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1.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878766

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) modulates Wnt signaling, promoting tumor growth, metastasis, and immunosuppression. High DKK1 expression has been detected in various tumor types-including biliary tract cancer (BTC)-and is associated with poor prognosis. DKN-01-a humanized mAb targeting DKK1-was evaluated in a phase I multicenter study in combination with gemcitabine and cisplatin in patients with unresectable or metastatic BTC with no prior systemic therapy for advanced disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study included a dose-escalation phase assessing DKN-01 at two dose levels (150 mg and 300 mg) combined with gemcitabine (1,000 mg/m2) and cisplatin (25 mg/m2) followed by dose expansion. Primary endpoints evaluated safety and tolerability; secondary endpoints evaluated efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and circulating biomarkers. RESULTS: Fifty-one patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (63%), extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (8%), and gallbladder cancer (29%) were enrolled. No dose-limiting toxicities were seen, and the expansion phase proceeded with DKN-01 300 mg (N = 47). The most frequent grade 3/4 treatment-emergent adverse events included neutropenia (60%), thrombocytopenia (34%), and anemia (23%). The objective response rate was 21.3% and median progression-free survival was 8.7 months (95% confidence interval, 5.4-10.3 months). Better outcomes were associated with biomarkers of angiogenesis inhibition (increased sVEGFR1 and lower VEGF-C) and reduced inflammation (lower IL6 and decreased TNFα). CONCLUSIONS: DKN-01 300 mg was well tolerated in this combination but did not appear to have additional activity beyond historically reported efficacy with gemcitabine/cisplatin alone. Exploratory pharmacokinetic and biomarker data indicate potential antiangiogenic and immunomodulatory activity of DKN-01/chemotherapy and the need for increased dose/intensity. A study with DKN-01 600 mg in combination with a PD-1 inhibitor in BTC is ongoing.

2.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study assessed patterns of failure and rates of subsequent biliary intervention among patients with resected biliary tract cancers (BTCs) including gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) and extra- and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (eCCA and iCCA) treated with adjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT). METHODS: In this single-institution retrospective analysis of 80 patients who had GBC (n = 29), eCCA (n = 43), or iCCA (n = 8) treated with curative-intent resection and adjuvant CRT from 2007 to 2017, the median radiation dose was 50.4 Gy (range 36-65 Gy) with concurrent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy. All but two of the patients received adjuvant chemotherapy. The 2-year locoregional failure (LRF), 2-year recurrence-free survival (RFS), and 2-year overall survival (OS), and univariate predictors of LRF, RFS, and OS were calculated for the entire cohort and for a subgroup excluding patients with iCCA (n = 72). The predictors of biliary interventions also were assessed. RESULTS: Of the 80 patients (median follow-up period, 30.5 months; median OS, 33.9 months), 54.4% had American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage 1 or 2 disease, 57.1% were lymph node-positive, and 66.3% underwent margin-negative resection. For the entire cohort, 2-year LRF was 23.8%, 2-year RFS was  43.7%, and 2-year OS was 62.1%.  When patients with iCCA were excluded, the 2-year LRF was 22.6%, the 2-year RFS was 43.9%, and the 2-year OS was 59.2%. In the overall and subgroup univariate analyses, lymph node positivity was associated with greater LRF, whereas resection margin was not. Biliary intervention was required for 12 (63.2%) of the 19 patients with LRF versus 11 (18%) of the 61 patients without LRF (P < 0.001). Of the 12 patients with LRF who required biliary intervention, 4 died of biliary complications. CONCLUSIONS: The LRF rates remained significant despite adjuvant CRT. Lymph node positivity may be associated with increased risk of LRF. Positive margins were not associated with greater LRF, suggesting that CRT may mitigate LRF risk for this group. An association between LRF and higher rates of subsequent biliary interventions was observed, which may yield significant morbidity. Novel strategies to decrease the rates of LRF should be considered.

