza associated individual economic burden in rural area is higher than that of urban area..


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Renda , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural
2.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(10): 1049-1055, 2019 Oct 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607054

RESUMO

Objective: To systematically review the mortality burden study of influenza in mainland China. Method: "influenza", "flu", "H1N1", "pandemic", "mortality", "death", "fatality", "burden", "China" and "Chinese" were used as keywords, and a systematic literature search was conducted to identify articles in three English databases (PubMed, Web of Science and Embase) and three Chinese database (CNKI, WanFang and VIP) during 1990-2018 (excluding Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan). The language of literature was restricted to Chinese and English. The inclusion criteria were human-oriented researches with method based on population, and research indexes included mortality and excess mortality. The exclusion criteria were non-primary research materials, predictive research and research on the burden of avian influenza related deaths. A total of 17 literatures were included, and the basic information to descriptive characteristics, methodology of modeling and the corresponding results were extracted. Results: All the 17 studies adopted indirect statistical models, with 14 of which adopted the regression model, and all the research index was excess mortality. All causes (16 studies), respiratory and circulatory diseases (14 studies) and pneumonia and influenza (10 studies) were the main causes of death associated with influenza. Influenza associated mortality burden in the elderly was higher, with the lowest excess mortality rates of all causes, respiratory and circulatory diseases, pneumonia and influenza being 49.57, 30.80 and 0.69 per 100 000 people, and the highest rates being 228.16, 170.20 and 30.35 per 100 000 people, respectively. In the non-elderly, the corresponding lowest rates were -0.27, -0.08 and 0.04 per 100 000 people respectively, and the highest rates were 3.63, 2.6 and 0.91 per 100 000 people, respectively. The influenza-related excess mortality was higher in the north, with a minimum of 7.8 per 100 000 and a maximum of 18.0 per 100 000, and slightly lower in the south, with a minimum of 6.11 per 100 000 and a maximum of 18.7 per 100 000. There were also differences in deaths caused by different influenza virus subtypes, with influenza A(H3N2) and influenza B virus possibly posing a heavier mortality burden. Conclusions: Studies on influenza mortality burden is mainly based on indirect model and urban level in China. The mortality burden of influenza in the elderly, the northern and subtype A(H3N2) and B were more severe.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana , Idoso , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2 , Vírus da Influenza B
3.
EMBO J ; 18(4): 977-91, 1999 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10022840

RESUMO

Gene expression in higher eukaryotes appears to be regulated by specific combinations of transcription factors binding to regulatory sequences. The Ets factor PU.1 and the IRF protein Pip (IRF-4) represent a pair of interacting transcription factors implicated in regulating B cell-specific gene expression. Pip is recruited to its binding site on DNA by phosphorylated PU.1. PU.1-Pip interaction is shown to be template directed and involves two distinct protein-protein interaction surfaces: (i) the ets and IRF DNA-binding domains; and (ii) the phosphorylated PEST region of PU.1 and a lysine-requiring putative alpha-helix in Pip. Thus, a coordinated set of protein-protein and protein-DNA contacts are essential for PU.1-Pip ternary complex assembly. To analyze the function of these factors in vivo, we engineered chimeric repressors containing the ets and IRF DNA-binding domains connected by a flexible POU domain linker. When stably expressed, the wild-type fused dimer strongly repressed the expression of a rearranged immunoglobulin lambda gene, thereby establishing the functional importance of PU.1-Pip complexes in B cell gene expression. Comparative analysis of the wild-type dimer with a series of mutant dimers distinguished a gene regulated by PU.1 and Pip from one regulated by PU.1 alone. This strategy should prove generally useful in analyzing the function of interacting transcription factors in vivo, and for identifying novel genes regulated by such complexes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Transativadores/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Dimerização , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Cadeias lambda de Imunoglobulina/genética , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon , Camundongos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação/genética , Engenharia de Proteínas , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Ativação Transcricional/genética , Transfecção/genética , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
4.
Biochemistry ; 37(32): 11202-14, 1998 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9698366

