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1.
Food Chem ; 388: 133014, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35486986

RESUMO

The precise mechanism of texture changes in abalone muscles during boiling was investigated using quantitative proteomic analysis. A total 353 water-soluble proteins were identified in fresh abalone muscle. The number was decreased to 233 (6 min) and 201 (30 min), and then increased to 271 (240 min) during boiling. The undetectable protein in water-soluble fraction caused by boiling mainly belong to hemocyanins, protein kinases, dehydrogenases, phosphorylases, and transferases, while the newly identified proteins in water-soluble fraction during boiling mainly belong to collagen and myofibrillar proteins (MPs).Additionally, results also showed that boiling caused protein oxidation, denaturation, aggregation, crosslinking and degradation. Combined with the texture changes of abalone muscles during boiling, it was speculated that the oxidation, denaturation, aggregation and crosslinking of proteins led to the increase of shear force, however, the degradation of structural proteins such as MPs and collagen caused the decreases in shear force and hardness.

2.
Food Funct ; 13(4): 1785-1796, 2022 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35142324

RESUMO

The effects of oxidation on protein digestion and transport in cooked abalone muscles were investigated using a combination of simulated digestion and everted-rat-gut-sac models for the first time. Boiling heat treatments caused protein oxidation in the abalone muscles, reflected by increases in the carbonyl group and disulfide bond contents, protein hydrophobicity and aggregation degree, as well as decreases in the free sulfhydryl group and amino acid contents. Protein oxidation significantly inhibited the degree of hydrolysis, digestion rate, and digestibility of the abalone muscles in the simulated digestion model. The results from the everted-rat-gut-sac model showed that amino acid and peptide transport levels from the digestion products of the cooked abalone muscles were lower than those of the uncooked samples. In contrast, the addition of antioxidants of bamboo leaves mitigated heat-treatment-induced protein oxidation, aggregation and increased hydrophobicity, and consequently improved abalone muscle protein digestibility and transport levels.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Gastrópodes/química , Músculos/metabolismo , Sasa/química , Alimentos Marinhos , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Músculos/química , Oxirredução , Folhas de Planta/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
3.
Biomaterials ; 280: 121077, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34890974

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to construct a pH and redox sensitive nanoparticle to effectively deliver ginsenoside Rh2 for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). Herein, glycogen was modified by urocanic acid and α-lipoic acid (α-LA) to obtain an amphiphilic polymer (LA-UaGly). Such polymer LA-UaGly could self-assemble to form nanoparticles (Blank NPs) in water with excellent stability, which could also successfully encapsulated ginsenoside Rh2 to form Rh2 nanoparticles (Rh2 NPs) with encapsulation efficiency of 74.36 ± 0.34%. DLS analysis indicated Rh2 NPs were spherical with a particle size of 128.9 ± 0.3 nm. As expected, Rh2 NPs exhibited typical pH and redox dual response release behaviour as well as the excellent in vivo safety. In vitro tests showed that Rh2 NPs could effectively internalize and release Rh2 into RAW264.7 cells, and protect cells from apoptosis (p < 0.05). More interestingly, Rh2 NPs exhibited strong anti-inflammatory activity via significantly inhibiting the overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) and inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1ß and IL-6) (p < 0.05). In vivo experiments suggested that Rh2 NPs significantly ameliorated the weight loss, colon length, disease activity index (DAI) score, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in mice caused by dextran sulfate sodium salt (DSS) (p < 0.05). Simultaneously, pathological analysis proved that Rh2 NPs could significantly reduce histological damage and inflammatory infiltration in mice. Rh2 NPs could also effectively regulate the intestinal flora of mice by improving the species uniformity and abundance of the intestinal flora of mice and restoring the species diversity of the intestinal flora. In addition, both in vivo and in vitro experiments proved that Rh2 NPs had stronger anti-inflammatory activity than Rh2. This study provides a promising strategy for the effective treatment of UC.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Ginsenosídeos , Nanopartículas , Animais , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Colite Ulcerativa/patologia , Colo/patologia , Sulfato de Dextrana , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Ginsenosídeos/uso terapêutico , Glicogênio , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Oxirredução
4.
Food Chem ; 373(Pt B): 131435, 2022 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741971

