Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 853
Filtrar
1.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(2)2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053968

RESUMO

Improving the genetic process of growth traits is one of the major goals in the beef cattle industry, as it can increase meat production and reduce the cost of raising animals. Although several quantitative trait loci affecting growth traits in beef cattle have been identified, the genetic architecture of these economically important traits remains elusive. This study aims to map single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genes associated with birth weight (BW), yearling weight (YW), average daily gain from birth to yearling (BYADG), and body weight at the age of 18 months (18MW) in a Chinese Simmental beef cattle population using a weighted, single-step, genome-wide association study (wssGWAS). Phenotypic and pedigree data from 6022 animals and genotypes from 744 animals (596,297 SNPs) were used for an association analysis. The results showed that 66 genomic windows explained 1.01-20.15% of the genetic variance for the four examined traits, together with the genes near the top SNP within each window. Furthermore, the identified genomic windows (>1%) explained 50.56%, 57.71%, 61.78%, and 37.82% of the genetic variances for BW, YW, BYADG, and 18MW, respectively. Genes with potential functions in muscle development and regulation of cell growth were highlighted as candidates for growth traits in Simmental cattle (SQOR and TBCB for BW, MYH10 for YW, RLF for BYADG, and ARHGAP31 for 18MW). Moreover, we found 40 SNPs that had not previously been identified as being associated with growth traits in cattle. These findings will further advance our understanding of the genetic basis for growth traits and will be useful for the molecular breeding of BW, YW, BYADG, and 18MW in the context of genomic selection in beef cattle.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057222

RESUMO

Zwitterionic poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) is an effective electronic material for bioelectronics because it exhibits efficient electrical trade-off and diminishes immune response. To promote the use of zwitterionic PEDOTs in bioelectronic devices, especially for cell alignment control and close electro-coupling, features such as the tunable interaction of PEDOTs with proteins/cells and spatially modulating cell behavior are required. However, there is a lack of reliable methods to assemble zwitterionic EDOTs with other functionalized EDOT materials, having different polarities and oxidation potentials, to prepare PEDOTs with the aforementioned surface properties. In this study, we have developed a surfactant-assisted electropolymerization to assemble phosphorylcholine (PC)-functionalized EDOT with other functionalized EDOTs. By adjusting compositions, the interaction of PEDOT copolymers with proteins/cells can be finely tuned; the composition adjustment has an ignorable influence on the impedance of the copolymers. We also demonstrate that the cell-repulsive force generated from PC can spatially guide the neurite outgrowth to form a neuron network at a single-cell resolution and greatly enhance the neurite outgrowth by 179%, which is significantly more distinctive than the reported topography effect. We expect that the derived tunable protein/cell interaction and the PC-induced repulsive guidance for the neurite outgrowth can make low-impedance zwitterionic PEDOTs more useful in bioelectronics.

3.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 86, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to obtain information on the use of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors by oncologists in China through a national questionnaire survey. METHODS: Between the 7th and 25th of July in 2019, a questionnaire designed by the Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology Immuno-Oncology (CSCO IO) Committee on the current status of the use of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors was distributed online and offline to cancer-related medical departments in thirty different provinces and autonomous regions of China. The national questionnaire consisted of three sections as follows: general information, current status of the application of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors in the clinic, and oncologists' concerns regarding utilization. RESULTS: The valid response rate of the current status survey was 76.3%. The proportion of senior doctors (physician-in-charge or a more superior position for more than 3 years) among the respondents was relatively high (67.0% in 588). Of the respondents, 59.2% had prescribed PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors during clinical treatment, and the most frequent reason for not prescribing these inhibitors was the choice "do not understand the mechanism and the efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors". In addition, 77.9% of the prescribers used the medications in an off-label situation, and the most important motivation for this use was the fact that "there were indications abroad but not domestically". In addition, 77.9% of the prescribers believed that "immunotherapy-related adverse effects could be controlled or intervened through follow-up management". The prescribers were mostly concerned about "how to identify pseudoprogression and hyperprogression" and "immunity-related adverse effects management". CONCLUSION: The present study highlights the current status of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors in China. Increasing numbers of medical oncologists are interested in PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors, and they are in need of immunotherapy education.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003591

