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1.
Exp Ther Med ; 18(1): 817-825, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31258715

RESUMO

Dexmedetomidine (Dex) is a sedative and analgesic agent that is widely administered to patients admitted to the intensive care unit, and has been demonstrated to result in hypothermia. Many patients have been revealed to benefit from therapeutic hypothermia, which can mitigate cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury following successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation. However, studies investigating the efficacy of Dex in I/R treatment is lacking. The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of Dex in mitigating neuronal damage, and to determine the possible mechanism of its effects in a rat model of cardiac arrest (CA). CA was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by asphyxiation for 5 min. Following successful resuscitation, the surviving rats were randomly divided into two treatment groups; one group was intraperitoneally administered with Dex (D group), whereas the control group was treated with normal saline (N group). Critical parameters, including core temperature and blood pressure were monitored following return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Arterial blood samples were collected at 10 min after surgery (baseline) 30 and 120 min post-ROSC; and neurological deficit scores (NDS) of the rats were taken 12 or 24 h after ROSC prior to euthanasia. The hippocampal tissue was then removed for analysis by histology, electron microscopy and western blotting. Rats in the D group exhibited a lower core temperature and higher NDS scores compared with the N group (P<0.05). In addition, Dex injection resulted in reduced expression of apoptotic and autophagy-associated factors in the hippocampus (P<0.05). Dex treatment induced hypothermia and improved neurological function in rats after ROSC following resuscitation from CA by inhibiting neuronal apoptosis and reducing autophagy, which suggested that Dex may be a potential therapy option for patients with CA.

2.
Neural Regen Res ; 13(7): 1231-1240, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30028332

RESUMO

The best tissue-engineered spinal cord grafts not only match the structural characteristics of the spinal cord but also allow the seed cells to grow and function in situ. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) has been shown to promote the migration of bone marrow stromal cells; however, cytokines need to be released at a steady rate to maintain a stable concentration in vivo. Therefore, new methods are needed to maintain an optimal concentration of cytokines over an extended period of time to effectively promote seed cell localization, proliferation and differentiation. In the present study, a partition-type tubular scaffold matching the anatomical features of the thoracic 8-10 spinal cord of the rat was fabricated using chitosan and then subsequently loaded with chitosan-encapsulated PDGF-BB microspheres (PDGF-MSs). The PDGF-MS-containing scaffold was then examined in vitro for sustained-release capacity, biocompatibility, and its effect on neural progenitor cells differentiated in vitro from multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring cells (MUSE-NPCs). We found that pre-freezing for 2 hours at -20°C significantly increased the yield of partition-type tubular scaffolds, and 30 µL of 25% glutaraldehyde ensured optimal crosslinking of PDGF-MSs. The resulting PDGF-MSs cumulatively released 52% of the PDGF-BB at 4 weeks in vitro without burst release. The PDGF-MS-containing tubular scaffold showed suitable biocompatibility towards MUSE-NPCs and could promote the directional migration and growth of these cells. These findings indicate that the combination of a partition-type tubular scaffold, PDGF-MSs and MUSE-NPCs may be a promising model for the fabrication of tissue-engineered spinal cord grafts.

3.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol ; 66(5): 449-56, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26222992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent experimental and clinical studies have indicated that the ß-adrenergic effect of epinephrine significantly increases the severity of postresuscitation myocardial dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the short-acting ß1-selective adrenergic blocking agent, esmolol, would impact postresuscitation autophagy and mitophagy in cardiomyocytes in a rat cardiac arrest (CA) model. METHODS: CA was induced in Sprague Dawley rats by epicardial ventricular fibrillation for 5 minutes. After successful resuscitation, the surviving rats were randomly divided into 2 groups that received femoral venous injections of epinephrine combined with either esmolol (EE group) or epinephrine (E group). Arterial blood samples were obtained at times 0, 30, and 180 minutes after return of spontaneous circulation. Surviving rats were euthanatized at 12 or 24 hours after return of spontaneous circulation, and the hearts were removed for histochemical analysis, electron microscopy, Western blotting, and TUNEL experiment. RESULTS: Relative to the E group, the EE group had reduced N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptors expression and reduced arterial lactate levels (P < 0.05), suggesting that epinephrine/esmolol can attenuate postresuscitation antioxidation and apoptosis. This protective effect also correlated with a reduction of excessive autophagy and mitophagy in the cardiomyocytes, as evidenced by a reduction in Beclin-1 and Parkin expression (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Esmolol significantly alleviates postresuscitational autophagy, including mitophagy, and cardiomyocyte apoptosis in a rat CA model.


