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1.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 22(1): 18, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35012463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that the gender and/or age of a patient may influence the clinical outcomes of critically ill patients. Our aim was to determine whether there are gender- and age-based differences in clinical outcomes for mechanically ventilated patients in intensive care units (ICUs). METHODS: We performed a multicentre retrospective study involving adult patients who were admitted to the ICU and received at least 24 h of mechanical ventilation (MV). The patients were divided into two groups based on gender and, subsequently, further grouped based on gender and age < or ≥ 65 years. The primary outcome measure was hospital mortality. RESULTS: A total of 853 mechanically ventilated patients were evaluated. Of these patients, 63.2% were men and 61.5% were ≥ 65 years of age. The hospital mortality rate for men was significantly higher than that for women in the overall study population (P = 0.042), and this difference was most pronounced among elderly patients (age ≥ 65 years; P = 0.006). The durations of MV, ICU lengths of stay (LOS), and hospital LOS were significantly longer for men than for women among younger patients (P ≤ 0.013) but not among elderly patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that male gender was independently associated with hospital mortality among elderly patients but not among younger patients. CONCLUSIONS: There were important gender- and age-based differences in the outcomes among mechanically ventilated ICU patients. The combination of male gender and advanced age is strongly associated with hospital mortality.

2.
Environ Pollut ; 298: 118840, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35026325

RESUMO

The role of coarse particles has recently been proven to be underestimated in the atmosphere and can strongly influence clouds, ecosystems and climate. However, previous studies on atmospheric chemistry of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have mostly focused on the products in fine particles, it remains less understood how coarse particles promote secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. In this study, we investigated water-soluble compounds of size-segregated aerosol samples (0.056 to >18 µm) collected at a coastal rural site in southern China during late summer and found that oxygenated organic matter was abundant in the coarse mode. Comprehensive source apportionment based on mass spectrum and 14C analysis indicated that different from fossil fuel SOA, biogenic SOA existed more in the coarse mode than in the fine mode. The SOA in the coarse mode showed a unique correlation with biogenic VOCs. 13C and elemental composition strongly suggested a pathway of heterogeneous reactions on coarse particles, which had an abundant low-acidic aqueous environment with soil dust to possibly initiate iron-catalytic oxidation reactions to form SOA. This potential pathway might complement understanding of both formation of biogenic SOA and sink of biogenic VOCs in global biogeochemical cycles, warrantying future relevant studies.

3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(1): 123-137, 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34935351

RESUMO

Silk fibroin (SF)-based electroactive biomaterials with favorable electroconductive property and transparency have great potential applications for cell culture and tissue engineering. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) is an excellent candidate as a conductive component, which has been widely used in the field of bioelectronics; however, it is hard to be directly coated onto the surface of regenerated SF (RSF) materials with good stability under a cell culture environment. In this study, a one-step facile PEDOT:PSS modification approach for RSF films based on a suitable post-treatment process of RSF was developed. PEDOT:PSS was successfully embedded and fixed into the shallow surface of an RSF film, forming a tightly conjunct conductive layer on the film surface based on the conformation transition of RSF during the post-treatment process. The conductive layer demonstrated a PSS-rich surface and a PEDOT-rich bulk structure and showed excellent stability under a cell culture environment. More specifically, the robust RSF/PEDOT:PSS film achieved in the post-treatment formula with 70% ethanol proportion possessed best comprehensive properties such as a sheet resistance of 3.833 × 103 Ω/square, a conductivity of 1.003 S/cm, and transmittance over 80% at maximum in the visible range. This kind of electroactive biomaterial also showed good electrochemical stability and degradable properties. Moreover, pheochromocytoma-derived cell line (PC12) cells were cultured on the RSF/PEDOT:PSS film, and an effective electrical stimulation cell response was demonstrated. The facile preparation strategy and the good electroconductive property and transparency make this RSF/PEDOT:PSS film an ideal candidate for neuronal tissue engineering and further for biomedical applications.