RESUMO

Micromonospora terminaliae sp. nov., type strain TMS7T, is a Gram-positive non-motile aerobic actinobacterium, which was recently isolated from a surface-sterilized stem of the medicinal plant Terminalia mucronata. This strain was described as a novel species in the Micromonospora genus. To elucidate the application potential of this species, its genome was completely sequenced using the PacBio SMRT cell platform and was compared with selected complete genome sequences of other Micromonospora species. Genomic analysis revealed that the genome of TMS7T consists of one circular DNA chromosome of 6,717,200 bp with a GC content of 73.35% and one plasmid of 24,912 bp with a GC content of 65.39%. The entire genome contains 6,311 predicted coding genes, 57 tRNAs, and 9 rRNA genes. The genome contains a type III polyketide biosynthesis gene cluster (T3PKS), which encodes enzymes that catalyze the production of alkyl-O-dihydrogeranyl-methoxyhydroquinone. This information, combined with the previous report that this strain can grow well on pH 10 medium with 4% NaCl (w/v), indicates that this strain may has potential biocontrol applications for economic plants cultivated on alkaline soil.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033145

RESUMO

Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a common environmental disrupting chemical that can cause endocrine disorders in organisms. However, the continued interference effects of BaP on multi-generation fish needs further research. In this study, we performed different periods (G1F1-3, G2F2-3, G3F3) of BaP exposure on marine medaka. We determined the embryo toxicity, and analyzed relative reproductive genes (ERα, cyp19a and vtg1) to predict the sexual differentiation of marine medaka. The results showed that high concentrations of BaP (200 µg·L-1) significantly delayed the hatching time of embryos. Moreover, medium/high concentrations of BaP (20 and 200 µg·L-1) prolonged the sexual maturity time of marine medaka. The relative gene expression of ERα, cyp19a and vtg1 were measured at 5 dpf of embryos. We found that BaP had significantly inhibited the expression of the genes related to female fish development. Consequently, there were more males in the offspring sex ratio at BaP exposure. Overall, BaP can cause embryonic toxicity and abnormal sexual differentiation, while the expression of related reproductive genes can effectively indicate the sex ratio.

6.
Electrophoresis ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009239

RESUMO

In this study, a small set of ancestor information single nucleotide polymorphisms (AISNPs) were selected to differentiate African, European, East and South Asian samples, which was detected by the next-generation sequencing technology. A total of 127 Chinese Han individuals were collected as test samples. No statistical significant linkage disequilibrium of any pair of loci or departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium of each locus was observed in the test population. To evaluate the performance of ancestry assignment using this panel, admixture analysis, principal component analysis and likelihood ratio (LR) calculations were conducted based on the 1000 genome data and test samples. All populations were clustered into four groups, AFR, EUR, SAS and EAS, which were consistent with their geographical origins. The pairwise fixation index (FST ) between populations from different continental groups ranged from 0.140 to 0.621 with average 0.415; and the pairwise FST between populations from the same continental group ranged from 0.000 to 0.056 with average 0.012. The LR results of 125 test individuals indicated that their ancestry components were highly possible from EAS. In conclusion, this small set of AISNPs can be used as a reliable tool to identify and quantify ancestry components of unknown samples. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

7.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974657

RESUMO

Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) is the expansion and differentiation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells outside of the bone marrow. In postnatal life, as a compensatory mechanism for ineffective hematopoiesis of the bone marrow, pathological EMH is triggered by hematopoietic disorders, insufficient hematopoietic compensation, and other pathological stress conditions, such as infection, advanced tumors, anemia, and metabolic stress. Pathological EMH has been reported in many organs, and the sites of pathological EMH may be related to reactivation of the embryonic hematopoietic structure in these organs. As a double-edged sword (blood and immune cell supplementation as well as clinical complications), pathological EMH has been widely studied in recent years. In particular, pathological EMH induced by late-stage tumors contributes to tumor immunosuppression. Thus, a deeper understanding of the mechanism of pathological EMH may be conducive to the development of therapies against the pathological processes that induce EMH. This article reviews the recent progress of research on the cellular and molecular mechanisms of pathological EMH in specific diseases.