RESUMO

About one-half of the terminators of the Escherichia coli genome require transcription termination factor rho to function. Here we use the very "diffuse" trp t' terminator of E. coli to show that both template sequence and transcript secondary structure are involved in controlling the template positions and efficiencies of rho-dependent termination. Termination begins in the wild-type trp t' terminator sequence approximately 97 bps downstream of the promoter under our standard reaction conditions, and termination efficiencies for individual positions on three related templates have been determined in the form of quantitative patterns of rho-dependent RNA release. Comparison of these patterns shows that the rho-dependent termination efficiency at individual template positions depends primarily on the nucleotide sequence at and near the putative 3' end of the transcript, although these efficiencies can also be influenced by RNA sequence elements located further upstream. The amplitudes of the peaks of the RNA release patterns at specific template positions are controlled primarily by the effectiveness of the binding of the rho hexamer to the "rho loading site" of the transcript. Introduction of a stable element of secondary structure into the nascent RNA within the loading site both shifts the position of initial rho-dependent termination downstream and decreases the amplitudes of the peaks of the RNA release pattern at the corresponding sequences. These results and others are consistent with the view that rho-dependent terminators contain two essential components: (i) an upstream rho loading site on the RNA that is 70-80 nucleotide residues in length, essentially devoid of secondary structure, and which contains sufficient numbers of rC residues to activate the RNA-dependent ATPase of rho; and (ii) a downstream sequence within which termination actually occurs. In this study we use the trp t' terminator to characterize the involvement of each of these sequence components in detail in order to provide the parameters required to define a quantitative mechanistic model for the function of rho in transcript termination.


Assuntos
Terminação Traducional da Cadeia Peptídica/genética , Fator Rho/genética , Fator Rho/metabolismo , Regiões Terminadoras Genéticas/genética , Triptofano/genética , Composição de Bases , Sequência de Bases , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Inosina Monofosfato/genética , Inosina Monofosfato/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Fatores de Terminação de Peptídeos/química , Fatores de Terminação de Peptídeos/genética , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA , RNA Bacteriano/química , RNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Fator Rho/química , Moldes Genéticos , Transcrição Genética , Triptofano/metabolismo
5.
Biochemistry ; 37(32): 11215-22, 1998 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9698367

RESUMO

Continuing our quantitative analysis of rho-dependent termination at the trp t ' terminator, we here present evidence that the position of rho-dependent terminators along the template is strongly regulated by the secondary structure of the nascent RNA transcript, and that the prerequisite for establishing an effective kinetic competition between elongation and rho-dependent RNA release at a particular termination position is an upstream rho hexamer properly bound to a rho loading site on the nascent transcript. As a consequence kinetic competition regulates termination efficiency at individual positions downstream of the rho loading site, but does not control the position of the termination zone. Conditions that favor the formation of stable secondary structure on the RNA shift the initial rho-dependent termination position downstream. These results are consistent with a model that states that the rho protein requires approximately 70-80 nucleotide residues of unstructured RNA to load onto the transcript and cause termination, and that stable RNA secondary structures are effectively "looped out" to avoid interaction with rho, meaning that more RNA must be synthesized before rho-dependent termination can begin. Thus, although the rate of transcript elongation is important in determining termination efficiency at specific template positions, the process of loading of the rho hexamer onto the nascent transcript plays an overriding role in determining the template positions of rho-dependent terminators. We also show that at high salt concentrations, which have virtually no effect on the rate of transcript elongation, rho-dependent transcript termination is more directly dependent on the efficiency of rho loading, since the processivity of translocation of rho along the nascent transcript to "catch up with" the polymerase is much more limited under these conditions. A quantitative model for rho-dependent transcript termination is developed to account for all these interacting effects of rho on the efficiency of RNA release from actively transcribing elongation complexes.


Assuntos
Terminação Traducional da Cadeia Peptídica/genética , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA/genética , Fator Rho/genética , Regiões Terminadoras Genéticas/genética , Triptofano/genética , Ligação Competitiva/genética , Cinética , Cloreto de Magnésio/metabolismo , Modelos Químicos , Elongação Traducional da Cadeia Peptídica/genética , Cloreto de Potássio/metabolismo , RNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Fator Rho/química , Fator Rho/metabolismo , Sais/metabolismo , Moldes Genéticos , Triptofano/química , Triptofano/metabolismo
6.
Cell Mol Neurobiol ; 17(2): 195-206, 1997 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9140697

RESUMO

1. Intrasomal recordings of potentials produced by current stimulation in vivo were made from 24 (A-beta) touch and 19 vibrotactile neurons in the trigeminal ganglion of 29 crotaline snakes, Trimeresurus flavoviridis. 2. Usually touch neurons responded with a single action potential at the beginning of a prolonged depolarizing pulse, whereas all vibrotactile neurons responded with multiple spikes. 3. The electrophysiological parameters examined were membrane potential, threshold current, input resistance and capacitance, time constant, rebound latency, and its threshold current. Touch neurons had higher input resistance (and lower input capacitance) than vibrotactile neurons. 4. In conclusion, current injection, which elicits a single or multiple spiking, seems a useful way to separate touch neurons from vibrotactile neurons without confirming the receptor response, and some membrane properties are also specific to the sensory modality.