RESUMO

Blue mussel (Mytilus edulis L.) is a popular, nutritional, and tasty mollusk. To better understand the composition of nutrients and improve further processing of the mussels, metabolomic approaches were used to analyze the free amino acids, 5'-nucleotides, and lipid compositions of different tissues. Our results showed that the viscera and gonad were rich in glutamine and glycine. Adenosine 5'-monophosphate, uridine 5'-monophosphate, guanosine 5'-monophosphate, and inosine 5'-monophosphate were abundant in the mantle, foot, and adductor muscle. Three main types of lipids, phospholipids (PLs), glycerides, and fatty acids (FAs), were semi-quantified. PLs were mainly distributed in the gonad of male mussels and viscera, gonad, and mantles of female mussels. FAs were relatively high in the viscera of males and in the gonad and viscera of females. The viscera of females were rich in phosphatidylcholine, such as 16:0/22:6 and 16:0/20:5. Triglycerides were the key lipids for distinguishing different tissues, especially 16:0/18:1/18:3 and 16:0/18:4/20:5.


Assuntos
Mytilus edulis , Aminoácidos , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Metabolômica , Nucleotídeos , Fosfolipídeos
5.
Food Chem ; 374: 131652, 2022 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34883429

RESUMO

Vinylpyrazine compounds are widely present in foods, especially in hot-processed foods, as a class of flavor compounds; however, their formation mechanism in food systems is still unclear. Therefore, in this study, 2-vinylpyrazine and 2-vinyl-6-methylpyrazine were identified in the Maillard model reaction of d-glucose and glycine. The Maillard model reaction of glucose-glycine was constructed to explore the effects of reaction parameters on vinylpyrazines and the related products. The Maillard reaction of [U-13C6] glucose and glycine was established, and alkylpyrazines and formaldehyde were determined via isotope tracing technique as the precursors of vinylpyrazines. The formation of vinylpyrazines was verified by building a model reaction between alkylpyrazines and formaldehyde. The H/D exchange experiment confirmed that the active site of alkylpyrazines was on the methyl group, which was the reaction site for the condensation reaction of alkylpyrazines with formaldehyde. Results suggest that vinylpyrazines are formed by the condensation reaction of alkylpyrazines and formaldehyde.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes , Reação de Maillard , Glucose , Glicina , Paladar
6.
Food Chem ; 368: 130844, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425338

RESUMO

The sensory perception of food is a dynamic procedure, which is closely related to the released flavor stimuli. Thus, we evaluated the dynamic sensations of fresh and roasted salmon during the chewing process and investigated the tastants released in saliva. For fresh salmon, the fishy, umami, salty, and sweet attributes were perceived successively. Meanwhile, the smoky and fried flavors were the most dominant attributes of roasted salmon at the beginning, then various attributes were perceived. During the chewing process, free amino acids and 5'-nucleotides released in saliva were quantified. Compared to the sensory data, the results demonstrated that glutamic acid and inosine 5'-monophosphate released in saliva might induce the umami perception. The sweet-tasting amino acids alanine and glycine may contribute to sweetness. Therefore, we suggested that the time dimension of tastants dissolved in saliva would affect the dynamic sensation of food, even for complex food materials.


Assuntos
Salmo salar , Animais , Inosina Monofosfato , Mastigação , Sensação , Paladar
7.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 82: 105883, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34952344

RESUMO

The combined effects of ultrasound and the antioxidants of bamboo leaves (AOB) on the quality maintenance of the adductor muscle of scallops (AMSs) during cold storage was investigated. Ultrasound power at 350 W coupled with AOB solution (2% w/v) (UAOB-350) was applied to treat the AMSs according to Taylor diagram analysis. The microstructure, oxidative changes (lipid and protein oxidation), total numbers of colonies, total volatile basic nitrogen, and texture of the AMSs during 6 days of cold storage were analysed. The results indicated that UAOB-350 treatment could effectively retard protein and lipid oxidation and bacterial growth and maintain better microstructure and texture characteristics than AOB solution treatment alone, prolonging the shelf life of the AMSs by 2 days during storage at 4 °C. These results indicate that the UAOB-350 combination method has promising potential to maintain the quality and extend the shelf life of AMSs during cold storage.


Assuntos
Pectinidae , Animais , Antioxidantes , Lipídeos , Músculo Esquelético , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
8.
Front Nutr ; 8: 686663, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34926539

RESUMO

Oral diseases have received considerable attention worldwide as one of the major global public health problems. The development of oral diseases is influenced by socioeconomic, physiological, traumatic, biological, dietary and hygienic practices factors. Currently, the main prevention strategy for oral diseases is to inhibit the growth of biofilm-producing plaque bacteria. Tooth brushing is the most common method of cleaning plaque, aided by mouthwash and sugar-free chewing gum in the daily routine. As the global nutraceutical market grows, marine bioactive compounds are becoming increasingly popular among consumers for their antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antitumor properties. However, to date, few systematic summaries and studies on the application of marine bioactive compounds in oral health exist. This review provides a comprehensive overview of different marine-sourced bioactive compounds and their health benefits in dental caries, gingivitis, periodontitis, halitosis, oral cancer, and their potential use as functional food ingredients for oral health. In addition, limitations and challenges of the application of these active ingredients are discussed and some observations on current work and future trends are presented in the conclusion section.

