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1.
Insect Sci ; 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35289982

RESUMO

The halictid genus Lasioglossum, as one of the most species-rich bee groups with persistently contentious subgeneric boundaries, is one of the most challenging bee groups from a systematic standpoint. An enduring question is the relationship of Lasioglossum and Homalictus, whether all halictine bees with weakened distal wing venation comprise one or multiple genera. Here, we analyzed the phylogenetic relationships among the subgroups within Lasioglossum s. l. based on thousands of single-copy orthologs and ultraconserved elements, which were extracted from 23 newly sequenced low-coverage whole genomes alongside a published genome (22 ingroups plus two outgroups). Both marker sets provided consistent results across maximum likelihood and coalescent-based species tree approaches. The phylogenetic and topology test results show that the Lasioglossum and Hemihalictus series are reciprocally monophyletic and Homalictus and Rostrohalictus are valid subgenera of Lasioglossum. Consequently, we lower Homalictus to subgenus status within Lasioglossum again, and we also raise Rostrohalictus to subgenus status from its prior synonymy with subgenus Hemihalictus. Lasioglossum przewalskyi is also transferred to the subgenus Hemihalictus. Ultimately, we re-define Lasioglossum include all halictine bees with weakened distal wing venation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Zookeys ; 1071: 109-126, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34887696

RESUMO

Diglyphus species are ecologically and economically important on agromyzid leafminers. In 2018, a thelytokous species, Diglyphuswani Liu, Zhu & Yefremova, was firstly reported and described. Subsequently, the arrhenotokous D.wani were discovered in Yunnan and Guizhou Provinces of China. We compared the morphological characteristics of thelytokous and arrhenotokous strains. However, the females of two strains had a strongly similar morphology and showed subtle differences in fore- and hind-wings. The difference was that forewing of arrhenotokous female was with denser setae overall, showing that costal cell with 2 ~ 4 rows of setae on dorsal surface and the setae of basal cell with 15 ~ 21 hairs and forewing of thelytokous female was with two rows of setae on dorsal surface and basal cell with 10 ~ 15 hairs generally. The setation beneath the marginal vein of the hind-wing of arrhenotokous female is denser than the same area of thelytokous female. To explore the genetic divergence between thelytokous and arrhenotokous strains of D.wani, the mitochondrial and nuclear gene were applied and sequenced. The polygenic analyses revealed that two strains can be distinguished by COI, ITS1 and ITS2. The mean sequence divergence between the two strains was 0.052, 0.010 and 0.007, respectively. Nevertheless, the 28S gene was unfeasible due to its containing a sharing haplotype between different strains. The two strains of D.wani are dominant parasitoids against agromyzid leafminers and such effective discernible foundation provides future in-depth studies on biological characteristics, along with insight into field application of two strains of D.wani.

3.
Zootaxa ; 4996(1): 133-152, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810542

RESUMO

The carder bee genus Pseudoanthidium Friese, 1898, is revised from China. Eight species are confirmed to occur in China, including three new species: Pseudoanthidium (Pseudoanthidium) yanruae Niu Zhu, sp. nov., P. (P.) kunesense Niu Zhu, sp. nov., P. (P.) chenggongense Niu Zhu, sp. nov. There is also one new generic assignment and synonymy: Anthidium kryzhanovskii Wu, 1962 is a junior synonym of P. (P.) orientale (Bingham, 1897). Pseudoanthidium (P.) campulodonta (Wu, 1990) is synonymized with P. (P.) tenellum (Mocsry, 1880). Here we provide descriptions for the three new species and an illustrated key to the known Chinese Pseudoanthidium.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Abelhas , China
4.
Zootaxa ; 5022(1): 1-72, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810980

