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1.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 719599, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34803940

RESUMO

Increasing evidences suggest that the gut microbiota have their contributions to the hypertension, but the metagenomic characteristics and potential regulating mechanisms in primary hypertension patients taking antihypertension drugs are not clear yet. We carried out a metagenomic analysis in 30 primary hypertension patients taking antihypertension medications and eight healthy adults without any medication. We found that bacterial strains from species, such as Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides vulgatus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Streptococcus vestibularis, were highly increased in patients; and these strains were reported to generate glycan, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) and trimethylamine (TMA) or be opportunistic pathogens. Meanwhile, Dorea longicatena, Eubacterium hallii, Clostridium leptum, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, and some other strains were greatly decreased in the patient group. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis found that ortholog groups and pathways related to glycan biosynthesis and multidrug resistance were significantly increased in the patient group, and some of the hub genes related to N-glycan biosynthesis were increased in the patient group, while those related to TMA precursor metabolism and amino acid metabolism both increased and decreased in the patient group. Metabolites tested by untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) proved the decrease of acetic acid, choline, betaine, and several amino acids in patients' fecal samples. Moreover, meta-analysis of recent studies found that almost all patients were taking at least one kind of drugs that were reported to regulate adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway, so we further investigated if AMPK regulated the metagenomic changes by using angiotensin II-induced mouse hypertensive model on wild-type and macrophage-specific AMPK-knockout mice. We found that the changes in E. coli and Dorea and glycan biosynthesis-related orthologs and pathways were similar in our cohort and hypertensive wild-type mice but reversed after AMPK knockout. These results suggest that the gut microbiota-derived glycan, SCFA, TMA, and some other metabolites change in medication-taking primary hypertension patients and that medications might promote gut microbiota glycan biosynthesis through activating macrophage-AMPK.

2.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 1305, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795385

RESUMO

Gut microbial reference genomes and gene catalogs are necessary for understanding the chicken gut microbiome. Here, we assembled 12,339 microbial genomes and constructed a gene catalog consisting of ~16.6 million genes by integrating 799 public chicken gut microbiome samples from ten countries. We found that 893 and 38 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) in our dataset were putative novel species and genera, respectively. In the chicken gut, Lactobacillus aviarius and Lactobacillus crispatus were the most common lactic acid bacteria, and glycoside hydrolases were the most abundant carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes). Antibiotic resistome profiling results indicated that Chinese chicken samples harbored a higher relative abundance but less diversity of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) than European samples. We also proposed the effects of geography and host species on the gut resistome. Our study provides the largest integrated metagenomic dataset from the chicken gut to date and demonstrates its value in exploring chicken gut microbial genes.

3.
China CDC Wkly ; 3(43): 897-900, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34745687

RESUMO

What is already known about this topic?: Benzene is classified as a Class I human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Long-term exposure to benzene increases the risk of chronic benzene poisoning and leukemia. However, benzene is still widely used in the manufacturing industry. What is added by this report?: The scale of enterprises most exposed to benzene was small enterprises, and joint-equity enterprises had the highest number that exceeded the permissible concentration-time weighted average. What are the implications for public health practice?: It is still necessary to strengthen the monitoring of benzene concentrations in the manufacturing industry, especially in small enterprises. The occupational exposure limit of benzene should be appropriately reduced.

4.
Natl Sci Rev ; 8(8): nwab053, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34676098

RESUMO

Mutations and transient conformational movements of the receptor binding domain (RBD) that make neutralizing epitopes momentarily unavailable present immune escape routes for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). To mitigate viral escape, we developed a cocktail of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) targeting epitopes located on different domains of spike (S) protein. Screening of a library of monoclonal antibodies generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of COVID-19 convalescent patients yielded potent NAbs, targeting the N-terminal domain (NTD) and RBD domain of S, effective at nM concentrations. Remarkably, a combination of RBD-targeting NAbs and NTD-binding NAbs, FC05, enhanced the neutralization potency in cell-based assays and an animal model. Results of competitive surface plasmon resonance assays and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of antigen-binding fragments bound to S unveil determinants of immunogenicity. Combinations of immunogens, identified in the NTD and RBD of S, when immunized in rabbits and macaques, elicited potent protective immune responses against SARS-CoV-2. More importantly, two immunizations of this combination of NTD and RBD immunogens provided complete protection in macaques against a SARS-CoV-2 challenge, without observable antibody-dependent enhancement of infection. These results provide a proof of concept for neutralization-based immunogen design targeting SARS-CoV-2 NTD and RBD.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600118