9.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110560, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399537

RESUMO

As an important aquaculture shellfish, the superior taste and high nutritional value of oyster (Crassostrea gigas Thunberg) have drawn extensive attention. In this study, twenty-one free amino acids (FAAs) and six 5'-nucleotides were evaluated through stable isotope labeling-liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (SIL-LC-MS/MS), and the lipid profile was explored using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-Q Exactive HF mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QE/MS). The adductor muscle of the oyster possessed a high level of sweetness-related amino acids (Arg, Gly and Hyp) and 5'-nucleotides. A total of 149 lipid species were detected in different tissues of oysters, including 17 triacylglycerols (TAGs), 6 diacylglycerols (DAGs), 61 phosphatidylcholines (PCs), 29 phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs), 11 lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs), 8 lysophosphatidylethanolamines (LPEs), and 1 lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI). FAAs, 5'-nucleotides and lipid profile in the digestive gland of oysters can be divided into three stages, from November to April, May to July, and August to October. The highest proportion of umami-taste amino acids and 5'-nucleotides appeared from March to May. The highest percentage of high unsaturation degree glyceride and phospholipids appeared in August and April, respectively. Thus, the results reported in this study are important for product development and sustainable exploitation in the future.


Assuntos
Crassostrea , Aminoácidos , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Nucleotídeos , Estações do Ano , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
J Food Sci ; 86(9): 4001-4016, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34318481

RESUMO

Here, a novel decapeptide IVTNWDDMEK with Maillard reactivity derived from scallop Chlamys farreri mantle was identified. The structural characteristics and in vitro hepatoprotective effects of IVTNWDDMEK conjugated with ribose were further investigated. The changes in decapeptide structures were determined by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and atomic force microscopy (AFM), and the modification sites induced by Maillard reaction of IVTNWDDMEK and ribose were monitored by high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Maillard reaction products (MRPs) of IVTNWDDMEK-ribose demonstrate hepatoprotective benefits through the suppression of DNA damage and apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in human HepG2 cells in addition to enhancing the antioxidant activities. Moreover, after treatment with decapeptide-ribose MRPs, the activities of cellular antioxidative enzymes, such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and glutathione reductase (GSH-Rx) were remarkably increased, while the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) was decreased compared with H2 O2 - treated group, thereby enhancing the intracellular antioxidant defenses. These findings demonstrate the potential utilization of decapeptide IVTNWDDMEK-ribose MRPs as food antioxidants to suppress oxidative damage. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: In recent years, several food-derived bioactive peptides and their derivatives are regarded as good dietary antioxidants for reducing oxidative stress and improving liver function. Here, a novel Maillard reactive decapeptide IVTNWDDMEK, identified from scallop mantle hydrolysates by peptidomics in the previous study was synthesized. Then, the correlation between intercellular antioxidant activities and chemical structure changes of IVTNWDDMEK-ribose Maillard reaction conjugates was further studied. The preferable hepatoprotective activities of decapeptide IVTNWDDMEK-ribose MRPs indicated that these MRPs could be potentially utilized as food antioxidants or additives in the production of nutritional foods.


Assuntos
Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada , Reação de Maillard , Peptídeos , Substâncias Protetoras , Ribose , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Ribose/química , Ribose/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
11.
J Food Biochem ; 45(7): e13779, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060658