4.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 131-140, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403145

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has quickly become a global threat to public health, and it is difficult to predict severe patients and their prognosis. Here, we intended developing effective models for the late identification of patients at disease progression and outcome. METHODS: A total of 197 patients were included with a 20-day median follow-up time. We first developed a nomogram for disease severity discrimination, then created a prognostic nomogram for severe patients. RESULTS: In total, 40.6% of patients were severe and 59.4% were non-severe. The multivariate logistic analysis indicated that IgG, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lactate dehydrogenase, platelet, albumin, and blood urea nitrogen were significant factors associated with the severity of COVID-19. Using immune response phenotyping based on NLR and IgG level, the logistic model showed patients with the NLRhi IgGhi phenotype are most likely to have severe disease, especially compared to those with the NLRlo IgGlo phenotype. The C-indices of the two discriminative nomograms were 0.86 and 0.87, respectively, which indicated sufficient discriminative power. As for predicting clinical outcomes for severe patients, IgG, NLR, age, lactate dehydrogenase, platelet, monocytes, and procalcitonin were significant predictors. The prognosis of severe patients with the NLRhi IgGhi phenotype was significantly worse than the NLRlo IgGhi group. The two prognostic nomograms also showed good performance in estimating the risk of progression. CONCLUSIONS: The present nomogram models are useful to identify COVID-19 patients with disease progression based on individual characteristics and immune response-related indicators. Patients at high risk for severe illness and poor outcomes from COVID-19 should be managed with intensive supportive care and appropriate therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/imunologia , Idoso , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Contagem de Leucócitos , Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos , Nomogramas , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(44): e27695, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34871254

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The present study is aimed to evaluate and compare the efficacy and safety of tenofovir (TDF) and telbivudine (TBV) in interrupting hepatitis B virus (HBV) mother-to-child transmission (MTCT), and to provide evidence-based treatment options to clinicians and patients.Hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg)-positive pregnant women (644 in total) with high HBV DNA load (≥2 × 105 IU/mL) and who received TDF (n = 214) or TBV (n = 380) in the second or third trimester, or received no treatment (n = 50) were included in this retrospective analysis.HBV DNA levels in mothers at delivery were significantly lower than baseline in the 2 treatment groups. HBV DNA levels in the TDF group were significantly different between the mothers receiving treatment in the second trimester and those receiving treatment in the third trimester; however, significant difference was not observed in the TBV group. The proportion of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive infants at the age of 7 to 12 months in the TDF, TBV, and control groups were 0.00% (0/174), 0.30% (1/331), and 5.0% (2/40) with a significant difference between the treatment groups and the control group, but no difference between the TDF and TBV group (P > .05). However, no serious adverse events were observed in infants and mothers of all groups.TBV and TDF can effectively reduce the HBV DNA level and MTCT rate in pregnant women with high HBV DNA load (≥2 × 105 IU/mL); both antiviral drugs are safe for infants and mothers. Since TDF was more effective in reducing HBV DNA levels during the second trimester, its use during the period is recommended to prevent HBV MTCT.

6.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 414, 2021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34873151

RESUMO

Azvudine (FNC) is a nucleoside analog that inhibits HIV-1 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Recently, we discovered FNC an agent against SARS-CoV-2, and have taken it into Phase III trial for COVID-19 patients. FNC monophosphate analog inhibited SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-OC43 coronavirus with an EC50 between 1.2 and 4.3 µM, depending on viruses or cells, and selective index (SI) in 15-83 range. Oral administration of FNC in rats revealed a substantial thymus-homing feature, with FNC triphosphate (the active form) concentrated in the thymus and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Treating SARS-CoV-2 infected rhesus macaques with FNC (0.07 mg/kg, qd, orally) reduced viral load, recuperated the thymus, improved lymphocyte profiles, alleviated inflammation and organ damage, and lessened ground-glass opacities in chest X-ray. Single-cell sequencing suggested the promotion of thymus function by FNC. A randomized, single-arm clinical trial of FNC on compassionate use (n = 31) showed that oral FNC (5 mg, qd) cured all COVID-19 patients, with 100% viral ribonucleic acid negative conversion in 3.29 ± 2.22 days (range: 1-9 days) and 100% hospital discharge rate in 9.00 ± 4.93 days (range: 2-25 days). The side-effect of FNC is minor and transient dizziness and nausea in 16.12% (5/31) patients. Thus, FNC might cure COVID-19 through its anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity concentrated in the thymus, followed by promoted immunity.