3.
ESMO Open ; 5(4)2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Symptoms of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represent a substantial burden for the patient and are important endpoints to assess when evaluating treatment. Patient-reported outcomes were evaluated in subjects with advanced HCC and baseline alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) ≥400 ng/mL treated with second-line ramucirumab. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with AFP≥400 ng/mL enrolled in the REACH or REACH-2 phase 3 studies were used in this analysis. Eligible patients had advanced HCC, Child-Pugh A, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0/1 and prior sorafenib. Patients received ramucirumab 8 mg/kg or placebo once every 2 weeks. Disease-related symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were assessed with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Hepatobiliary Symptom Index (FHSI)-8 and EuroQoL-5-Dimensions (EQ-5D) instruments, respectively. Time to deterioration (TTD) (≥3-point decrease in FHSI-8 total score;≥0.06-point decrease in EQ-5D score, from randomisation to first date of deterioration) was determined using Kaplan-Meier estimation and the Cox proportional hazards model. Both separate and pooled analyses for REACH AFP≥400 ng/mL and REACH-2 patients were conducted. RESULTS: In the pooled population with AFP ≥400 ng/mL (n=542; ramucirumab, n=316; placebo, n=226), median TTD in FHSI-8 total score was prolonged with ramucirumab relative to placebo (3.3 vs 1.9 months; HR 0.725; (95% CI 0.559 to 0.941); p=0.0152), including significant differences in back pain (0.668; (0.497 to 0.899); p=0.0044), weight loss (0.699; (0.505 to 0.969); p=0.0231) and pain (0.769; (0.588 to 1.005); p=0.0248) symptoms. TTD in EQ-5D score was not significantly different between ramucirumab and placebo groups (median 2.9 vs 1.9 months). Results in the individual trials were consistent with these findings. CONCLUSIONS: Ramucirumab in second-line treatment of advanced HCC demonstrates consistent benefit in the delay of deterioration in disease-related symptoms with no worsening of HRQoL. Taken with previously demonstrated ramucirumab-driven survival benefits in this setting, these data may inform patient-clinician discussions about the benefit-risk profile of this therapy. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01140347; NCT02435433, NCT02435433.

4.
Oncologist ; 2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835448
6.
Cancer Res ; 80(16): 3215-3221, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606000

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes, which is mainly linked to obesity, is associated with increased incidence of liver cancer. We have previously found that in various models of obesity/diabetes, hyperinsulinemia maintains heightened hepatic expression of cyclin D1, suggesting a plausible mechanism linking diabetes and liver cancer progression. Here we show that cyclin D1 is greatly elevated in human livers with diabetes and is among the most significantly upregulated genes in obese/diabetic liver tumors. Liver-specific cyclin D1 deficiency protected obese/diabetic mice against hepatic tumorigenesis, whereas lean/nondiabetic mice developed tumors irrespective of cyclin D1 status. Cyclin D1 dependency positively correlated with liver cancer sensitivity to palbociclib, an FDA-approved CDK4 inhibitor, which was effective in treating orthotopic liver tumors under obese/diabetic conditions. The antidiabetic drug metformin suppressed insulin-induced hepatic cyclin D1 expression and protected against obese/diabetic hepatocarcinogenesis. These results indicate that the cyclin D1-CDK4 complex represents a potential selective therapeutic vulnerability for liver tumors in obese/diabetic patients. SIGNIFICANCE: Obesity/diabetes-associated liver tumors are specifically vulnerable to cyclin D1 deficiency and CDK4 inhibition, suggesting that the obese/diabetic environment confers cancer-selective dependencies that can be therapeutically exploited.

7.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(26): 2960-2970, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716739

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The immunomodulatory effect of lenvatinib (a multikinase inhibitor) on tumor microenvironments may contribute to antitumor activity when combined with programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1) signaling inhibitors in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We report results from a phase Ib study of lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab (an anti-PD-1 antibody) in unresectable HCC (uHCC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this open-label multicenter study, patients with uHCC received lenvatinib (bodyweight ≥ 60 kg, 12 mg; < 60 kg, 8 mg) orally daily and pembrolizumab 200 mg intravenously on day 1 of a 21-day cycle. The study included a dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) phase and an expansion phase (first-line patients). Primary objectives were safety/tolerability (DLT phase), and objective response rate (ORR) and duration of response (DOR) by modified RECIST (mRECIST) and RECIST version 1.1 (v1.1) per independent imaging review (IIR; expansion phase). RESULTS: A total of 104 patients were enrolled. No DLTs were reported (n = 6) in the DLT phase; 100 patients (expansion phase; included n = 2 from DLT phase) had received no prior systemic therapy and had Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage B (n = 29) or C disease (n = 71). At data cutoff, 37% of patients remained on treatment. Median duration of follow-up was 10.6 months (95% CI, 9.2 to 11.5 months). Confirmed ORRs by IIR were 46.0% (95% CI, 36.0% to 56.3%) per mRECIST and 36.0% (95% CI, 26.6% to 46.2%) per RECIST v1.1. Median DORs by IIR were 8.6 months (95% CI, 6.9 months to not estimable [NE]) per mRECIST and 12.6 months (95% CI, 6.9 months to NE) per RECIST v1.1. Median progression-free survival by IIR was 9.3 months per mRECIST and 8.6 months per RECIST v1.1. Median overall survival was 22 months. Grade ≥ 3 treatment-related adverse events occurred in 67% (grade 5, 3%) of patients. No new safety signals were identified. CONCLUSION: Lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab has promising antitumor activity in uHCC. Toxicities were manageable, with no unexpected safety signals.

8.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(6): 796-807, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutations occur in approximately 13% of patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, a relatively uncommon cancer with a poor clinical outcome. The aim of this international phase 3 study was to assess the efficacy and safety of ivosidenib (AG-120)-a small-molecule targeted inhibitor of mutated IDH1-in patients with previously treated IDH1-mutant cholangiocarcinoma. METHODS: This multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study included patients from 49 hospitals in six countries aged at least 18 years with histologically confirmed, advanced, IDH1-mutant cholangiocarcinoma who had progressed on previous therapy, and had up to two previous treatment regimens for advanced disease, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 0 or 1, and a measurable lesion as defined by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1. Patients were randomly assigned (2:1) with a block size of 6 and stratified by number of previous systemic treatment regimens for advanced disease to oral ivosidenib 500 mg or matched placebo once daily in continuous 28-day cycles, by means of an interactive web-based response system. Placebo to ivosidenib crossover was permitted on radiological progression per investigator assessment. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival by independent central review. The intention-to-treat population was used for the primary efficacy analyses. Safety was assessed in all patients who had received at least one dose of ivosidenib or placebo. Enrolment is complete; this study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02989857. FINDINGS: Between Feb 20, 2017, and Jan 31, 2019, 230 patients were assessed for eligibility, and as of the Jan 31, 2019 data cutoff date, 185 patients were randomly assigned to ivosidenib (n=124) or placebo (n=61). Median follow-up for progression-free survival was 6·9 months (IQR 2·8-10·9). Progression-free survival was significantly improved with ivosidenib compared with placebo (median 2·7 months [95% CI 1·6-4·2] vs 1·4 months [1·4-1·6]; hazard ratio 0·37; 95% CI 0·25-0·54; one-sided p<0·0001). The most common grade 3 or worse adverse event in both treatment groups was ascites (four [7%] of 59 patients receiving placebo and nine [7%] of 121 patients receiving ivosidenib). Serious adverse events were reported in 36 (30%) of 121 patients receiving ivosidenib and 13 (22%) of 59 patients receiving placebo. There were no treatment-related deaths. INTERPRETATION: Progression-free survival was significantly improved with ivosidenib compared with placebo, and ivosidenib was well tolerated. This study shows the clinical benefit of targeting IDH1 mutations in advanced, IDH1-mutant cholangiocarcinoma. FUNDING: Agios Pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/tratamento farmacológico , Colangiocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/administração & dosagem , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Mutação , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/enzimologia , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/genética , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/patologia , Colangiocarcinoma/enzimologia , Colangiocarcinoma/genética , Colangiocarcinoma/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Inibidores Enzimáticos/efeitos adversos , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Glicina/administração & dosagem , Glicina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/genética , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , República da Coreia , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos
9.
N Engl J Med ; 382(20): 1894-1905, 2020 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The combination of atezolizumab and bevacizumab showed encouraging antitumor activity and safety in a phase 1b trial involving patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. METHODS: In a global, open-label, phase 3 trial, patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma who had not previously received systemic treatment were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive either atezolizumab plus bevacizumab or sorafenib until unacceptable toxic effects occurred or there was a loss of clinical benefit. The coprimary end points were overall survival and progression-free survival in the intention-to-treat population, as assessed at an independent review facility according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1 (RECIST 1.1). RESULTS: The intention-to-treat population included 336 patients in the atezolizumab-bevacizumab group and 165 patients in the sorafenib group. At the time of the primary analysis (August 29, 2019), the hazard ratio for death with atezolizumab-bevacizumab as compared with sorafenib was 0.58 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42 to 0.79; P<0.001). Overall survival at 12 months was 67.2% (95% CI, 61.3 to 73.1) with atezolizumab-bevacizumab and 54.6% (95% CI, 45.2 to 64.0) with sorafenib. Median progression-free survival was 6.8 months (95% CI, 5.7 to 8.3) and 4.3 months (95% CI, 4.0 to 5.6) in the respective groups (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.76; P<0.001). Grade 3 or 4 adverse events occurred in 56.5% of 329 patients who received at least one dose of atezolizumab-bevacizumab and in 55.1% of 156 patients who received at least one dose of sorafenib. Grade 3 or 4 hypertension occurred in 15.2% of patients in the atezolizumab-bevacizumab group; however, other high-grade toxic effects were infrequent. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma, atezolizumab combined with bevacizumab resulted in better overall and progression-free survival outcomes than sorafenib. (Funded by F. Hoffmann-La Roche/Genentech; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03434379.).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Bevacizumab/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Análise de Sobrevida
11.
Hepatology ; 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380571