RESUMO

In this article, the selective inhibition of several tyrosine-containing dipeptides on N and C domain of ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) was studied, and the interaction mode of ACE and inhibitors was simulated by molecular docking. MTT assay was used to detect the effect of dipeptide on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The results showed that the food-derived dipeptides AY (Ala-Tyr), LY (Leu-Tyr), and IY (Ile-Tyr) containing tyrosine at the C-terminal were favorable structures for selective inhibition of ACE C-domain. These dipeptides showed competitive and mixed inhibition patterns, while the dipeptides EY (Glu-Tyr), RY (Arg-Tyr), FY (Phe-Tyr), and SY (Ser-Tyr) showed noncompetitive inhibition. Food-derived dipeptides containing tyrosine have no cytotoxicity on HUVEC cells, which provides a basis for the application of food-derived tyrosine dipeptides as antihypertensive peptides. This study provides a theoretical basis for exploring the selective inhibition mechanism of ACE inhibitory peptides containing tyrosine residue. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is a two-domain dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase, which is a key enzyme to regulate blood pressure. ACE has two active sites, C- and N-domain, which have high catalytic activity. Although the amino acid sequences of the two active sites have 60% similarity, there are some differences in structure and function. The action mechanism of ACE domain should be clarified, and the structure-activity relationship between inhibitors and ACE domain has not been systematically studied. The aim of this study was to identify the selective inhibitory effect of food-derived tyrosine dipeptides on the domain of ACE. This provides a new idea for finding new antihypertensive drugs with less side effects.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina , Tirosina , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Angiotensinas , Dipeptídeos/farmacologia , Células Endoteliais , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Peptidil Dipeptidase A
12.
Talanta ; 232: 122409, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074399

RESUMO

Cadmium contamination is a severe food safety risk for human health. Herein, a long afterglow "off-on" phosphorescent aptasensor was developed based on phosphorescence resonance energy transfer (PRET) for the detection of Cd2+ in complex samples which minimizes the interference of background fluorescence. In this scheme, initially the phosphorescence of Cd2+-binding aptamer conjugated long afterglow nanoparticles (Zn2GeO4:Mn) was quenched by black hole quencher 1 (BHQ1) modified complementary DNA. Upon encountering of Cd2+, the aptamer interacted with Cd2+ and the complementary DNA with BHQ1 was released, leading to phosphorescence recovery. The content of Cd2+ could be quantified by the intensity of phosphorescence recovery with 100 µs gate time (which eliminated the sample autofluorescence) with a linear relationship between 0.5 and 50 µg L-1 and a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.35 µg L-1. This method was successfully demonstrated for Cd2+ detection in drinking water and yesso scallop samples. The "off-on" phosphorescent aptasensor based on PRET of long afterglow nanomaterials could be an effective tool for Cd2+ detection in food samples.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Cádmio , Transferência de Energia , Humanos , Limite de Detecção
13.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 20(4): 3504-3530, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146450

RESUMO

Mackerel has received considerable attention in the global food market as one of the most important pelagic commercial fish species. The quality of mackerel is influenced by species, season, fishing area, nutritional status, catching method, handling, and storage. Due to the mackerel's perishability, its quality is mainly measured by sensory procedures. Although considerable effort has been made to explore quick and reliable quality analysis, developing a practical and scientific sensory evaluation of mackerel has been an active ongoing study area to meet the quality evaluation demand of the industry. Different sensory evaluation methods have been used to assess the mackerel fish quality, including Palatability and Spoilage test, Torry scheme, EU scheme, Quality Index Method, Catch damage index and Processed fish damage index, Affective test, Discriminative test, and Descriptive test. Each method has its strength and weakness. Despite mackerel sensory evaluation protocols having undergone partial harmonization, specific sample process needs to be carefully followed to minimize the change during sample preparation. This review summarizes the sensory evaluation methods in mackerel research, the factors affecting sensory evaluation, and then updates the latest advances in mackerel sensory evaluation and offers guidance for presenting its application in the mackerel chain. Also, each technique's advantages and limitations are discussed. In our opinion, the future trends for sensory evaluation of mackerel should be consumer-centric.


Assuntos
Perciformes , Alimentos Marinhos , Animais , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Estações do Ano
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(7): 2325-2336, 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555856

RESUMO

In this study, a rapid and reliable method based on ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with Q Exactive HF-X mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QE/MS) was established for the simultaneous quantification and validation of acrylamide, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and 14 heterocyclic aromatic amines in thermally processed foods. With the optimization of the pretreatment method, all 16 hazardous compounds with different polarities were simultaneously extracted and purified by one-step purification. By studying various acquisition modes in detail, full MS + PRM detection using an electrospray ionization source in the positive mode gives an excellent-shaped chromatographic peak and thereby achieves a better quantitative ability for analytes in the matrix. This method demonstrated good quantification recovery in the range of 68.85-146.42%. The limits of quantification were within the range from 0.1 to 50 ng/mL. With the method proposed, the simultaneous determination of 16 hazardous compounds in different thermally processed foods was successfully applied. The all-fragment-ion approaches at high resolution have the ability to reduce false-positive peak detections arising from peak alignment software in the detection of samples significantly. The proposed isotope dilution UHPLC-QE/MS method was validated and demonstrated to be sensitive, accurate, and precise for the simultaneous quantification of multiple contaminants in one injection.