8.
Neurochem Res ; 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950453

RESUMO

To assess the potential role of daphnetin, a clinically used anti-inflammatory agent, on the development of the inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease, we investigated its immune regulatory function in a murine model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Significantly, lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-17, interferon-γ, Il6, Il12a, and Il23a were observed in brains of daphnetin-treated EAE mice, compared with those in control littermates. We also confirmed that daphnetin suppressed the production of IL-1ß, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse BV2 microglial cells. Mechanistically, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a canonical anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory factor, was found to be substantially induced by daphnetin treatment in BV2 cells. Also, a significantly higher level of HO-1, accompanied by a decreased level of malondialdehyde, was observed in daphnetin-treated EAE mice. More importantly, the deletion of HO-1 in BV2 microglia largely abrogated daphnetin-mediated inhibition of the inflammatory response. Together, our data demonstrate that daphnetin has an anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective role during the pathogenesis of EAE, which is partially at least, dependent on its regulation of HO-1.

9.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 39(1): 11, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence suggests that complement components promote tumor progression via modulating immune suppression, angiogenesis, or tumor cell proliferation. However, the role of C3a-C3aR signaling in regulating lung metastasis of breast cancer remains unknown. METHODS: We performed various ex-vivo and in-vivo assays. Genetic and pharmacological C3aR blockade models were applied to investigate the role of C3a-C3aR in metastasis of breast cancer. RESULTS: C3a-C3aR signaling in CAFs facilitates the metastasis of breast cancer. Mechanically, C3a-C3aR signaling augments pro-metastatic cytokine secretion and extracellular matrix components expression of CAFs via the activation of PI3K-AKT signaling. Genetic or pharmacological blockade of C3aR signaling effectively inhibited lung metastasis of breast cancer in mouse models. CONCLUSIONS: C3a-C3aR signaling in CAFs facilitates the metastasis of breast cancer. Targeting C3aR signaling is a potential anti-metastasis strategy for breast cancer therapy.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977678

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: A meta-analysis OBJECTIVE.: The goal of this study was to accurately evaluate the risk ratio (RR) of recurrence in chordoma patients with wide margin after removing the tumors using surgery, compared with inadequate margin (intralesional or marginal). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: As a rare malignant bone cancer, the more effective treatment for sacral chordoma is still surgical resection. However, there is no convincing evidence and risk ratio about sacral chordoma patients would be benefit from which kind of surgical margin. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and EMBASE from inception to December 2018. The heterogeneity analysis and calculation of the pooled risk ratio were performed using RevMan 5.3 software. The assessment of publication bias and sensitivity analysis were conducted using StataSE 15.1 software. The protocol for this meta-analysis was registered on International prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO, CRD42019127441). RESULTS: Twelve studies with a total of 436 patients who met the inclusion criteria were included. The pooled results indicated that patients in the wide group had lower recurrence rate than those in the inadequate group (RR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.31-0.57; P < 0.001). And patients in the wide group had lower mortality rate than those in the inadequate group (RR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.26-0.91; P = 0.02). No significant differences in the risk of mortality were found between relapsed patients in the two groups(RR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.35-1.15; P = 0.13). CONCLUSION: In sacral chordoma patients, wide margin is associated with low recurrence risk, when it is feasible, a wide excision should be considered appropriate for sacrum chordoma. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2.