7.
Electrophoresis ; 2021 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34859475

RESUMO

Recently, next generation sequencing showed the promising application value in forensic research. In this study, we constructed a multiplex system of different molecular genetic markers based on the previous selected AISNPs, multi-allelic InDels, microhaplotypes and Y-SNP/InDel loci and evaluated forensic efficiencies of the system in Chinese Shaanxi Han, Hui and Mongolian groups via the NGS platform. Ancestry informative analyses of Shaanxi Han, Hui and Mongolian groups revealed that most Mongolian individuals could be differentiated from Shaanxi Hans and Huis based on the selected AISNPs. Multi-allelic InDels and microhaplotypes showed the multiple allele variations and possessed relatively high genetic polymorphisms in these three groups, indicating these loci could also provide higher forensic efficiencies for individual identification and paternity testing. Based on Y-SNPs, different haplogroup distributions were observed among Shaanxi Han, Hui and Mongolian groups. In conclusion, the self-developed system could be used to simultaneously carry out the individual identification, paternity analysis, mixture deconvolution, forensic ancestry information analysis and Y chromosomal haplogroup inference, which could provide more investigative clues in forensic practices. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

8.
Cancer Med ; 2021 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34862755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The gene ENPEP encodes glutamyl aminopeptidase, which can cut N-terminal aspartic acid from angiotensin II, and is related to tumorigenesis and immune microenvironment, however, the association between the expression of ENPEP and benefits of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has had no investigation. METHODS: We assess the immunotherapeutic predictive performance of ENPEP expression and mutation in multiple cohorts, including one discovery cohort (Pender cohort), four validation cohorts (Hugo cohort; Liu cohort; Mariathasan cohort; Zhao cohort), and one mutation cohort (Miao cohort). Cohorts from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were used to explore mechanism and analysis prognosis. RESULTS: In the discovery cohort, patients with lower ENPEP expression had superior response rates (47.2% vs. 36.1%) and over-all survival (OS) (HR [95% CI] = 0.61 [0.39-0.96]; p = 0.032) compared with those with higher ENPEP expression. The association between ENPEP and immunotherapy efficacy was consistently observed in validation cohorts (Hugo: OS HR [95% CI] = 0.41 [0.11-1.45], p = 0.158; Liu: OS HR [95% CI] = 0.73 [0.44-1.20], p = 0.211; Mariathasan: OS HR [95% CI] = 0.84 [0.65-1.09], p = 0.181; Zhao: OS HR [95% CI] = 0.20 [0.04-1.01], p = 0.033; Pooled cohort: OS HR [95% CI] = 0.76 [0.61-0.95], p = 0.015), and in the mutation cohort (ENPEP mutation vs. wild type (WT), OS HR [95% CI] = 0.46 [0.26-0.93], p = 0.017). Reliably, ENPEP is associated with M2 macrophage infiltration and activation in TCGA. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated ENPEP is a potential biomarker to classify patients' response to ICIs treatment.

9.
Front Genet ; 12: 750746, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34912371

RESUMO

Bone weight is critical to affect body conformation and stature in cattle. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide association study for bone weight in Chinese Simmental beef cattle based on the imputed sequence variants. We identified 364 variants associated with bone weight, while 350 of them were not included in the Illumina BovineHD SNP array, and several candidate genes and GO terms were captured to be associated with bone weight. Remarkably, we identified four potential variants in a candidate region on BTA6 using Bayesian fine-mapping. Several important candidate genes were captured, including LAP3, MED28, NCAPG, LCORL, SLIT2, and IBSP, which have been previously reported to be associated with carcass traits, body measurements, and growth traits. Notably, we found that the transcription factors related to MED28 and LCORL showed high conservation across multiple species. Our findings provide some valuable information for understanding the genetic basis of body stature in beef cattle.

10.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e047317, 2021 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34907039

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most highly prevalent pain both in developed countries and low-income and middle-income countries. Despite increasing healthcare resources and numerous treatment methods for LBP, the efficacy of these therapeutic strategies is still uncertain. Recently, core stability exercise (CSE) is popularly applied as a preventive or rehabilitative method in the treatment of LBP. However, the adequate activation of the local muscle systems of CSE needs further optimisation and quantification. This trial aims to investigate the feasibility and efficacy of CSE monitored by real-time ultrasound image (RUSI) on LBP individuals. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Forty subjects with chronic non-specific LBP (CNLBP), aged from 20 to 50 years, will be randomly allocated into two groups using sealed, consecutively numbered opaque envelopes: (1) study group (SG): CSE monitored by RUSI and (2) control group (CG): identical CSE without monitoring. Interventions will last 30 mins, two times a week for 8 weeks. The primary outcomes include pain intensity, disability and quality of life, and the secondary outcomes will be the postural control static stability, onset timing of trunk muscles activation, ultrasound images of muscle thickness and surface electromyography (sEMG) signal of muscle activities. Outcome measures will be collected at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks during training, and at 6 months follow-up. Data will be collected and analysed by an assessor blinded to group allocation. Effect sizes and mixed-model repeated measures analysis of variance (2 groups×4 time points) will be calculated. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This protocol and informed consent has been approved by the Institutional Research Ethics Committee of the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University (Approval number: [2020] 254-1). The findings of this study will be disseminated to participants through social networks and will be submitted to peer-reviewed journals and scientific conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR2000034498).