Assuntos
Acrilamida , Aminas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Furaldeído/análogos & derivados , Espectrometria de Massas
15.
Food Funct ; 12(4): 1626-1638, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476357

RESUMO

Clam is a kind of nutritious, delicious and economical aquatic food around the world and is famous for its unique aroma. Instrumental analysis, sensory analysis, and comprehensive statistical analysis were performed to explain the relationship between aroma and odorants in clam soup. Six extraction methods combined with GC-MS and sniffing were utilized to obtain the aroma fingerprints of clam soup and to analyze the correlation with aroma perception. Solvent extraction methods were more effective than headspace extraction methods for the volatiles of clam soup. SAFE was the best method to obtain the most comprehensive information of volatiles of clam soup. The sequence of a combination of different extraction methods and SAFE would also affect the results of volatiles extracted from clam soup. Volatiles extracted via SDE, P&T, and SPME would add further information to the result of SAFE. A total of 119 volatile compounds were identified from clam soup by summarising the results of different extraction methods. The significant effect of 14 key odorants in clam soup on aroma perception was verified by aroma recombination and odorant omission tests. A neural network diagram of the aroma profile was designed to visualize the information of odor perception. Furthermore, the results would be beneficial for aroma research studies of aquatic food and the processing of clam products.


Assuntos
Bivalves/química , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Odorantes/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Animais , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
16.
Annu Rev Food Sci Technol ; 12: 407-432, 2021 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441013

RESUMO

Chitosan is a biodegradable, biocompatible, and nontoxic aminopolysaccharide. This review summarizes and discusses the structural modifications, including substitution, grafting copolymerization, cross-linking, and hydrolysis, utilized to improve the physicochemical properties and enhance the bioactivity and functionality of chitosan and related materials. This manuscript also reviews the current progress and potential of chitosan and its derivatives in body-weight management and antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycemic, antihypertensive, antimicrobial antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunostimulatory activities as well as their ability to interact with gut microbiota. In addition, the potential of chitosan and its derivatives as functional ingredients in food systems, such as film and coating materials, and delivery systems is discussed. This manuscript aims to provide up-to-date information to stimulate future discussion and research to promote the value-added utilization of chitosan in improving the safety, quality, nutritional value and health benefits, and sustainability of our food system while reducing the environmental hazards.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Quitosana , Antibacterianos , Antioxidantes
17.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(4): 1554-1561, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phospholipids, the main lipid component in marine shellfish, mainly comprise glycerophosphocholine (GPC) and glycerophosphoethanolamine (GPE). GPC and GPE in marine shellfish, especially scallop, carry n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), although different types of glycerophospholipids (GP) have different health benefits on human health. Moreover, different GP subclasses such as GPC and GPE have different oxidative susceptibilities in complex food systems. The present study compared the oxidative susceptibilities of GPC and GPE in dried scallop during storage by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and kinetic models, and also investigated the effects of natural phenolic antioxidant on their susceptibilities. RESULTS: The results showed that GPC and GPE molecular species (carrying EPA or DHA) contents in samples continuously reduced during storage at two different temperatures. The first-order kinetic model better reflected the changes of GPC and GPE molecular species (carrying EPA or DHA) in samples than the zero-order kinetic model during storage. According to the oxidation rate (k) obtained from first-order kinetic models, GPE possessed a greater oxidation rate than GPC during storage. Moreover, the results showed that antioxidants of bamboo leaves (AOB, polar polyphenolic antioxidants) significantly decreased the oxidation rates of GPC and GPE molecular species (carrying EPA or DHA) in samples during storage, and GPC could be more effectively protected by AOB compared to GPE. CONCLUSION: The present study provides a practical method for accurately evaluating the oxidative susceptibility of different phospholipid classes in complex food systems. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Pectinidae/química , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/química , Fosforilcolina/química , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Animais , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Cinética , Músculo Esquelético/química , Oxirredução
18.
J Food Sci ; 85(11): 3679-3689, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990386