RESUMO

Despite being one of the leading causes of cancer death globally, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has historically not been the focus of novel drug development. In the past several years that has changed with the results from a number of hallmark phase 3 studies in advanced HCC. In HCC, immune-oncology approaches have garnered much attention; there is still a need to better understand criteria for patient selection and to optimize combination strategies to maximize the potential of these approaches. The next generation of studies will aim at translating our increased understanding of tumor biology into clinical trial design.

12.
Liver Int ; 2020 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279446

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Limited data on treatment of elderly patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) increase the unmet need. REACH and REACH-2 were global phase III studies of ramucirumab in patients with HCC after prior sorafenib, where patients with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) ≥400 ng/mL showed an overall ssurvival (OS) benefit for ramucirumab. These post-hoc analyses examined efficacy and safety of ramucirumab in patients with HCC and baseline AFP ≥ 400 ng/mL by three prespecified age subgroups (<65, ≥65 to <75 and ≥75 years). METHODS: Individual patient data were pooled from REACH (baseline AFP ≥400 ng/mL) and REACH-2. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression methods (stratified by study) assessed OS, progression-free survival (PFS), time to progression (TTP) and patient-reported outcomes (Functional Hepatobiliary System Index-8 [FHSI-8] score). RESULTS: A total of 542 patients (<65 years: n = 302; ≥65 to <75 years: n = 160; ≥75 years: n = 80) showed similar baseline characteristics between ramucirumab and placebo. Older subgroups had higher hepatitis C and steatohepatitis incidences, and lower AFP levels, than the <65 years subgroup. Ramucirumab prolonged OS in patients <65 years (hazard ratio [HR], 0.753; 95% CI 0.581-0.975), ≥65 to <75 years (0.602; 0.419-0.866) and ≥75 years (0.709; 0.420-1.199), PFS and TTP irrespective of age. Ramucirumab showed similar overall safety profiles across subgroups, with a consistent median relative dose intensity ≥97.8%. A trend towards a delay in symptom deterioration in FHSI-8 with ramucirumab was observed in all subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: In this post-hoc analysis, ramucirumab showed a survival benefit across age subgroups with a tolerable safety profile, supporting its use in advanced HCC with elevated AFP, irrespective of age, including ≥75 years.

13.
J Gastroenterol ; 55(6): 627-639, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The global, randomized, phase 3 REACH-2 study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02435433) found significantly longer overall survival (OS) for second-line ramucirumab versus placebo (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.710, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.531-0.949, P = 0.0199) in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) ≥ 400 ng/mL. This prespecified subgroup analysis evaluated the efficacy and safety of ramucirumab in the Japanese patients enrolled in the study. METHODS: Patients with advanced HCC and AFP ≥ 400 ng/mL after first-line sorafenib were randomized 2:1 to ramucirumab (8 mg/kg intravenously) or placebo every 2 weeks. Hazard ratios for progression-free survival (PFS) and OS (primary endpoint of the overall study) were estimated using the stratified Cox regression model. We also pooled individual patient data from REACH-2 with data from REACH (NCT01140347) for patients with AFP ≥ 400 ng/mL. RESULTS: In the Japanese REACH-2 subpopulation, there were improvements for ramucirumab (n = 41) versus placebo (n = 18) in PFS (HR 0.282, 95% CI 0.144-0.553) and OS was numerically prolonged (HR 0.599, 95% CI 0.303-1.187), consistent with the significant benefit seen in the overall REACH-2 study population. In the ramucirumab and placebo arms, respectively, the objective response rate was 7.3% and 0%, and the disease control rate was 70.7% and 33.3%. The most frequently reported grade ≥ 3 treatment-emergent adverse event was hypertension (ramucirumab: 15%; placebo: 11%). CONCLUSIONS: Ramucirumab after prior sorafenib improved PFS and OS compared with placebo, with a manageable safety profile, in the Japanese REACH-2 subpopulation, consistent with the overall REACH-2 study results. Ramucirumab is the first agent to demonstrate clinical benefit for Japanese patients with HCC in the second-line setting.

15.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(8): 1877-1885, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941831

RESUMO

PURPOSE: ctDNA offers a promising, noninvasive approach to monitor therapeutic efficacy in real-time. We explored whether the quantitative percent change in ctDNA early after therapy initiation can predict treatment response and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A total of 138 patients with metastatic gastrointestinal cancers and tumor profiling by next-generation sequencing had serial blood draws pretreatment and at scheduled intervals during therapy. ctDNA was assessed using individualized droplet digital PCR measuring the mutant allele fraction in plasma of mutations identified in tumor biopsies. ctDNA changes were correlated with tumor markers and radiographic response. RESULTS: A total of 138 patients enrolled. A total of 101 patients were evaluable for ctDNA and 68 for tumor markers at 4 weeks. Percent change of ctDNA by 4 weeks predicted partial response (PR, P < 0.0001) and clinical benefit [CB: PR and stable disease (SD), P < 0.0001]. ctDNA decreased by 98% (median) and >30% for all PR patients. ctDNA change at 8 weeks, but not 2 weeks, also predicted CB (P < 0.0001). Four-week change in tumor markers also predicted response (P = 0.0026) and CB (P = 0.022). However, at a clinically relevant specificity threshold of 90%, 4-week ctDNA change more effectively predicted CB versus tumor markers, with a sensitivity of 60% versus 24%, respectively (P = 0.0109). Patients whose 4-week ctDNA decreased beyond this threshold (≥30% decrease) had a median PFS of 175 days versus 59.5 days (HR, 3.29; 95% CI, 1.55-7.00; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Serial ctDNA monitoring may provide early indication of response to systemic therapy in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal cancer prior to radiographic assessments and may outperform standard tumor markers, warranting further evaluation.

16.
J Hepatol ; 72(2): 353-363, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954497

RESUMO

Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) is a highly lethal hepatobiliary neoplasm whose incidence is increasing. Largely neglected for decades as a rare malignancy and frequently misdiagnosed as carcinoma of unknown primary, considerable clinical and investigative attention has recently been focused on iCCA worldwide. The established standard of care includes first-line (gemcitabine and cisplatin), second-line (FOLFOX) and adjuvant (capecitabine) systemic chemotherapy. Compared to hepatocellular carcinoma, iCCA is genetically distinct with several targetable genetic aberrations identified to date. Indeed, FGFR2 and NTRK fusions, and IDH1 and BRAF targetable mutations have been comprehensively characterised and clinical data is emerging on targeting these oncogenic drivers pharmacologically. Also, the role of immunotherapy has been examined and is an area of intense investigation. Herein, in a timely and topical manner, we will review these advances and highlight future directions of research.

17.
Hepatology ; 71(4): 1247-1261, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Activation of the antitumor immune response using programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1) blockade showed benefit only in a fraction of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Combining PD-1 blockade with antiangiogenesis has shown promise in substantially increasing the fraction of patients with HCC who respond to treatment, but the mechanism of this interaction is unknown. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We recapitulated these clinical outcomes using orthotopic-grafted or induced-murine models of HCC. Specific blockade of vascular endothelial receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) using a murine antibody significantly delayed primary tumor growth but failed to prolong survival, while anti-PD-1 antibody treatment alone conferred a minor survival advantage in one model. However, dual anti-PD-1/VEGFR-2 therapy significantly inhibited primary tumor growth and doubled survival in both models. Combination therapy reprogrammed the immune microenvironment by increasing cluster of differentiation 8-positive (CD8+ ) cytotoxic T cell infiltration and activation, shifting the M1/M2 ratio of tumor-associated macrophages and reducing T regulatory cell (Treg) and chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2-positive monocyte infiltration in HCC tissue. In these models, VEGFR-2 was selectively expressed in tumor endothelial cells. Using spheroid cultures of HCC tissue, we found that PD-ligand 1 expression in HCC cells was induced in a paracrine manner upon anti-VEGFR-2 blockade in endothelial cells in part through interferon-gamma expression. Moreover, we found that VEGFR-2 blockade increased PD-1 expression in tumor-infiltrating CD4+ cells. We also found that under anti-PD-1 therapy, CD4+ cells promote normalized vessel formation in the face of antiangiogenic therapy with anti-VEGFR-2 antibody. CONCLUSIONS: We show that dual anti-PD-1/VEGFR-2 therapy has a durable vessel fortification effect in HCC and can overcome treatment resistance to either treatment alone and increase overall survival in both anti-PD-1 therapy-resistant and anti-PD-1 therapy-responsive HCC models.

18.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(3): 193-202, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790344

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pembrolizumab demonstrated antitumor activity and safety in the phase II KEYNOTE-224 trial in previously treated patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). KEYNOTE-240 evaluated the efficacy and safety of pembrolizumab in this population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, phase III study was conducted at 119 medical centers in 27 countries. Eligible patients with advanced HCC, previously treated with sorafenib, were randomly assigned at a two-to-one ratio to receive pembrolizumab plus best supportive care (BSC) or placebo plus BSC. Primary end points were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS; one-sided significance thresholds, P = .0174 [final analysis] and P = .002 [first interim analysis], respectively). Safety was assessed in all patients who received ≥ 1 dose of study drug. RESULTS: Between May 31, 2016, and November 23, 2017, 413 patients were randomly assigned. As of January 2, 2019, median follow-up was 13.8 months for pembrolizumab and 10.6 months for placebo. Median OS was 13.9 months (95% CI, 11.6 to 16.0 months) for pembrolizumab versus 10.6 months (95% CI, 8.3 to 13.5 months) for placebo (hazard ratio [HR], 0.781; 95% CI, 0.611 to 0.998; P = .0238). Median PFS for pembrolizumab was 3.0 months (95% CI, 2.8 to 4.1 months) versus 2.8 months (95% CI, 2.5 to 4.1 months) for placebo at the first interim analysis (HR, 0.775; 95% CI, 0.609 to 0.987; P = .0186) and 3.0 months (95% CI, 2.8 to 4.1 months) versus 2.8 months (95% CI, 1.6 to 3.0 months) at final analysis (HR, 0.718; 95% CI, 0.570 to 0.904; P = .0022). Grade 3 or higher adverse events occurred in 147 (52.7%) and 62 patients (46.3%) for pembrolizumab versus placebo; those that were treatment related occurred in 52 (18.6%) and 10 patients (7.5%), respectively. No hepatitis C or B flares were identified. CONCLUSION: In this study, OS and PFS did not reach statistical significance per specified criteria. The results are consistent with those of KEYNOTE-224, supporting a favorable risk-to-benefit ratio for pembrolizumab in this population.