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Phenotypic drug susceptibility testing for prediction of tuberculosis (TB) drug resistance is slow and unreliable, limiting individualized therapy and monitoring of national TB data. Our study evaluated whole-genome sequencing (WGS) for its predictive accuracy, use in TB drug-resistance surveillance and ability to quantify the effects of resistance-associated mutations on MICs of anti-TB drugs. METHODS: We used WGS to measure the susceptibility of 4880 isolates to ten anti-TB drugs; for pyrazinamide, we used BACTEC MGIT 960. We determined the accuracy of WGS by comparing the prevalence of drug resistance, measured by WGS, with the true prevalence, determined by phenotypic susceptibility testing. We used the Student-Newman-Keuls test to confirm MIC differences of mutations. RESULTS: Resistance to isoniazid, rifampin and ethambutol was highly accurately predicted with at least 92.92% (95% confidence interval [CI], 88.19-97.65) sensitivity, resistance to pyrazinamide with 50.52% (95% CI, 40.57-60.47) sensitivity, and resistance to six second-line drugs with 85.05% (95% CI, 80.27-89.83) to 96.01% (95% CI, 93.89-98.13) sensitivity. The rpoB S450L, katG S315T and gyrA D94G mutations always confer high-level resistance, while rpoB L430P, rpoB L452P, fabG1 C-15T and embB G406S often confer low-level resistance or sub-epidemiological cutoff (ECOFF) MIC elevation. CONCLUSION: WGS can predict phenotypic susceptibility with high accuracy and could be a valuable tool for drug-resistance surveillance and allow the detection of drug-resistance level; It can be an important approach in TB drug-resistance surveillance and for determining therapeutic schemes.

6.
BMC Med Genomics ; 14(1): 221, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493277

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential association of cochlear clock genes (CRY1, CRY2, PER1, and PER2), the DNF gene (brain-derived neurotrophic factor), and the NTF3 gene (neurotrophin3) with susceptivity to noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) among Chinese noise-exposed workers. METHODS: A nested case-control study was performed with 2056 noise-exposed workers from a chemical fiber factory and an energy company who underwent occupational health examinations in 2019 as study subjects. Propensity score matching was conducted to screen cases and controls by matching sex, age, and the consumption of tobacco and alcohol. A total of 1269 participants were enrolled. Then, general information and noise exposure of the study subjects were obtained through a questionnaire survey and on-site noise detection. According to the results of audiological evaluations, the participants were divided into the case group (n = 432, high-frequency threshold shift > 25 dB) and the matched control group (n = 837, high-frequency threshold shift ≤ 25 dB) by propensity score matching. Genotyping for PER1 rs2253820 and rs2585405; PER2 rs56386336 and rs934945; CRY1 rs1056560 and rs3809236; CRY2 rs2292910 and rs6798; BDNF rs11030099, rs7124442 and rs6265; and NTF3 rs1805149 was conducted using the TaqMan-PCR technique. RESULTS: In the dominant model and the co-dominant model, the distribution of PER1 rs2585405 genotypes between the case group and the control group was significantly different (P = 0.03, P = 0.01). The NIHL risk of the subjects with the GC genotype was 1.41 times the risk of those carrying the GG genotype (95% confidence interval (CI) of odds ratio (OR): 1.01-1.96), and the NIHL risk of the subjects with the CC genotype was 0.93 times the risk of those carrying the GG genotype (95%CI of OR: 0.71-1.21). After the noise exposure period and noise exposure intensities were stratified, in the co-dominant model, the adjusted OR values for noise intensities of ≤ 85 was 1.23 (95%CI: 0.99-1.53). In the dominant model, the adjusted OR values for noise exposure periods of ≤ 16 years and noise intensities of ≤ 85 were 1.88 (95%CI: 1.03-3.42) and 1.64 (95%CI: 1.12-2.38), respectively. CONCLUSION: The CC/CG genotype of rs2585405 in the PER1 gene was identified as a potential risk factor for NIHL in Chinese noise-exposed workers, and interaction between rs2585405 and high temperature was found to be associated with NIHL risk.

7.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0059021, 2021 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550000

RESUMO

To assess the persistence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies produced by natural infection and describe the serological characteristics over 7 months after symptom onset among coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients by age and severity group, we followed up COVID-19 convalescent patients confirmed from 1 January to 20 March 2020 in Jiangsu, China and collected serum samples for testing IgM/IgG and neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 between 26 August and 28 October 2020. In total, 284 recovered participants with COVID-19 were enrolled in our study. Patients had a mean age of 46.72 years (standard deviation [SD], 17.09), and 138 (48.59%) were male. The median follow-up time after symptom onset was 225.5 (interquartile range [IQR], 219 to 232) days. During the follow-up period (162 to 282 days after symptom onset), the seropositive rate of IgM fluctuated around 25.70% (95% confidence interval [CI], 20.72% to 31.20%) and that of IgG fluctuated around 79.93% (95% CI, 74.79% to 84.43%). Of the 284 patients, 64 participants were tested when discharged from hospital. Compared with that at the acute phase, the IgM/IgG antibody levels and IgM seropositivity have decreased; however, the seropositivity of IgG was not significantly lower at this follow-up (78.13% versus 82.81%). Fifty percent inhibitory dilution (ID50) titers of neutralizing antibody for samples when discharged from hospital (geometric mean titer [GMT], 82; 95% CI, 56 to 121) were significantly higher than those at 6 to 7 months after discharge (GMT, 47; 95% CI, 35 to 63) (P < 0.001). After 7 months from symptom onset, the convalescent COVID-19 patients continued to have high IgG seropositive; however, many plasma samples decreased neutralizing activity. IMPORTANCE The long-term characteristics of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among COVID-19 patients remain largely unclear. Tracking the longevity of these antibodies can provide a forward-looking reference for monitoring COVID-19. We conducted a comprehensive assessment combining the kinetics of specific and neutralizing antibodies over 7 months with age and disease severity and revealed influencing factors of the protection period of convalescent patients. By observing the long-term antibody levels against SARS-CoV-2 and comparing antibody levels at two time points after symptom onset, we found that the convalescent COVID-19 patients continued to have a high IgG seropositive rate; however, their plasma samples decreased neutralizing activity. These findings provide evidence supporting that the neutralizing activity of SARS-CoV-2-infected persons should be monitored and the administration of vaccine may be needed.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 678476, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34220825

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal (GI) tract graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) is a major cause of post-allo-HSCT (hematopoietic stem cell transplantation) morbidity and mortality. Patients with steroid-refractory GI-GvHD have a poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. FMT2017002 trial (#NCT03148743) was a non-randomized, open-label, phase I/II clinical study of FMT for treating patients with grade IV steroid-refractory GI-GvHD. A total of 55 patients with steroid-refractory GI-GvHD were enrolled in this study. Forty-one patients with grade IV steroid-refractory GI-GvHD were included in the final statistical analysis. Of them, 23 patients and 18 patients were assigned to the FMT group and the control group, respectively. On days 14 and 21 after FMT, clinical remission was significantly greater in the FMT group than in the control group. Within a follow-up period of 90 days, the FMT group showed a better overall survival (OS). At the end of the study, the median survival time was >539 days in the FMT group and 107 days in the control group (HR=3.51; 95% CI, 1.21-10.17; p=0.021). Both the event-free survival time (EFS) (HR=2.3, 95% CI, 0.99-5.4; p=0.08) and OS (HR=4.4, 95% CI, 1.5-13.04; p=0.008) were higher in the FMT group during the follow-up period. Overall, the mortality rate was lower in the FMT group (HR=3.97; 95% CI, 1.34-11.75; p=0.013). No differences in the occurrence of any other side effects were observed. Our data suggest that the diversity of the intestinal microbiota could be affected by allo-HSCT. Although its effectiveness and safety need further evaluation, FMT may serve as a therapeutic option for grade IV steroid-refractory GI-GvHD. Clinical Trial Registration: [ClinicalTrials.gov], identifier [NCT03148743].


Assuntos
Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Gastroenteropatias/terapia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/diagnóstico , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Gerenciamento Clínico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Resistência a Medicamentos , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal/métodos , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
9.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 9: 646184, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34249878

RESUMO

Healthcare workers at the frontline are facing a substantial risk of respiratory tract infection during the COVID-19 outbreak due to an extremely stressful work schedule and public health event. A well-established first-line defense on oropharyngeal microbiome could be a promising strategy to protect individuals from respiratory tract infections including COVID-19. The most thoroughly studied oropharyngeal probiotic product which creates a stable upper respiratory tract microbiota capable of preventing upper respiratory tract infections was chosen to evaluate the safety and efficacy on reducing episodes of upper respiratory tract infections for COVID-19 healthcare workers. To our knowledge to date, this is the very first study describing the beneficial effects of oropharyngeal probiotic been administered by healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this randomized controlled trial, we provided the probiotics to frontline medical staff who work in the hospitals in Wuhan and had been in close contact with hospitalized COVID-19 patients for prophylactic use on a daily basis. Our finding suggests that oropharyngeal probiotic administration significantly reduced the incidence of respiratory tract infections by 64.8%, reduced the time experiencing respiratory tract infections and oral ulcer symptoms by 78%, shortened the days absent from work by 95.5%, and reduced the time under medication where there is no record of antibiotic and anti-viral drug intake in the probiotic group. Furthermore, medical staff treated with Bactoblis experienced sustained protection from respiratory tract infections since the 10th day of oropharyngeal probiotic administration resulting in an extremely low incidence rate of respiratory tract infections.

10.
Am J Ind Med ; 64(9): 771-780, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34250617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to measure the personal attenuation ratings (PARs) in Chinese workers wearing hearing protection devices (HPDs), to evaluate the effectiveness of the single number rating (SNR), the noise reduction rating (NRR), and the associated derated values of earplugs; and (2) to evaluate the effectiveness of one-on-one training along with earplug fit testing on PAR improvement. METHODS: Noise exposure measurements, one-on-one training, and fit tests to measure earplug attenuation were conducted at nine manufacturing facilities located in eastern China from 2016 to 2017. 503 workers participated in the study. Ninety-three percent were male. 199 workers were provided one-on-one training. RESULTS: Before training, 14% and 15% of the workers achieved the attenuation predicted by the manufacturer's SNR and NRR, 56% and 65% exceeded the derated SNR and NRR, respectively. Following one-on-one training, mean PAR improved significantly by 15 dB (p < 0.01); 26% of the workers achieved SNR and NRR, 79% and 91% met the associated derated values, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Labeled noise attenuation ratings and their derated values overestimated the actual level of attenuation among workers wearing HPDs. One-on-one training along with earplug fit testing contributed to improved PARs.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281127

RESUMO

A survey was administered to 385 noise-exposed workers from an auto parts factory and 1268 non-noise-exposed health department employees in China. Individual 8 h A-weighted equivalent sound levels (LAeq,8h), earplug personal attenuation ratings (PARs), and pure-tone audiometric tests were performed. The average LAeq,8h of noise-exposed workers was 87 dB (A) with a mean PAR of 7 dB. The prevalence of high-frequency hearing loss was 65% for noise-exposed workers and 33% for the non-noise-exposed employees. The use of earplugs had no observable effect on the prevalence of high-frequency hearing loss of the study participants (OR 0.964, 95% CI 0.925-1.005, p = 0.085). No significant relationship between the effectiveness offered by earplug use and high-frequency hearing thresholds at 3, 4, and 6 kHz was found (t = -1.54, p = 0.125). The mandatory requirement of earplug use without individualized training on how to wear HPDs correctly had no detectable effect on the prevention of hearing loss at the auto parts factory. The hearing conservation program at the surveyed factory was not effective. Periodic hearing tests, earplug fit testing, expanding the offer of different types of hearing protection, and employee education about the importance of protecting their hearing were recommended to the occupational health and safety program.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído , Ruído Ocupacional , Saúde do Trabalhador , China/epidemiologia , Dispositivos de Proteção das Orelhas , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/epidemiologia , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Ruído Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Ruído Ocupacional/prevenção & controle
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(40): 57297-57307, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089161