RESUMO

Sea urchin Mesocentrotus nudus, Glyptocidaris crenularis, and Strongylocentrotus intermedius gonad protein isolates (mnGPIs, gcGPIs, and siGPIs) were extracted by isoelectric solubilization/precipitation (ISP) from the defatted gonads, and their functional properties were compared. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis results showed the similar protein pattern between each protein isolate and defatted gonad, indicating the high efficiency of ISP processing for protein recovery. Amino acid profileconfirmed that the mnGPIs and siGPIs could be potential sources of essential amino acid in nature. As regard to functional properties, mnGPIs showed higher water- and oil- holding capacities followed bysiGPIs and gcGPIs and all protein isolates presented great foaming property. As for emulsifying activity index (EAI), mnGPIs, gcGPIs, and siGPIs showed the minimum solubility and EAI at pH 5, 3, and 4, respectively, and behaved a pH-dependent manner. The gcGPIs revealed the highest EAI from pH 6 to 8 among the samples. In addition, circular dichroism showed increased content of ß-sheet at the expense of α-helix and ß-turn, suggesting the structure denaturation of the protein isolates. Indeed, no statistical difference was observed between secondary structure of mnGPIs and siGPIs. Moreover, ISP processing increased free sulfhydryl content of sea urchin protein isolates, but no difference was observed among the samples. Furthermore, siGPIs revealed the highest amount of total sulfhydryl and disulfide bonds, whereas both defatted gonads and protein isolates from G. crenularis presented the maximum surface hydrophobicity. These results suggest that gonad protein isolates from three species of sea urchin possess various functionalities and therefore can be potentially applied in food system. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Sea urchin M. nudus, G. crenularis, and S. intermedius gonads are edible, whereas the functional properties of protein isolates from sea urchin gonad remain unknown. In this case, the extraction and comparison of three species of sea urchin gonad protein isolates will not only confirm functional properties but also screen food ingredients with suitable functions. In this study, functionalities of protein isolates derived from M. nudus, G. crenularis, and S. intermedius gonads would provide potential application in bakery food and meat products or as emulsifier candidates in food system.


Assuntos
Gônadas/química , Proteínas/química , Ouriços-do-Mar/química , Animais , Ouriços-do-Mar/classificação , Strongylocentrotus/química
19.
Food Res Int ; 136: 109330, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846529

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the change of lipids in two whelk samples during cold storage. Results showed that the peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) increased while the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acid decreased, indicating that lipid oxidation occurred. The cold storage significantly reduced the levels of triacylglycerol (TAG), polar lipid (PoL), phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) but increased the levels of acid value (AV), free fatty acid (FFA) and monoacylglycerol, suggesting the hydrolysis of lipids. Moreover, the results showed that the lipoxygenase, acid lipase and phospholipase contributed to the hydrolysis and oxidation of lipids in the two whelks. Additionally, partial least squares discriminant analysis showed PC was positively correlated with PE, PoL and TAG, but negatively correlated with AV, FFA, PV and TBARS, indicating there is a close relationship between hydrolysis and oxidation of lipids.


Assuntos
Fosfatidilcolinas , Alimentos Marinhos , Hidrólise , Lipase , Oxirredução , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(32): 8545-8556, 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686932

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to construct a pH- and reduction-responsive nanodrug delivery system to effectively deliver a ginsenoside (Rh2) and enhance its cytotoxicity against human hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2). Here, pullulan polysaccharide was grafted by urocanic acid and α-lipoic acid (α-LA) to obtain a copolymer, α-LA-conjugated N-urocanyl pullulan (LA-URPA), which was expected to have pH and redox dual response. Then, the copolymer LA-URPA was used to encapsulate ginsenoside Rh2 to form Rh2 nanoparticles (Rh2 NPs). The results showed that Rh2 NPs exhibited an average size of 119.87 nm with a uniform spherical morphology. Of note, Rh2 NPs showed a high encapsulation efficiency of 86.00%. Moreover, Rh2 NPs possessed excellent pH/reduction dual-responsive drug release under acidic conditions (pH 5.5) and glutathione (GSH) stimulation with a low drug leakage of 14.8% within 96 h. Furthermore, Rh2 NPs with pH/reduction dual response had higher cytotoxicity than Rh2 after incubation with HepG2 cells for 72 h, indicating that Rh2 NPs had a longer circulation time. After the treatment with Rh2 NPs, the excessive increase of reactive oxygen species and the decrease of superoxide dismutase, glutathione (GSH), and mitochondrial membrane potential suggested that the mitochondrial pathway mediated by oxidative stress played a role in this Rh2 NP-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, this study provides a new strategy for improving the application of ginsenoside Rh2 in the food and pharmaceutical fields.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Ginsenosídeos/química , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Nanopartículas/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Polímeros/química
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