19.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 27(4): 1122-1129, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31873931

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate outcomes for patients with unresectable intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) treated with hypofractionated proton or photon radiation therapy (HF-RT). METHODS: We retrospectively identified 66 patients with ICC who were treated with HF-RT from 2008 to 2018. Median age at RT was 76 years (range 30-92), including 27 patients (41%) aged ≥ 80 years. Median RT dose was 58.05 Gy (range 37.5-67.5), all delivered in 15 daily fractions. Thirty-two patients received proton RT and 34 patients received photon RT. RESULTS: Median follow-up times from diagnosis and RT start were 21 months and 14 months, respectively. In total, five patients (7.6%) developed local failure. The 2-year outcomes were 84% local control (LC) and 58% OS. Among the 51 patients treated with definitive intent, the 2-year LC rate was 93% and the OS rate was 62%. On multivariate analysis for LC, older age was associated with a lower risk of local failure [hazard ratio (HR) 0.91; p = 0.02], while prior surgery (HR 16.5; p = 0.04) and macrovascular invasion (HR 123.93; p = 0.02) were independently associated with an increased risk of local failure. On multivariate analysis for OS, female sex (HR 0.33; p = 0.001) and prior chemotherapy (HR 0.38; p = 0.003) remained significantly associated with OS. On multivariate analysis for OS, compared with photon RT, there was a trend towards improved survival with proton RT (HR 0.50; p = 0.05). The rate of overall grade 3 + toxicity was 11%. One patient developed radiation-induced liver disease and was treated with corticosteroids. CONCLUSIONS: HF-RT yields high rates of local control and is an effective modality to optimize biliary control for unresectable/locally recurrent ICC.

20.
J Clin Pathol ; 73(1): 23-29, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422372

RESUMO

AIMS: The histological distinction of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) from metastatic adenocarcinoma remains a challenge. The primary goal was to evaluate the diagnostic value of morphology and albumin expression in the diagnosis of ICC. METHODS: We evaluated morphological patterns in 120 ICCs and 677 non-hepatic adenocarcinomas and performed in situ hybridisation (ISH) stain for albumin in the former cohort (retrospective cohort). We also identified 119 samples from primary and metastatic lesions, the validation cohort, in which albumin ISH was performed as part of the diagnostic workup. Targeted sequencing was performed on selected cases. We also mined existing expression profiling data including cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) (41 760 unique samples). RESULTS: In the retrospective cohort, 45% of ICCs and <1% of non-hepatic adenocarcinomas showed a cholangiolar pattern; albumin ISH was positive in 93% of ICCs with significant intratumorous heterogeneity. In the validation cohort, 29% of ICCs showed a cholangiolar pattern and 88% expressed albumin, while all metastatic non-hepatic neoplasms were negative (n=37) (sensitivity 88% and specificity 100%). Targetable genetic alterations (IDH mutations and FGFR2 fusions) were identified in 31% of ICCs (10 of 32). An analysis of the TCGA data validated the specificity of the albumin assay. CONCLUSIONS: The cholangiolar pattern and albumin RNA ISH distinguishes ICC from metastatic adenocarcinoma with high specificity. Given the high prevalence of targetable mutations in ICC, albumin RNA ISH is an essential component in the workup of tumours of uncertain origin. A specific diagnosis of ICC could trigger molecular testing and uncover targetable genetic alterations.


Assuntos
Albuminas/genética , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/genética , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/patologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Colangiocarcinoma/genética , Colangiocarcinoma/patologia , Hibridização In Situ , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/secundário , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/secundário , Biópsia por Agulha , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transcriptoma , Adulto Jovem
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