11.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(12)2021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34944246

RESUMO

Huaxi cattle, a specialized beef cattle breed in China, has the characteristics of fast growth, high slaughter rate, and net meat rate, good reproductive performance, strong stress resistance, and wide adaptability. In this study, we evaluated the genetic diversity, population structure, and genetic relationships of Huaxi cattle and its ancestor populations at the genome-wide level, as well as detecting the selection signatures of Huaxi cattle. Principal component analysis (PCA) and phylogenetic analysis revealed that Huaxi cattle were obviously separated from other cattle populations. The admixture analysis showed that Huaxi cattle has distinct genetic structures among all populations at K = 4. It can be concluded that Huaxi cattle has formed its own unique genetic features. Using integrated haplotype score (iHS) and composite likelihood ratio (CLR) methods, we identified 143 and 199 potentially selected genes in Huaxi cattle, respectively, among which nine selected genes (KCNK1, PDLIM5, CPXM2, CAPN14, MIR2285D, MYOF, PKDCC, FOXN3, and EHD3) related to ion binding, muscle growth and differentiation, and immunity were detected by both methods. Our study sheds light on the unique genetic feature and phylogenetic relationship of Huaxi cattle, provides a basis for the genetic mechanism analysis of important economic traits, and guides further intensive breeding improvement of Huaxi cattle.

12.
Microbiology (Reading) ; 167(11)2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34825886

RESUMO

The endophytic bacterial community and their diversity are closely related to the host's growth and development. This paper explores the culturable endophytic bacteria in the stems, leaves, roots and rhizomes of Atractylodes macrocephala (AM) of four localities (Yuqian, Wenxian, Pan'an and Pingjiang) and the potential correlation between the bacteria and plant bioactive compounds. A total of 118 endophytic bacteria belonging to 3 phyla, 5 classes, 11 orders, 26 families and 48 genera were isolated and identified from the four AM tissues. Among them, Bacillus was the dominant genus. In AM, the tissue type and locality influenced the endophytic bacterial community. Approximately 29.7 and 28.8% of the endophytic bacteria exhibited tissue specificity and geographic specificity, respectively. Furthermore, high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that the sesquiterpenoid (atractylenolide I, atractylenolide Ⅱ and atractylon) content was more in the rhizomes of Wenxian than in those of Pingjiang, Yuqian and Pan'an. The multiple linear regression was used to screen the bacterial strains related to the bioactive compounds of AM. The relative frequency of Microbacterium positively correlated with atractylenolide I and atractylon content in AM but negatively correlated with atractylenolide Ⅱ content. The study also provides a theoretical framework for future research on endophytic bacteria as alternative sources of secondary plant metabolites.

13.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers ; 25(11): 707-719, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788142

RESUMO

Background: Periodontitis is a multifactorial disease mainly caused by the formation of plaque biofilm, which can lead to the gradual destruction of tooth-supporting tissues. Current research on the genetics and epigenetics of periodontitis remains relatively limited, and the molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Objective: Our aims were to construct competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network and determine DNA methylation patterns of target genes to help elucidate the pathogenesis of periodontitis. Methods: We analyzed the expression profiles of the GSE16134, GSE54710, GSE10334, and GSE59932 datasets from the Gene Expression Omnibus database through the weighted gene coexpression network analysis system and screened mRNAs that are regulated by the level of methylation and are associated with the occurrence of periodontitis. Next, a lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA ceRNA network was constructed using databases including miRanda and TargetScan. Gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analyses were conducted for genes in the clinically significant modules. Finally, a protein-protein interaction network was built. Results: We finally identified four mRNAs, four miRNAs, and six lncRNAs as shared differentially expressed genes related to the periodontitis inflammation pathway. IL-6, IFNA17, CXCL12, and TNFRSF13C were identified as key genes whose expression was significantly enriched in the nuclear factor κB and TLR4 pathways. Moreover, the expression of 28 genes were downregulated by hypermethylation and 70 genes were upregulated by hypomethylation. Conclusions: The constructed ceRNA network can improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of periodontitis. Candidate mRNAs from the ceRNA network could serve as new therapeutic targets and prognostic biomarkers in periodontitis.