RESUMO

We present information about the known species of the genus Colletes Latreille found in Xizang (China), including an integrative approach to taxonomy for many of the species. A new species belonging to the C. clypearis Morawitz group, C. splendidus Ferrari, Niu Zhu sp. nov., is described. Colletes sichuanensis Kuhlmann and C. tuberculatus Morawitz are recorded from Xizang for the first time. The suspected occurrences of both C. bischoffi Noskiewicz and C. packeri Kuhlmann in China are confirmed and their presence in Xizang are also established for the first time. We show that C. fulvicornis Noskiewicz was wrongly recorded from Xizang previously and, therefore, the species is herein removed from the list of the Tibetan Colletes. Thus, 26 species of the genus are now known from Xizang. The putative occurrence of C. annejohnae Kuhlmann in Xizang could not be confirmed, but the species is nonetheless included in the scope of this paper to facilitate its identification by future studies. An illustrated key for the Tibetan species of Colletes is provided.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Abelhas , Celofane , China , Tibet
5.
Mitochondrial DNA B Resour ; 6(7): 2044-2045, 2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212091

RESUMO

The complete mitochondrial genome of the Cerceris quinquefasciata (Rossi, 1792) (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) was obtained via next-generation sequencing. This mitochondrial genome is 16,188 bp in length with 37 classical eukaryotic mitochondrial genes and two A + T-rich region. All the 13 PCGs begin with typical ATN codons. Among them, eleven PCG genes terminate with TAA, two with T-. All of the 22 tRNA genes, ranging from 58 to 72 bp with typical cloverleaf structure except for trnS1, whose dihydrouridine (DHU) arm forms a simple loop. Phylogenetic analysis highly supported Crabronidae is the sister group of anthophila bees.

6.
Mitochondrial DNA B Resour ; 6(7): 1959-1960, 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34179480

RESUMO

The complete mitochondrial genome of the Cerceris bucculata (A. Costa, 1860) (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) was obtained via next-generation sequencing. This mitochondrial genome is 16178 bp in length with 37 classical eukaryotic mitochondrial genes and an A + T-rich region. All the 13 PCGs begin with typical ATN codons. Among them, eleven PCG genes terminate with TAA, two with T--. All of the 22 tRNA genes, ranging from 58 to 72 bp with typical cloverleaf structure except for trnS1, whose dihydrouridine (DHU) arm forms a simple loop. Phylogenetic analysis highly supported Crabronidae shown as sister group of anthophila bees.

7.
Ecol Evol ; 11(11): 6153-6166, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34141209

RESUMO

Herbivorous insects acquire microorganisms from host plants or soil, but it remains unclear how the diversity and functional composition of host plants contribute to structuring herbivore microbiomes. Within a controlled tree diversity setting, we used DNA metabarcoding of 16S rRNA to assess the contribution of Lepidoptera species and their local environment (particularly, tree diversity, host tree species, and leaf traits) to the composition of associated bacterial communities. In total, we obtained 7,909 bacterial OTUs from 634 caterpillar individuals comprising 146 species. Tree diversity was found to drive the diversity of caterpillar-associated bacteria both directly and indirectly via effects on caterpillar communities, and tree diversity was a stronger predictor of bacterial diversity than diversity of caterpillars. Leaf toughness and dry matter content were important traits of the host plant determining bacterial species composition, while leaf calcium and potassium concentration influenced bacterial richness. Our study reveals previously unknown linkages between trees and their characteristics, herbivore insects, and their associated microbes, which contributes to developing a more nuanced understanding of functional dependencies between herbivores and their environment, and has implications for the consequences of plant diversity loss for trophic interactions.

8.
Oecologia ; 196(1): 289-301, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33895883

RESUMO

Plant diversity affects multi-trophic communities, but in young regrowth forests, where forest insects are in the process of re-establishment, other biotic and also abiotic factors might be more important. We studied cavity-nesting bees, wasps and their natural enemies along an experimental tree diversity gradient in subtropical South-East China. We compared insect communities of experimental young forests with communities of established natural forests nearby the experiment and tested for direct and indirect effects of tree diversity, tree basal area (a proxy of tree biomass), canopy cover and microclimate on bee and wasp community composition, abundance and species richness. Finally, we tested if the trophic levels of bees, herbivore-hunting wasps, spider-hunting wasps and their natural enemies respond similarly. Forest bee and wasp community composition re-established towards communities of the natural forest with increasing tree biomass and canopy cover. These factors directly and indirectly, via microclimatic conditions, increased the abundance of bees, wasps and their natural enemies. While bee and wasp species richness increased with abundance and both were not related to tree diversity, abundance increased directly with canopy cover, mediated by tree biomass. Abundance of natural enemies increased with host (bee and wasp) abundance irrespective of their trophic position. In conclusion, although maximizing tree diversity is an important goal of reforestation and forest conservation, rapid closure of canopies is also important for re-establishing communities of forest bees, wasps and their natural enemies.


Assuntos
Florestas , Microclima , Animais , Abelhas , Biodiversidade , China , Ecossistema , Árvores
9.
Insects ; 12(4)2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810458

RESUMO

The cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is an emerging invasive insect pest in China. Hymenopteran parasitoids are the key organisms for suppressing populations of P. solenopsis in the field, and therefore could be used as biological agents. Accurate identification of the associated parasitoids is the critical step to assess their potential role in biological control. In this study, we facilitated the identification of the parasitoid composition of P. solenopsis using an integrated approach of species delimitation, combining morphology with molecular data. Eighteen Hymenoptera parasitoid species belonging to 11 genera of four families are recognized based on morphological examination and molecular species delimitation of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) gene and the 28S rDNA using the automatic barcode gap discovery (ABGD) and the Bayesian Poisson tree processes model (bPTP). Among these species, eight species are primary parasitoids with Aenasius arizonensis (Girault) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) being the dominant taxon, while the other 10 species are probably hyperparasitoids, with a prevalence of Cheiloneurus nankingensis Li & Xu (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). These results indicate that parasitoid wasps associated with P. solenopsis from China are diverse and the integrated taxonomic approach applied in this study could enhance the accurate identification of these parasitoids that should be assessed in future biological control programs.

10.
Mitochondrial DNA B Resour ; 6(2): 550-552, 2021 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33628924

RESUMO

The complete mitochondrial genome of the Metaphycus eriococci (Timberlake, 1916) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) was obtained via next-generation sequencing. This mitochondrial genome is 15,749 bp in length with 37 classical eukaryotic mitochondrial genes and an A + T-rich region. All the 13 PCGs begin with typical ATN codons. Among them, 12 PCG genes terminate with TAA, only one with TAG. All of the 22 tRNA genes, ranging from 58 to 72 bp with typical cloverleaf structure except for trnS1 and trnE, whose dihydrouridine arm forms a simple loop. A dramatic gene rearrangement with a large inversion of six protein-coding genes (nad3-cox3-atp6-atp8-cox2-cox1) also found in M. eriococci. Phylogenetic analysis highly supported the monophyly of Pteromalidae, Eupelmidae, and Encyrtidae are sister groups. Within Encyrtidae, Metaphycus eriococci and Aenasius arizonensis are close to each other.

12.
Curr Biol ; 31(3): 451-458.e4, 2021 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33217320

RESUMO

Insects are the focus of many recent studies suggesting population declines, but even invaluable pollination service providers such as bees lack a modern distributional synthesis. Here, we combine a uniquely comprehensive checklist of bee species distributions and >5,800,000 public bee occurrence records to describe global patterns of bee biodiversity. Publicly accessible records are sparse, especially from developing countries, and are frequently inaccurate throughout much of the world, consequently suggesting different biodiversity patterns from checklist data. Global analyses reveal hotspots of species richness, together generating a rare bimodal latitudinal richness gradient, and further analyses suggest that xeric areas, solar radiation, and non-forest plant productivity are among the most important global drivers of bee biodiversity. Together, our results provide a new baseline and best practices for studies on bees and other understudied invertebrates.


Assuntos
Abelhas , Biodiversidade , Polinização , Agricultura , Animais , Ecossistema , Plantas , Dinâmica Populacional
13.
Zootaxa ; 4867(1): zootaxa.4867.1.1, 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311201

RESUMO

The Chinese bees of the genus Anthidium Fabricius, 1804, are reviewed. Twenty-one species are confirmed to occur in China, five of which are described and illustrated as new Chinese endemics: Anthidium (Anthidium) pseudomontanum Niu Zhu, sp. nov., A. (A.) pseudophilorum Niu Zhu, sp. nov., A. (A.) tasitiense Niu Zhu, sp. nov., A. (A.) xuezhongi Niu Zhu, sp. nov., and A. (Proanthidium) qingtaoi Niu Zhu, sp. nov.. The previously unknown female of A. (A.) kashmirense Mavromoustakis, 1937 and male of A. (P.) kashgarense (Cockerell, 1911) are described for the first time. Anthidium (A.) furcatum Wu, 2004 (junior primary homonym, nec Anthidium furcatum Ducke, 1908) is replaced with its valid and available synonym A. (A.) striatum Wu, 2004. New synonymies are also established for A. (A.) kashmirense Mavromoustakis, 1937 = A. (A.) nigroventrale Wu, 1982, syn. nov., and A. (A.) florentinum (Fabricius, 1775) = A. (A.) helianthinum Wu, 2004, syn. nov. The non-Chinese Anthidium amabile Alfken, 1933 (junior primary homonym, nec Anthidium porterae var. amabile Cockerell, 1904) is unavailable and the available name Anthidium (Proanthidium) minimum Pasteels, 1969, is valid for this species. Updated synonymies and distributional data are provided for some widespread Palaearctic species including two now adventive in the New World. For Chinese species, the distribution and floral associations of each are provided along with illustrations and a key to the known species.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Abelhas , China , Feminino , Masculino
14.
Zootaxa ; 4768(1): zootaxa.4768.1.5, 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056536

RESUMO

Five Chinese species of Nomia (Gnathonomia) Pauly, 2005 are treated in this paper: Nomia fusciventris Zhang Niu, sp. nov. from Fujian Province is described as a new species; N. aurata Bingham, 1897 and N. wahisi Pauly, 2009 are recorded from China for the first time, and the male of N. pieli Cockerell, 1931 is newly reported. An updated diagnosis is provided for the subgenus Nomia (Gnathonomia) to accommodate Chinese endemic species which lack the white integumental bands found in most previously described forms. A key to the known Chinese species is provided.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Abelhas , Tegumento Comum , Masculino
15.
Zookeys ; 953: 49-60, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32821195

RESUMO

Oomyzus spiraculus Song, Fei & Cao sp. nov. (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae) is described and illustrated as a gregarious larval-pupal endoparasitoid of Coccinella septempunctata L. (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae). Differentiation between O. spiraculus and its similar species is discussed and a key to differentiate the female and male of these species is provided. DNA barcodes of O. spiraculus and O. scaposus are analyzed and compared.

16.
Mol Ecol ; 29(14): 2747-2762, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564434

RESUMO

Declining plant diversity alters ecological networks, such as plant-herbivore interactions. However, our knowledge of the potential mechanisms underlying effects of plant species loss on plant-herbivore network structure is still limited. We used DNA barcoding to identify herbivore-host plant associations along declining levels of tree diversity in a large-scale, subtropical biodiversity experiment. We tested for effects of tree species richness, host functional and phylogenetic diversity, and host functional (leaf trait) and phylogenetic composition on species, phylogenetic and network composition of herbivore communities. We found that phylogenetic host composition and related palatability/defence traits but not tree species richness significantly affected herbivore communities and interaction network complexity at both the species and community levels. Our study indicates that evolutionary dependencies and functional traits of host plants determine the composition of higher trophic levels and corresponding interaction networks in species-rich ecosystems. Our findings highlight that characteristics of the species lost have effects on ecosystem structure and functioning across trophic levels that cannot be predicted from mere reductions in species richness.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Herbivoria , Filogenia , Plantas/classificação , Biodiversidade , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Plantas/genética , Árvores/classificação , Árvores/genética
17.
Genome Biol Evol ; 12(6): 860-866, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386319

RESUMO

Despite intense interest in bees, no genomes are available for the bee family Colletidae. Colletes gigas, one of the largest species of the genus Colletes in the world, is an ideal candidate to fill this gap. Endemic to China, C. gigas has been the focus of studies on its nesting biology and pollination of the economically important oil tree Camellia oleifera, which is chemically defended. To enable deeper study of its biology, we sequenced the whole genome of C. gigas using single-molecule real-time sequencing on the Pacific Bioscience Sequel platform. In total, 40.58 G (150×) of long reads were generated and the final assembly of 326 scaffolds was 273.06 Mb with a N50 length of 8.11 Mb, which captured 94.4% complete Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologs. We predicted 11,016 protein-coding genes, of which 98.50% and 84.75% were supported by protein- and transcriptome-based evidence, respectively. In addition, we identified 26.27% of repeats and 870 noncoding RNAs. The bee phylogeny with this newly sequenced colletid genome is consistent with available results, supporting Colletidae as sister to Halictidae when Stenotritidae is not included. Gene family evolution analyses identified 9,069 gene families, of which 70 experienced significant expansions (33 families) or contractions (37 families), and it appears that olfactory receptors and carboxylesterase may be involved in specializing on and detoxifying Ca. oleifera pollen. Our high-quality draft genome for C. gigas lays the foundation for insights on the biology and behavior of this species, including its evolutionary history, nesting biology, and interactions with the plant Ca. oleifera.


Assuntos
Abelhas/genética , Evolução Biológica , Genoma de Inseto , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Família Multigênica
18.
Syst Biol ; 69(2): 325-344, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132125

RESUMO

Bayesian molecular dating is widely used to study evolutionary timescales. This procedure usually involves phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequence data, with fossil-based calibrations applied as age constraints on internal nodes of the tree. An alternative approach is tip-dating, which explicitly includes fossil data in the analysis. This can be done, for example, through the joint analysis of molecular data from present-day taxa and morphological data from both extant and fossil taxa. In the context of tip-dating, an important development has been the fossilized birth-death process, which allows non-contemporaneous tips and sampled ancestors while providing a model of lineage diversification for the prior on the tree topology and internal node times. However, tip-dating with fossils faces a number of considerable challenges, especially, those associated with fossil sampling and evolutionary models for morphological characters. We conducted a simulation study to evaluate the performance of tip-dating using the fossilized birth-death model. We simulated fossil occurrences and the evolution of nucleotide sequences and morphological characters under a wide range of conditions. Our analyses of these data show that the number and the maximum age of fossil occurrences have a greater influence than the degree of among-lineage rate variation or the number of morphological characters on estimates of node times and the tree topology. Tip-dating with the fossilized birth-death model generally performs well in recovering the relationships among extant taxa but has difficulties in correctly placing fossil taxa in the tree and identifying the number of sampled ancestors. The method yields accurate estimates of the ages of the root and crown group, although the precision of these estimates varies with the probability of fossil occurrence. The exclusion of morphological characters results in a slight overestimation of node times, whereas the exclusion of nucleotide sequences has a negative impact on inference of the tree topology. Our results provide an overview of the performance of tip-dating using the fossilized birth-death model, which will inform further development of the method and its application to key questions in evolutionary biology.


Assuntos
Classificação/métodos , Simulação por Computador , Fósseis , Modelos Biológicos , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tempo
19.
Zootaxa ; 4657(1): zootaxa.4657.1.3, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716797

RESUMO

This revision of the bee genus Bathanthidium Mavromoustakis, 1953, treats 12 species, with 11 recorded from China, including Bathanthidium fengkaiense Niu Zhu, sp. nov.. Two species are proposed as new combinations in genus Bathanthidium: Anthidium (s. str.) bicolor Wu, 2004, A. (s. str.) monganshanensis Wu, 2004. The two new combinations (B. bicolor, B. monganshanense) are in Bathanthidium (Manthidium), previously considered to include only the type species from Burma and Laos (published records from northeastern India and Malaysia are based on misinterpreted localities). Trachusa (Paraanthidium) concavum (Wu, 1962) and Stelis siamensis Friese, 1925 are synonymized with B. binghami (Friese, 1901). Bathanthidium circinatum Wu, 2004 is transferred to Pseudoanthidium Friese forming the new combination P. (s. str.) circinatum (Wu, 2004). The distribution of each species is given, new distribution sites are marked by asterisk (*) especially. Our results confirm that the genus Bathanthidium has higher species diversity than previously documented and that this diversity is centered in China.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Abelhas , China , Índia , Laos , Malásia , Mianmar
20.
Zootaxa ; 4646(2): zootaxa.4646.2.3, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717014

RESUMO

The Chinese bees of the genus Trachusa Panzer, 1804 are reviewed. Nine species are confirmed to occur in China. Three new species are described and illustrated: Trachusa (Paraanthidium) pingdaensis Niu, sp. nov., T. (P.) staabi Niu, sp. nov. and T. (P.) wuae Niu, sp. nov. The distribution of each species is given. An illustrated key to the Chinese species is provided.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Abelhas , China
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