Assuntos
Potenciais de Ação , Mecanorreceptores/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Gânglio Trigeminal/fisiologia , Animais , Eletrofisiologia/métodos , Feminino , Masculino , Potenciais da Membrana/fisiologia , Estimulação Física , Tempo de Reação , Tato , Trimeresurus , Vibração
7.
J Comp Neurol ; 360(4): 621-33, 1995 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8801254

RESUMO

Intrasomal recording and horseradish peroxidase injection techniques were employed in vivo to determine the morphological characteristics of touch, temperature, and mechanical nociceptive neurons in the trigeminal ganglia of crotaline snakes. The touch neurons, with a peripheral axon conducting at the A-beta range, could be subdivided into tactile and vibrotactile neurons according to their response properties, but there were no morphological differences between them. These neurons exhibited a large and oval soma and possessed a set of large stem, peripheral, and central axons which were all myelinated and equal in diameter with a constriction at the bifurcation. The temperature neurons, which conducted peripherally at the A-delta range, were physiologically separated into thermosensitive and thermo-mechanosensitive neurons, which were also morphologically indistinguishable. The temperature neurons had a round soma of medium size and a set of medium axons with varied axonal bifurcation patterns. All axons of these neurons were myelinated, but the central axon was thinner than the stem and peripheral axons. The mechanical nociceptive neurons, which had a peripheral axon conducting at the A-delta range, were morphologically heterogeneous based on their conduction velocities. The neurons conducting at the fast A-delta range were morphologically similar to the temperature neurons in the ganglion excepting their thinner central axons, whereas those at the slow A-delta range had a thinner myelinated stem axon that gave rise to a thinner myelinated peripheral axon and an unmyelinated stem axon with a bifurcation of either a triangular expansion at the bifurcating point or a central axon arising straightforwardly from the constant stem and peripheral axons. This study revealed that distinct morphological characteristics do exist for the touch and temperature neurons and the subtypes of mechanical nociceptive neurons in the trigeminal ganglion, but not for the subfunctional types of touch neurons or temperature neurons.


Assuntos
Neurônios/classificação , Neurônios/fisiologia , Nociceptores/fisiologia , Temperatura Ambiente , Tato/fisiologia , Gânglio Trigeminal/fisiologia , Animais , Axônios/fisiologia , Contagem de Células , Feminino , Peroxidase do Rábano Silvestre , Masculino , Serpentes
8.
Int J Radiat Biol ; 56(6): 893-909, 1989 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2574219

RESUMO

The electronic wave functions of 11 nitroimidazolyl and nitroheterocyclic compounds were computed using the CNDO/2 quantum chemical method. The location of the greatest nucleophilic reactivity for each molecule was predicted to be mostly near or on the nitro group. As in our previous publication (Lin Liming et al. 1985) the maximum values of the superdelocalizability index for nucleophilic reactivity S(N)max and the sum of S(N)r for each of these compounds were discovered to be significantly correlated with the radiosensitivity as indicated by log(1/C1.6), where C1.6 is the concentration of the compound required to achieve an enhancement ratio of 1.6. The electrostatic potential distribution on a plane parallel to the plane of the imidazole or heterocyclic ring was computed for these compounds with the wave functions obtained from CNDO/2 calculations. In order to analyse the steric electrostatic potential maps, the overall electrostatic potential on an imaginary surface surrounding a molecule was calculated using the multicentre multipole expansion method. It was found that a wide and deep negative potential area exists in a compound which had significant radiosensitizing efficiency, while in metronidazole, which is not an efficient radiosensitizer, the corresponding area is narrow. This phenomenon may be related to the interaction between these compounds and certain biological macromolecules. These preliminary quantum chemical results support Adams' electron affinity theory, and might be helpful in searching for new radiosensitizers.


Assuntos
Compostos Heterocíclicos , Nitrocompostos , Nitroimidazóis , Radiossensibilizantes , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
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