14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6655, 2021 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789716

RESUMO

Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is speculated to harbor complex genomic intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) associated with high recurrence rate and suboptimal response to immunotherapy. Here, using multi-region whole exome/T cell receptor (TCR) sequencing as well as immunohistochemistry, we reveal a rather homogeneous mutational landscape but extremely cold and heterogeneous TCR repertoire in limited-stage SCLC tumors (LS-SCLCs). Compared to localized non-small cell lung cancers, LS-SCLCs have similar predicted neoantigen burden and genomic ITH, but significantly colder and more heterogeneous TCR repertoire associated with higher chromosomal copy number aberration (CNA) burden. Furthermore, copy number loss of IFN-γ pathway genes is frequently observed and positively correlates with CNA burden. Higher mutational burden, higher T cell infiltration and positive PD-L1 expression are associated with longer overall survival (OS), while higher CNA burden is associated with shorter OS in patients with LS-SCLC.

15.
Front Nutr ; 8: 732099, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733875

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Little is known about diet-related inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this study, we aimed to explore the association between COPD and dietary inflammatory index (DII) scores in adults over 40 years old. Methods: Data were obtained from the 2013 to 2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). In the present study, 9,929 participants were included and analyzed. The DII score was calculated and divided into tertiles. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the odds ratios of DII tertiles. Results: Participants were categorized into COPD (565, 5.69%) and non-COPD groups (9,364, 94.31%) according to interview information. COPD individuals had higher DII scores than non-COPD individuals (0.429 ± 1.809 vs. -0.191 ± 1.791, p < 0.001). The highest DII score tertile included 46.55% of COPD individuals was associated with lower family incomes and education and a higher smoking rate (p < 0.01). The odds ratios (95% CIs) of COPD according to logistic regression were 0.709 (0.512-0.982) for T1 and 0.645 (0.475-0.877) for T2 of the DII score (p = 0.011). Conclusion: Higher DII scores were positively correlated with COPD in participants over 40 years old. These results further support that diet can be used as an intervention strategy for COPD management.

16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22590, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799644

RESUMO

Quenchbody (Q-body) is a quench-based fluorescent immunosensor labeled with fluorescent dye(s) near the antigen-binding site of an antibody. Q-bodies can detect a range of target molecules rapidly and directly. However, because Q-bodies show different antigen responses depending on the antibody used, time-consuming optimization of the Q-body structure is often necessary, and a high-throughput screening method for discriminating and selecting good Q-bodies is required. Here, we aimed to develop a molecular display method of nanobody-based "mini Q-bodies" by combining yeast surface display and coiled-coil forming E4/K4 peptide-based fluorescence labeling. As a result, the yeast-displayed mini Q-body recognizing the anti-cancer agent methotrexate (MTX) showed significant quenching and MTX-dependent dequenching on cells. To demonstrate the applicability of the developed method to select highly responsive mini Q-bodies, a small nanobody library consisting of 30 variants that recognize human serum albumin was used as a model. The best variant, showing a 2.4-fold signal increase, was obtained through selection by flow cytometry. Furthermore, the same nanobody prepared from Escherichia coli also worked as a mini Q-body after dye labeling. The described approach will be applied to quickly obtain well-behaved Q-bodies and other fluorescent biosensors for various targets through directed evolutionary approaches.

17.
Inorg Chem ; 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823352

RESUMO

Polyoxometalates (POMs) have a broad array of applied platforms with well-characterized catalysis including photocatalysis to achieve aliphatic C(sp3)-H bond functionalization. However, the reaction mechanism of POMs in organic transformation remains unknown due to the complexity of POM structures. Here, a challenging [W10O32]4-/Ni metallaphotoredox-catalyzed C(sp3)-H arylation of alkane has been investigated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The calculation revealed that the superficial active center located in bridged oxygen of *[W10O32]4- is responsible for the abstraction of a foreign hydrogen atom and the activation of a C(sp3)-H bond. Furthermore, we discussed this activated process using the direct activation model of the C(sp3)-H σ-bond to deepen our mechanistic understanding of POM mediated C-H bond activation via the hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) pathway. Specifically, comparing three common mechanisms for nickel catalysis inducing by Ni0, NiI, and NiII to construct a C-C bond, the nickel catalytic cycle induced by the NiI active catalyst is profitable in kinetics and thermodynamics. Finally, a radical mechanism merging the ([W10O32]4--*[W10O32]4--[HW10O32]4--[W10O32]4-) decatungstate reductive quenching cycle, ([HW10O32]4--[H2W10O32]4--[HW10O32]4-) electron relay, and (NiI-NiII-NiI-NiIII-NiI) nickel catalytic cycle is proposed to be favorable. We hope that this work would provide a better understanding of the unique catalytic activity of decatungstate anions for the direct functionalization of the C(sp3)-H bond.

18.
Neuroepidemiology ; 55(6): 460-472, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite their great disease burden, there have been few studies on the epidemiology of central nervous system tumours (CNSTs) in China. We used the latest data updated by GBD to analyse the trends of incidence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for CNSTs in China versus globally. METHODS: Epidemiological data on CNSTs were extracted from GBD 2019. We used Joinpoint regression analysis to calculate the magnitude and direction of the trends and the age-period-cohort method to analyse the age, period, and cohort effects of the trend. RESULTS: From 1990 to 2019, the 106.52% increase in Chinese incident cases was higher than the global increase (94.35%). The 67.32% increase in cancer deaths and 16.03% increase in DALYs were lower than the global increases (cancer death: 76.36%; DALYs: 40.06%). The age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs) in China were higher than the global ASIRs, and the increase in China was higher than that globally. Although the age-standardized mortality rates and age-standardized DALY rates in China were higher, their increases in China were less than those globally. Both in China and globally, the number and incidence, mortality, and DALYs by age group showed a bimodal distribution (younger than 5 years and older), and the peak in the older age group showed a backwards trend. The proportion of incident cases, cancer deaths, and DALYs also increased in the older age group. In the age-period-cohort model, the local drifts in the older age group were above zero. CONCLUSIONS: The burden of CNSTs is very serious in China, and we should pay attention to the key populations, early diagnosis technology, improvements in medical technology, and ways to reduce medical costs. We believe our results could help policymakers allocate resources efficiently to reduce the burden of CNSTs.

19.
Dis Markers ; 2021: 9453692, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34754345

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) responses vary, and biomarkers for predicting responders are urgently needed. Growing evidence points to the association between programmed cell death protein ligand 2 (PDL2) and ICI benefits, while clinical evidences were lacking. Thus, we consolidated five public ICI-treated cohorts to investigate the association between PDL2 expression and ICI treatment prognosis. Immune cell signatures and IFN-γ signatures are investigated in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset and later in ICI-treated cohorts to explore the association between PDL2 and antitumor immunity in the tumor microenvironment (TME). We found that immune cell signatures and IFN-γ signatures were enriched in the PDL2-high group in TCGA pooled cohorts and most cancers. Consistently, in ICI-treated cohorts, patients with high PDL2 expression experienced longer overall survival time (OS) and were more likely responsive to ICIs than patients with low PDL2 expression. Immune cell scores of the high PDL2 expression patients were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of the low PDL2 expression patients in ICI-treated cohorts. In conclusion, our findings suggest that PDL2 is a potential predictive biomarker for ICIs.

20.
Front Psychol ; 12: 713271, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733203

RESUMO

Knowledge about aging (KA) and empathy affect nursing students' attitudes toward older adults. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon from an integrated, person-centered perspective. The purposes of the present study were (1) to identify empathy profiles based on the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) among Chinese nursing students and (2) to explore whether these latent empathy profiles moderate the association between KA and attitudes toward older people. A cross-sectional survey design was used, and a battery of questionnaires - including those on demographic information, the Chinese version of Palmore's Facts on Aging Quiz (C-FAQ), the Chinese version of Kogan's Attitude Toward Older People Scale (C-KAOP), and the IRI - was filled in by 622 Chinese nursing students (M age 21.76; SD = 1.33). The mean total scores on KAOP and C-FAQ were 164.96 ± 18.32 and 10.436 ± 3.015, respectively, indicating relatively positive attitudes toward older people but low KA among Chinese nursing students. Latent profile analysis was used to identify a three-profile solution characterized by distinct levels of four dimensions of empathy, namely average empathy (AE, n = 399), high empathy (HE, n = 42), and low empathy (LE, n = 181). Subsequent linear regression analysis revealed that the LE rather than the HE profile predicted positive attitudes toward older adults. It is worth noting that the LE profile played a remarkable moderating role in associations between KA and negative attitudes toward older adults after controlling for covariant variables. Both the identification of distinct empathy profiles and the interplay between the LE profile and KA are of significance in reducing negative attitudes toward older adults among Chinese nursing students. Nursing educators should combine improving nursing students' levels of KA and fostering greater empathy to reduce negative attitudes toward older adults. Such training should give priority to nursing students with LE.

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