11.
BMC Med Genet ; 21(1): 17, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several reports were published on the relationship between the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) -2578C > A gene polymorphism and lung cancer risk; however, the results are debatable. This meta-analysis was conducted to assess the relationship between VEGF -2578C > A gene polymorphism and lung cancer risk. METHODS: The associated literatures were identified on the 1st of September 2018 from CBM-disc (China Biological Medicine Database) and PubMed. RESULT: A total of 14 reports were recruited into our meta-analysis to assess the association between VEGF -2578C > A gene polymorphism and lung cancer susceptibility. There was a marked association between VEGF -2578C > A A allele / CC genotype and lung cancer risk in overall and Asian populations (overall populations: A allele: OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.08-1.46, P = 0.003; CC genotype: OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.54-0.95, P = 0.02; Asians: A allele: OR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.15-1.55, P = 0.0002; CC genotype: OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.50-0.93, P = 0.01). However, VEGF -2578C > A gene polymorphism was not associated with the risk of lung cancer in Caucasians. CONCLUSION: VEGF -2578C > A A allele / CC genotype is associated with the lung cancer susceptibility in Asians and in overall populations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Alelos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Bases de Dados Factuais , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etnologia , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fator C de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética
12.
J Med Econ ; : 1-8, 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950863

RESUMO

Objectives: To describe direct medical costs associated with each line of treatment among metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients in China.Methods: Electronic medical records between 2011 and 2016 were extracted from 12 tertiary hospitals in China for adult patients who initiated third-line treatment at least nine months before the end of data collection. Direct medical costs included costs of wards, diagnostic tests, surgical procedures, special materials, drugs and others. Costs were assessed by line of treatment, and drug costs were further breakdown for patients receiving chemotherapy alone and those receiving chemo- and biologics-combined therapy.Results: Of the 404 mCRC patients, the mean age was 55 years old and 62% were male. Oxaliplatin- and irinotecan-based regimens dominated first- and second-line treatment, respectively (44 and 37%). From first- to second- to third-line, the proportion of patients receiving targeted biologics increased from 18% at first-line and 12% at second-line to 34% at third-line; median number of treatment cycles reduced from 6 to 4 and to 2. The corresponding mean direct medical costs per person per cycle increased from $2,514 to $2,678 to $5,121. Mean drug costs per cycle increased from $2,314 to $2,673 to $4,316 among patients receiving chemotherapy alone and from $3,245 to $2,717 to $6,533 among patients receiving chemo- and biologics-combined therapy.Conclusions: Before 2017, mCRC patients in China did not receive the maximum benefits of precision medicine breakthroughs. Reduced treatment cycles and increased costs per cycle from first- to third-line suggested poor healthcare resource utilization. With earlier initiation and more treatment cycles, targeted biologics may better demonstrate their effectiveness among Chinese patients. Our findings reflected the urgent need to increase drug accessibility in China before 2017 and underscore that including innovative biologics into Chinese health insurance plans can reduce patients' economic burden and improve the management of mCRC.

13.
Oncol Rep ; 43(2): 461-470, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894342

RESUMO

In recent years, the important role of long non­â€‹coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the development of liver cancer has received increasing attention. The abnormal expression level of long non­coding RNAs has been associated with the occurrence and development of liver cancer. However, the role and molecular mechanisms of lncRNAs in the development and progression of liver cancer are not fully understood. The present study aimed to clarify the function and molecular mechanism of lncRNA brain cytoplasmic 200 (BC200) in liver cancer. In the present study, it was found that BC200 expression level was higher in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues than that in adjacent tissues. Cell function was examined by constructing BC200 knockout (KO) and BC200­overexpression in vitro models. It was found that BC200 affected the proliferation and migration of HepG2 cells. Interestingly, it was found that BC200 affected the expression of c­Myc protein but did not affect the mRNA expression level of c­MYC. BC200 KO cells exhibited a reduced protein expression level of Bax protein and an increased protein expression level of Bcl­xL. Conversely, BC200 overexpression reduced the expression of Bcl­xL protein and increased the expression of Bax protein. Importantly, it was found that BC200 affected the formation of subcutaneous tumors in nude mice. In conclusion, the present results suggested that lncRNA BC200 may play an important role in liver cancer.