Assuntos
Agonistas Adrenérgicos/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/farmacologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Epinefrina/farmacologia , Parada Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Mitofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Propanolaminas/farmacologia , Agonistas Adrenérgicos/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/administração & dosagem , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Citoproteção , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Quimioterapia Combinada , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Epinefrina/administração & dosagem , Parada Cardíaca/sangue , Parada Cardíaca/patologia , Injeções Intravenosas , Masculino , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/ultraestrutura , Propanolaminas/administração & dosagem , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
4.
World J Emerg Med ; 5(4): 298-305, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25548605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac arrest (CA) is a common and serious event in emergency medicine. Despite recent improvements in resuscitation techniques, the survival rate of patients with CA is unchanged. The present study was undertaken to observe the effect of mild hypothermia (MH) on the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the effect of neurological function and related mechanisms. METHODS: Sixty-five healthy male Sprague Dawley (SD) adult rats were randomly (random number) divided into 2 groups: blank control group (n=5) and CPR group (n=60). CA was induced by asphyxia. The surviving rats were randomly (random number) divided into two groups: normothermia CPR group (NT) and hypothermia CPR group (HT). Normothermia of 37 °C was maintained in the NT group after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), hypothermal intervention of 32 °C was carried out in the HT group for 4 hours immediately after ROSC. Both the NT and HT groups were then randomly divided into 2 subgroups 12 hours and 24 hours after ROSC (NT-12, NT-24, HT-12, HT-24 subgroups). During observation, the neurological deficit scores (NDSs) was recorded, then the bilateral hippocampi were obtained from rats' head, and monoplast suspension of fresh hippocampus tissue was made immediately to determine the level of intracellular ROS by flow cytometry. Transmission electron microscope was used to observe the ultramicro changes of cellular nucleus and mitochondria. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to determine the expression of caspase-3 mRNA, and western-blotting (WB) was used to determine the level of LC3 in frozen hippocampus tissue. Measured data were analyzed with paired sample t test and One-Way ANOVA. RESULTS: Of 60 rats with CA, 44 (73%) were successfully resuscitated and 33 (55%) survived until the end of the experiment. The NDSs of rats in the NT and HT groups were more significantly reduced than those in the BC group (F=8.107, P<0.05), whereas the NDSs of rats in the HT-12 and HT-24 subgroups were significantly increased in comparison with those NDSs of rats in the NT-12 and NT-24 subgroups, respectively (t=9.692, P<0.001; t=14.374, P<0.001). The ROS in hippocampus nerve cells in the NT and HT groups significantly increased compared to the BC group (F=16.824, P<0.05), whereas the ROS in the HT-12 and HT-24 subgroups significantly reduced compared with that ROS in the NT-12 and NT-24 subgroups, respectively (t=9.836, P<0.001; t=7.499, P<0.001). The expression of caspase-3 mRNA in hippocampus nerve cells in the NT and HT groups were significantly increased compared to the BC group (F=24.527, P<0.05), whereas the expression of caspase-3 mRNA in rats of the HT-12 and HT-24 subgroups was significantly reduced compared to the NT-12 and NT-24 subgroups, respectively (t=6.935, P<0.001; t=4.317, P<0.001). The expression of LC3B-II/I in hippocampus nerve cells of rats in the NT and HT groups significantly increased compared to the BC group (F=6.584, P<0.05), whereas the expression of LC3B-II/I in rats of the HT-12 and HT-24 subgroups significantly reduced compared to the NT-12 and NT-24 subgroups, respectively (t=10.836, P<0.001; t=2.653, P=0.02). Ultrastructure damage of nucleus and mitochondria in the NT group was more evident than in the BC group, and eumorphism of nucleus and mitochondria were maintained in rats of the HT group compared with the NT group. CONCLUSION: Mild hypothermia lessened the injury of nerve cells and improved the neurological function of rats that survived from cardiac arrest by reducing the ROS production of nerve cells and inhibiting the expression of caspase-3 mRNA and LC3, leading to cellular apoptosis and massive autophagy in rats that survived from cardiac arrest after CPR.

5.
Neurol Sci ; 35(11): 1691-9, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24816750

RESUMO

Mild hypothermia is an effective therapeutic strategy to improve poor neurological outcomes in patients following cardiac arrest (CA). However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of mild hypothermia on intracellular autophagy and mitophagy in hippocampal neurons in a rat model of CA. CA was induced in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats by asphyxia for 5 min. After successful resuscitation, the surviving rats were randomly divided into two groups, the normothermia (NT) group and the hypothermia (HT) group. Mild hypothermia (32 °C) was induced following CA for 4 h, and animals were rewarmed at a rate of 0.5 °C/h. Neurologic deficit scores (NDS) were used to determine the status of neurological function. Cytoplasmic and mitochondrial protein from the hippocampus was extracted, and the expression of LC3B-II/I and Parkin were measured as markers of intracellular autophagy and mitophagy, respectively. Of the 60 rats that underwent CA, 44 were successfully resuscitated (73 %), and 33 survived until the end of the experiment (55 %). Mild hypothermia maintained eumorphism of nuclear and mitochondrial structures and significantly improved NDS (p < 0.05). Expression of LC3B-II/I and Parkin in hippocampal nerve cells were significantly increased (p < 0.05) in the NT group relative to the control. Meanwhile, mild hypothermia reduced the level of LC3B-II/I and Parkin (p < 0.05) relative to the NT group. Mild hypothermia protected mitochondria and improved neurological function following CA and resuscitation after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, likely by reducing excessive autophagy and mitophagy in neurons.


Assuntos
Autofagia/fisiologia , Parada Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hipocampo/patologia , Hipotermia Induzida , Mitofagia/fisiologia , Animais , Asfixia/complicações , Western Blotting , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/biossíntese , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/biossíntese
6.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 16(1): 9-14, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22358349

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of serum HA and LN as serum markers for predicting significant fibrosis in CHB patients. METHODS: Serum HA and LN levels of 87 patients with chronic hepatitis B and 19 blood donors were assayed by RIA. Liver fibrosis stages were determined according to the Metavir scoring-system. The diagnostic performances of all indexes were evaluated by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. RESULTS: Serum HA and LN concentrations increased significantly with the stage of hepatic fibrosis, which showed positive correlation with the stages of liver fibrosis (HA: r = 0.875, p < 0.001; LN: r = 0.610, p < 0.001). There were significant differences of serum HA and LN levels between F2-4 group in comparison with those in F0-F1 group (p < 0.001) and controls (p < 0.001), respectively. From ROC curves, 185.3 ng/mL as the optimal cut-off value of serum HA for diagnosis of significant fibrosis, giving its sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, LR+, LR- and AC of 84.2%, 83.3%, 90.6%, 73.5%, 5.04, 0.19 and 83.9, respectively. While 132.7 ng/mL was the optimal cut-off value of serum LN, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, LR+, LR- and AC were 71.9%, 80.0%, 87.2%, 60.0%, 3.59%, 0.35% and 74.7, respectively. Combinations of HA and LN by serial tests showed a perfect specificity and PPV of 100%, at the same time sensitivity declined to 63.2% and LR+ increased to 18.9, while parallel tests revealed a good sensitivity of 94.7%, NPV to 86.4%, and LR- declined to 0.08. CONCLUSIONS: Serum HA and LN concentrations showed positive correlation with the stages of liver fibrosis. Detection of serum HA and LN in predicting significant fibrosis showed good diagnostic performance, which would be further optimized by combination of the two indices. HA and LN would be clinically useful serum markers for predicting significant fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B, when liver biopsy is contraindicated.


Assuntos
Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Ácido Hialurônico/sangue , Laminina/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Feminino , Hepatite B Crônica/sangue , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
7.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 16(1): 9-14, Jan.-Feb. 2012. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-614543

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of serum HA and LN as serum markers for predicting significant fibrosis in CHB patients. METHODS: Serum HA and LN levels of 87 patients with chronic hepatitis B and 19 blood donors were assayed by RIA. Liver fibrosis stages were determined according to the Metavir scoring-system. The diagnostic performances of all indexes were evaluated by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. RESULTS: Serum HA and LN concentrations increased significantly with the stage of hepatic fibrosis, which showed positive correlation with the stages of liver fibrosis (HA: r = 0.875, p < 0.001; LN: r = 0.610, p < 0.001). There were significant differences of serum HA and LN levels between F2-4 group in comparison with those in F0-F1 group (p < 0.001) and controls (p < 0.001), respectively. From ROC curves, 185.3 ng/mL as the optimal cut-off value of serum HA for diagnosis of significant fibrosis, giving its sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, LR+, LR- and AC of 84.2 percent, 83.3 percent, 90.6 percent, 73.5 percent, 5.04, 0.19 and 83.9, respectively. While 132.7 ng/mL was the optimal cut-off value of serum LN, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, LR+, LR- and AC were 71.9 percent, 80.0 percent, 87.2 percent, 60.0 percent, 3.59 percent, 0.35 percent and 74.7, respectively. Combinations of HA and LN by serial tests showed a perfect specificity and PPV of 100 percent, at the same time sensitivity declined to 63.2 percent and LR+ increased to 18.9, while parallel tests revealed a good sensitivity of 94.7 percent, NPV to 86.4 percent, and LR- declined to 0.08. CONCLUSIONS: Serum HA and LN concentrations showed positive correlation with the stages of liver fibrosis. Detection of serum HA and LN in predicting significant fibrosis showed good diagnostic performance, which would be further optimized by combination of the two indices. HA and LN would be clinically useful serum markers for predicting significant fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B, when liver biopsy is contraindicated.


Assuntos
Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Ácido Hialurônico/sangue , Laminina/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Hepatite B Crônica/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
8.
J Mol Histol ; 43(2): 187-93, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22146853

RESUMO

MLTK (mixed-lineage kinase-like mitogen-activated protein triple kinase) is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family and functioned as a mitogen activated kinase kinase kinase. MLTKα, one of the alternatively spliced forms of MLTK, could activate the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway, which involved in cellular stress responses and apoptosis. But the role of MLTKα in neural apoptosis was still unclear. Here, we performed a transient global cerebral ischemia model (TGCI) in adult rats and detected the dynamic changes of MLTKα in hippocampal CA1 neurons and brain cortex. We found the MLTKα expression was increased shortly after TGCI and peaked after 8 h. In spatial distribution, MLTKα was widely located in neurons rather than astrocytes and microglia. Moreover, there was a concomitant up-regulation of active caspase-3. Taken together, we hypothesized the up-regulation of MLTKα played an essential role in the apoptosis of hippocampal CA1 neurons.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/metabolismo , Região CA1 Hipocampal/metabolismo , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/genética , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/genética , Microglia/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Astrócitos/patologia , Região CA1 Hipocampal/patologia , Caspase 3/genética , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/enzimologia , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/patologia , Isoenzimas/genética , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/metabolismo , Masculino , Microglia/patologia , Neurônios/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais , Regulação para Cima
9.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 25(10): 875-8, 2009 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19811730

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the CdTe quantum dots coated with MPA and explore its biocompatibility with living cells. METHODS: CdTe quantum dots coated with MPA were prepared in aqueous phase and MPA CdTe QDs were Characterized with TEM, fluorospectrophotometer and ultraviolet spectrophotometer. QDs were Modified with with avidin, purified and prepared as fluorescent probe. LSCM was used to observe the expression of MHCII antigen on PMphi cells, which was labeled by QDs. Cell culture and MTT assays were used to determine the biocompatibility of MPA coated CdTe quantum dots with the B-16 cells as target cells. RESULTS: The particle diameter of CdTe quantum dots prepared in aqueous phase was well distributed. They had good photological performance and greater stability after coated with MPA. MHCII antigen on PMphi was labeled with the QDs-Avidin fluorescent probe showed great fluorescence intensity, which was easy to be detected by fluorescence microscope and LSCM. MPA CdTe QDs showed cytotoxicity when its density was very high, but they showed little cytotoxicity during the normal use of influence label density limit. CONCLUSION: MPA CdTe QDs can be used as new fluorescent label as they are of even size, not easy to bleach or quench, have good photological performance and stability and good biocompatibility.


Assuntos
Ácido 3-Mercaptopropiônico/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/toxicidade , Compostos de Cádmio/química , Fenômenos Ópticos , Pontos Quânticos , Telúrio/química , Absorção , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
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