RESUMO

Our aim was to analyze the effects of benzene exposure on hematotoxicity in workers, with a focus on gender differences. The study was divided into three parts, and the survey included 218,061 workers. Since 2017, some workers are selected from the total workers each year to explore the possible influencing factors (age, duration of benzene exposure, TWA (8-h time-weighted average) of benzene, SPMA (S-phenylmercapturic acid), MDA (malondialdehyde), 8-OHdG (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine) of different hematotoxicity of different genders). The abnormal rate of WBC (white blood cell), ANC (absolute neutrophil count), and platelets of female workers in the benzene exposure group was higher than that of males in the benzene exposure group and also higher than that of the female workers in the control group. Research results in 2019 showed increased SPMA as well as increases their DNA damage including 8-OHdG and MDA in benzene-exposed female workers compared to those in the control female group (all p < 0.05. SPMA, 8-OHdG, and MDA in benzene exposure female workers increased 555%, 183%, and 33.3%, respectively). Female workers are at significantly higher risk for blood system effects of benzene exposure. Therefore, more stringent standards and guidelines may be needed to protect the changing professional population, especially for females.


Assuntos
Benzeno , Exposição Ocupacional , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina , Benzeno/toxicidade , Biomarcadores , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Fatores Sexuais
13.
Gynecol Obstet Invest ; 86(3): 239-246, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126621

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The association of serum copper with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) has been studied for years, but no definite conclusion is drawn. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to investigate serum copper concentrations in PCOS subjects compared with healthy controls. METHODS: Electronic search was performed in PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus up to June 30, 2020, without any restriction. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) with corresponding 95% CIs in serum copper levels were employed with random-effects model. I2 was applied to evaluate heterogeneity among studies. RESULTS: Nine studies, measuring plasma copper levels in 1,168 PCOS patients and 1,106 controls, were included. Pooled effect size suggested serum copper level was significantly higher in women with PCOS (SMD = 0.51 µg/mL, 95% CI = [0.30, 0.72], p < 0.0001). The overall heterogeneity was not connected with subgroups of the country, but derived from the opposite result of 1 study. CONCLUSION: Our research generally indicated circulating copper level in PCOS sufferers was significantly higher than normal controls. Large-scale studies are still needed to elucidate the clear relation between copper status and etiology of PCOS.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Ovário Policístico , Cobre , Feminino , Humanos
14.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251090, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33974633

RESUMO

Noise-induced-hearing-loss(NIHL) is a common occupational disease caused by various environmental and biological factors. To investigate the association between TAB2 and the susceptibility of NIHL of people exposed to occupational environments, a genetic association study was performed on selected companies with 588 cases and 537 healthy control subjects. Five selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TAB2,incoluding rs2744434, rs521845, rs652921, rs7896, rs9485372, were genotyped after a collection of DNA samples. Evident differences in participants between the case group and the control group reveals the result that people with the TAB2 has a high probability of getting NIHL. The results show that rs521845 is deeply associated with the risk of NIHL and is available for the diagnosis in the future.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/genética , Ruído Ocupacional , Doenças Profissionais/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
16.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(12): e0296520, 2021 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837014

RESUMO

Warming strongly stimulates soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emission, contributing to the global warming trend. Submerged paddy soils exhibit huge N2O emission potential; however, the N2O emission pathway and underlying mechanisms for warming are not clearly understood. We conducted an incubation experiment using 15N to investigate the dynamics of N2O emission at controlled temperatures (5, 15, 25, and 35°C) in 125% water-filled pore space. The community structures of nitrifiers and denitrifiers were determined via high-throughput sequencing of functional genes. Our results showed that elevated temperature sharply enhanced soil N2O emission from submerged paddy soil. Denitrification was the main contributor, accounting for more than 90% of total N2O emission at all treatment temperatures. N2O flux was coordinatively regulated by nirK-, nirS-, and nosZ-containing denitrifiers but not ammonia-oxidizing archaea or ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. The nirS-containing denitrifiers were more sensitive to temperature shifts, especially at a lower temperature range (5 to 25°C), and showed a stronger correlation with N2O flux than that of nirK-containing denitrifiers. In contrast, nosZ-containing denitrifiers exhibited substantial variation at higher temperatures (15 to 35°C), thereby playing an important role in N2O consumption. Certain taxa of nirS- and nosZ-containing denitrifiers regulated N2O flux, including nirS-containing denitrifiers affiliated with Rhodanobacter and Cupriavidus as well as nosZ-containing denitrifiers affiliated with Azoarcus and Azospirillum. Together, these findings suggest that elevated temperature can significantly increase N2O emission from denitrification in submerged paddy soils by shifting the overall community structures and enriching some indigenous taxa of nirS- and nosZ-containing denitrifiers. IMPORTANCE The interdependence between global warming and greenhouse gas N2O has always been the hot spot. However, information on factors contributing to N2O and temperature-dependent community structure changes is scarce. This study demonstrated high-temperature-induced N2O emission from submerged paddy soils, mainly via stimulating denitrification. Further, we speculate that key functional denitrifiers drive N2O emission. This study showed that denitrifiers were more sensitive to temperature rise than nitrifiers, and the temperature sensitivity differed among denitrifier communities. N2O-consuming denitrifiers (nosZ-containing denitrifiers) were more sensitive at a higher temperature range than N2O-producing denitrifiers (nirS-containing denitrifiers). This study's findings help predict N2O fluxes under different degrees of warming and develop strategies to mitigate N2O emissions from paddy fields based on microbial community regulation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Desnitrificação , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Aquecimento Global , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nitrificação , Oryza , Solo/química , Temperatura
17.
Environ Int ; 153: 106534, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799229

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poultry farms and LPMs are a reservoir of antimicrobial resistant bacteria and resistance genes from feces. The LPM is an important interface between humans, farm animals, and environments in a typical urban environment, and it is considered a reservoir for ARGs and viruses. However, the antibiotic resistomes shared between chicken farms and LPMs, and that of LPM workers and people who have no contact with the LPMs remains unknown. METHODS: We characterized the resistome and bacterial microbiome of farm chickens and LPMs and LPM workers and control subjects. The mobile ARGs identified in chickens and the distribution of the mcr-family genes in publicly bacterial genomes and chicken gut metagenomes was analyzed, respectively. In addition, the prevalence of mcr-1 in LPMs following the ban on colistin-positive additives in China was explored. RESULTS: By profiling the microbiomes and resistomes in chicken farms, LPMs, LPM workers, and LPM environments, we found that the bacterial community composition and resistomes were significantly different between the farms and the LPMs, and the LPM samples possessed more diversified ARGs (59 types) than the farms. Some mobile ARGs, such as mcr-1 and tet(X3), identified in chicken farms, LPMs, LPM workers, and LPM environments were also harbored by human clinical pathogens. Moreover, we found that the resistomes were significantly different between the LPM workers and those who have no contact with the LPMs, and more diversified ARGs (188 types) were observed in the LPM workers. It is also worth noting that mcr-10 was identified in both human (5.2%, 96/1,859) and chicken (1.5%, 14/910) gut microbiomes. Although mcr-1 prevalence decreased significantly in the LPMs across the eight provinces in China, from 190/333 (57.1%) samples in September 2016-March 2017 to 208/544 (38.2%) samples in August 2018-May 2019, it is widespread and continuous in the LPMs. CONCLUSION: Live poultry trade has a significant effect on the diversity of ARGs in LPM workers, chickens, and environments in China, driven by human selection with the live poultry trade. Our findings highlight the live poultry trade as ARG disseminators into LPMs, which serve as an interface of LPM environments even LPM workers, and that could urge Government to have better control of LPMs in China. Further studies on the factors that promote antibiotic resistance exchange between LPM environments, human commensals, and pathogens, are warranted.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Galinhas , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , China , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Fazendeiros , Genes Bacterianos , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional , Aves Domésticas
18.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 636332, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33897640

RESUMO

Salmonella enterica remains one of the leading causes of foodborne bacterial disease. Retail meat is a major source of human salmonellosis. However, comparative genomic analyses of S. enterica isolates from retail meat from different sources in China are lacking. A total of 341 S. enterica strains were isolated from retail meat in sixteen districts of Beijing, China, at three different time points (January 1st, May 1st, and October 1st) in 2017. Comparative genomics was performed to investigate the genetic diversity, virulence and antimicrobial resistance gene (ARG) profiles of these isolates. The most common serotype was S. Enteritidis (203/341, 59.5%), which dominated among isolates from three different time points during the year. Laboratory retesting confirmed the accuracy of the serotyping results predicted by the Salmonella In Silico Typing Resource (SISTR) (96.5%). The pangenome of the 341 S. enterica isolates contained 13,931 genes, and the core genome contained 3,635 genes. Higher Salmonella phage 118970 sal3 (219/341, 64.2%) and Gifsy-2 (206/341, 60.4%) prevalence contributed to the diversity of the accessory genes, especially those with unknown functions. IncFII(S), IncX1, and IncFIB(S) plasmid replicons were more common in these isolates and were major sources of horizontally acquired foreign genes. The virulence gene profile showed fewer virulence genes associated with type III secretion systems in certain isolates from chicken. A total of 88 different ARGs were found in the 341 isolates. Three beta-lactamases, namely, bla CTX - M - 55 (n = 15), bla CTX - M - 14 (n = 11), and bla CTX - M - 65 (n = 11), were more prevalent in retail meats. The emergence of qnrE1 and bla CTX - M - 123 indicated a potential increase in the prevalence of retail meats. After the prohibition of colistin in China, three and four isolates were positive for the colistin resistance genes mcr-1.1 and mcr-9, respectively. Thus, we explored the evolution and genomic features of S. enterica isolates from retail meats in Beijing, China. The diverse ARGs of these isolates compromise food security and are a clinical threat.

19.
Molecules ; 26(8)2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918931

RESUMO

Chronic alcohol consumption leads to myocardial injury, ventricle dilation, and cardiac dysfunction, which is defined as alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM). To explore the induced myocardial injury and underlying mechanism of ACM, the Liber-DeCarli liquid diet was used to establish an animal model of ACM and histopathology, echocardiography, molecular biology, and metabolomics were employed. Hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome staining revealed disordered myocardial structure and local fibrosis in the ACM group. Echocardiography revealed thinning wall and dilation of the left ventricle and decreased cardiac function in the ACM group, with increased serum levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and expression of myocardial BNP mRNA measured through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. Through metabolomic analysis of myocardium specimens, 297 differentially expressed metabolites were identified which were involved in KEGG pathways related to the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, vitamin digestion and absorption, oxidative phosphorylation, pentose phosphate, and purine and pyrimidine metabolism. The present study demonstrated chronic alcohol consumption caused disordered cardiomyocyte structure, thinning and dilation of the left ventricle, and decreased cardiac function. Metabolomic analysis of myocardium specimens and KEGG enrichment analysis further demonstrated that several differentially expressed metabolites and pathways were involved in the ACM group, which suggests potential causes of myocardial injury due to chronic alcohol exposure and provides insight for further research elucidating the underlying mechanisms of ACM.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatia Alcoólica/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico por imagem , Alcoolismo/fisiopatologia , Animais , Cardiomiopatia Alcoólica/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatia Alcoólica/fisiopatologia , Análise Discriminante , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eletrocardiografia , Testes de Função Cardíaca , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Masculino , Metaboloma , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Análise de Componente Principal , Transdução de Sinais
20.
Int J Legal Med ; 135(4): 1661-1668, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33783602

RESUMO

Forensic diagnosis of anaphylactic shock is a challenging task in forensic practice due to the lack of characteristic morphological changes. Postmortem analysis of serum IgE can provide helpful information for determining anaphylaxis. However, postmortem serum always suffers from hemolysis. To investigate the interference of hemolysis on postmortem analysis of total IgE by electrochemiluminescent immunoassay (ECLIA) and verify the suitability of the commercially available ECLIA kit for postmortem hemolyzed blood with the dilution-correction method, different levels of hemolyzed serum were prepared to evaluate the interference of hemolysis. A linear regression analysis was then performed on the concentration of total IgE in the completely hemolyzed blood and the corresponding serum. Our results indicated that hemolysis negatively interfered with the total IgE analysis by ECLIA and the interference (|Bias%|) increased with increasing levels of hemolysis. After controlling for |Bias%| by dilution, the test concentration of total IgE in the completely hemolyzed blood was still significantly lower than that in the serum (P < 0.05) and resulted in eight false-negative cases. A strong correlation was observed between the test concentration of total IgE in the completely hemolyzed blood and that in the serum (r = 0.983). After correction by the regression formula, the corrected concentration revealed no significant differences and exhibited the same diagnostic ability, compared with the serum total IgE concentration. These results indicate that the completely hemolyzed blood is not recommended for postmortem analysis of total IgE directly. The dilution-correction method might have potential utility in forensic practice for evaluating serum total IgE concentrations.


Assuntos
Hemólise , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Medições Luminescentes/instrumentação , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Anafilaxia/sangue , Autopsia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto
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