14.
J Org Chem ; 85(2): 574-584, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825216

RESUMO

An efficient organocatalytic asymmetric Michael addition of 4-substituted-pyrazol-5-ones to ß-trifluoromethyl-α,ß-unsaturated ketones was developed. In the presence of a dipeptide-based urea-amide tertiary amine catalyst, an array of chiral products containing pyrazolone and trifluoromethyl moieties bearing vicinal quaternary and tertiary stereocenters were obtained in good yields with good to excellent enantioselectivity and diastereoselectivity (up to 95% yields, up to 97% ee, and >20:1 d.r.). Moreover, the reaction was compatible with 4-substituted-pyrazol-5-ones containing either aryl or alkyl group at the C3 position.

15.
Mol Biol Rep ; 47(2): 1079-1087, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792748

RESUMO

Tibetans living in the Qing-Tibet plateau show unique genetic features since they are exposed to the high altitude environment. Accordingly, it is necessary for us to analyze genetic components of the Tibetan groups. Here, genetic structure and ancestry proportions of Tibet Tibetan and Qinghai Tibetan groups are dissected by using a previously published ancestral deletion/insertion polymorphisms (DIPs) panel. Genetic distributions of the analyzed DIPs in both Tibetan groups reveal that some DIPs show relatively balanced frequency distributions with the values ranging from 0.4 to 0.6, implying that these DIPs could be used as individual identification loci for forensic applications in both groups. Besides, the cumulative power of discrimination of the panel also reflects that the panel could serve as a valuable tool for forensic individual identifications in Tibet Tibetan and Qinghai Tibetan groups. Population genetic analyses including principal component analysis, DA genetic distances, phylogenetic tree, and genetic structure reveal that two studied Tibetan groups have closer genetic affiliations with East Asian populations. Genetic differentiation analyses of two Han populations, Xinjiang Uyghur and two Tibetan groups reveal that some DIP loci might be informative for differentiating Uyghurs from the other populations.

16.
Lung Cancer ; 139: 118-123, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775086

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The 2015 World Health Organization classification defines pulmonary large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) as a high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma. However, the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of pure LCNEC and combined LCNEC remain unclear. Hence, we performed a multi-center retrospective study to compare the clinical outcomes of pure versus combined LCNEC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from 381 patients with pulmonary LCNEC admitted to 17 Chinese institutes between 2009 and 2016 were collected retrospectively. Clinical characteristics and prognosis were analyzed among patients receiving adjuvant (adjuvant group; n = 56) and first-line (first-line group; n = 146) chemotherapy, as well as among patients receiving small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-SCLC (NSCLC) chemotherapy regimens. The Kaplan-Meier method and multivariable Cox regression were used to identify clinicopathological variables that might influence patient outcomes. RESULTS: Expression levels of neuroendocrine markers (synaptophysin, chromogranin-A, CD56) were associated with patients' prognosis in the total study cohort. In the adjuvant group, median disease-free survival was non-significantly longer for SCLC-based regimens than for NSCLC-based regimens (P = 0.112). In the first-line group, median progression-free survival was significantly longer for SCLC-based regimens than for NSCLC-based regimens (11.5 vs. 7.2 months, P = 0.003). Among patients with combined LCNEC, adenocarcinoma was the most common combined component, accounting for 70.0 % of cases. Additionally, median overall survival was non-significantly shorter for combined LCNEC than for pure LCNEC (P = 0.083). CONCLUSION: The SCLC regimen is a more effective choice, as either first-line or adjuvant chemotherapy, when compared to the NSCLC regimen for LCNEC treatment. Further studies are needed to clarify the survival differences between patients with pure-, and combined LCNEC.

17.
Sci Total Environ ; 705: 135974, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841922

RESUMO

Afforestation is of importance for terrestrial carbon sequestration as well as soil and water conservation in karst landscapes. However, few studies have evaluated the effects of afforestation on soil CH4 and N2O emissions in subtropical karst areas. Thus, a year-round field experiment was conducted to quantify the effects of afforestation on soil CH4 and N2O fluxes from a subtropical karst landscape in South China. In this study, soil CH4 and N2O fluxes were simultaneously monitored using static chamber-gas chromatography from three paired sites, including a cropland site (SC) and adjacent sites at two stages of afforestation, a shrubland (SD) and a woodland (AF). The results showed that annual soil CH4 uptake for SC, SD, and AF sites were 1.53 ± 0.20 kg C ha-1 yr-1, 2.90 ± 0.20 kg C ha-1 yr-1, and 5.68 ± 0.18 kg C ha-1 yr-1, respectively. Afforestation (i.e., SD and AF sites) significantly increased soil CH4 uptake compared with the adjacent cropland. Annual soil N2O fluxes for SC, SD, and AF sites were 2.38 ± 0.17 kg N ha-1 yr-1, 0.94 ± 0.14 kg N ha-1 yr-1, and 0.47 ± 0.01 kg N ha-1 yr-1, respectively. Afforestation significantly decreased soil N2O fluxes compared with the adjacent cropland. The effects of afforestation on soil CH4 and N2O fluxes in the present study were mainly attributed to changes in soil characteristics, such as temperature and moisture, as these were significantly correlated with soil CH4 and N2O fluxes across different experimental sites. The present study highlights that afforestation is an effective land use management practice to mitigate non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions from subtropical karst landscapes in South China.

19.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(12)2019 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795199

RESUMO

Salmonella is one of the most common food-borne pathogens. It can be transmitted between chickens, as well as to people by contaminated poultry products. In our study, we distinguished chickens with different resistances mainly based on bacterial loads. We compared the cecal tonsil transcriptomes between the susceptible and resistant chickens after Salmonella infection, aiming to identify the crucial genes participating in the antibacterial activity in the cecal tonsil. A total of 3214 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including 2092 upregulated and 1122 downregulated genes, were identified between the two groups (fold change ≥ 2.0, padj < 0.05). Many DEGs were mainly involved in the regulation of two biological processes: crosstalk between the cecal tonsil epithelium and pathogenic bacteria, such as focal adhesion, extracellular-matrix-receptor interaction, and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and host immune response including the cytokine-receptor interaction. In particular, the challenged resistant birds exhibited strong activation of the intestinal immune network for IgA production, which perhaps contributed to the resistance to Salmonella infection. These findings give insight into the mRNA profile of the cecal tonsil between the two groups after initial Salmonella stimulation, which may extend the known complexity of molecular mechanisms in chicken immune response to Salmonella.

20.
Animals (Basel) ; 9(12)2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805716

RESUMO

Non-additive effects play important roles in determining genetic changes with regard to complex traits; however, such effects are usually ignored in genetic evaluation and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping analysis. In this study, a two-component genome-based restricted maximum likelihood (GREML) was applied to obtain the additive genetic variance and dominance variance for carcass weight (CW), dressing percentage (DP), meat percentage (MP), average daily gain (ADG), and chuck roll (CR) in 1233 Simmental beef cattle. We estimated predictive abilities using additive models (genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) and BayesA) and dominance models (GBLUP-D and BayesAD). Moreover, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) considering both additive and dominance effects were performed using a multi-locus mixed-model (MLMM) approach. We found that the estimated dominance variances accounted for 15.8%, 16.1%, 5.1%, 4.2%, and 9.7% of the total phenotypic variance for CW, DP, MP, ADG, and CR, respectively. Compared with BayesA and GBLUP, we observed 0.5-1.1% increases in predictive abilities of BayesAD and 0.5-0.9% increases in predictive abilities of GBLUP-D, respectively. Notably, we identified a dominance association signal for carcass weight within RIMS2, a candidate gene that has been associated with carcass weight in beef cattle. Our results suggest that dominance effects yield variable degrees of contribution to the total genetic variance of the studied traits in Simmental beef cattle. BayesAD and GBLUP-D are convenient models for the improvement of genomic prediction, and the detection of QTLs using a dominance model shows promise for use in GWAS in cattle.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA