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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 613, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001690

RESUMO

Osmoregulation is important for plant growth, development and response to environmental changes. SNF1-related protein kinase 2s (SnRK2s) are quickly activated by osmotic stress and are central components in osmotic stress and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathways; however, the upstream components required for SnRK2 activation and early osmotic stress signaling are still unknown. Here, we report a critical role for B2, B3 and B4 subfamilies of Raf-like kinases (RAFs) in early osmotic stress as well as ABA signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. B2, B3 and B4 RAFs are quickly activated by osmotic stress and are required for phosphorylation and activation of SnRK2s. Analyses of high-order mutants of RAFs reveal critical roles of the RAFs in osmotic stress tolerance and ABA responses as well as in growth and development. Our findings uncover a kinase cascade mediating osmoregulation in higher plants.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017340

RESUMO

The first electrochemical approach for the nickel-catalyzed cross-electrophile coupling was developed. This method provides a novel route to afford 1,1-diarylalkane derivatives from simple and readily available alkyl and aryl halides in good yields and excellent regioselectivities under mild conditions. The procedure shows good tolerance for a broad variety of functional groups and both primary and secondary alkyl halides can be used. Furthermore, the reaction was successfully scaled up to the multigram scale proving the potential for the industrial application. Mechanistic investigations suggested the formation of a nickel hydride in the electroreductive chain walking arylation which led to the additional development of a new nickel catalyzed hydroarylation of styrenes providing a series of 1,1-diaryl alkanes in good yields under mild reaction conditions.

3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 672, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015335

RESUMO

The C-C σ-bond activation of unstrained cycloketones represents an ingenious and advanced technique in synthetic chemistry, but it remains a challenging area which has been largely underexplored. Herein we report an efficient strategy for the direct C-C cleavage of cyclohexanones and cyclopentanones. The cyclic C-C σ-bond is readily cleaved under mild conditions with the aid of an in situ formed side-chain aryl radical. Density functional theory calculations are carried out to shed light on the unusual regioselectivity of C-C bond cleavage. The reaction affords a variety of structurally diverse 3-coumaranones and indanones that widely exist in natural products and bioactive molecules, illustrating the synthetic value of this method.

4.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(2): 1656-1684, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003759

RESUMO

Immune cell infiltration mediates therapeutic response to immune therapies. The investigation on the genes regulating leukocyte migration may help us to understand the mechanisms regulating immune cell infiltration in tumor microenvironment. Here, we collected the data from Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to analyze the expression of leukocyte migration related genes in glioblastoma (GBM). Lymphocyte specific protein 1 (LSP1) was identified as the only gene in this family which not only has an elevated expression, but also serve as an independent predictive factor for progressive malignancy in glioma. We further confirmed these results in clinical glioma samples by quantitative PCR, immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, and western blot. Moreover, LSP1 expression was closely related to the response to radio- and chemotherapy in GBM, and positively correlated with immunosuppressive cell populations, including M2 macrophages, neutrophil, and regulatory T cell. Additionally, elevated LSP-1 expression enhanced the expression of immunosuppression related genes like programmed cell death 1 (PD1) and leukocyte associated immunoglobulin like receptor 1 (LAIR1) in macrophages. LSP1 also promoted the migration of macrophages. Together, our study suggests a novel role of LSP1 contributing to immunosuppressive microenvironment in GBM and serving as a potential therapeutic target for it.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048420

RESUMO

Free radical-mediated alkylation of general alkenes is a challenging and largely unmet goal. Herein, we disclose a conceptually novel "polarity umpolung" strategy for radical alkylation of alkenes using a portfolio of easily-accessed, dual-function alkylating reagents. This is achieved by substituting inherently nucleophilic alkyl radicals with electrophilic sulfone-decorated surrogates, thus inverting the usual mode of reactivity. Along with alkylation, an extra heteroaryl or oximino group is concurrently incorporated into alkenes via consecutive docking and migration process, leading to valuable products. The reaction displays a broad functional group tolerance under mild conditions. The protocol opens new vistas for the late-stage modification of complex natural products and drug molecules containing alkene moieties.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040739

RESUMO

China's fiscal decentralization has the dual characteristics of revenue decentralization and expenditure decentralization, and their impacts on green total factor productivity are also different. By calculating the Malmquist-Luenburger index and using the Spatial Durbin Model, this study examines the effects of dual decentralization on green total factor productivity (GTFP) from the perspective of fiscal competition. It was found that revenue decentralization significantly hindered the improvement of a local area's GTFP, and that the impact of fiscal revenue competition on a local area's GTFP is also significantly negative. The expenditure decentralization and the fiscal expenditure competition among different areas are conducive to improving the local area's GTFP. Moreover, the impact of revenue decentralization on efficiency improvement is significantly negative, while the expenditure decentralization is conducive to technical progress. All these findings may provide enlightenment for optimizing China's fiscal decentralization and promoting high-quality economic development.

7.
Eur J Med Chem ; 189: 112070, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982651

RESUMO

Management of moderate to severe pain by clinically used opioid analgesics is associated with a plethora of side effects. Despite many efforts have been dedicated to reduce undesirable side effects, moderate progress has been made. In this work, starting from Tramadol, a series of 3-((dimethylamino)methyl)-4-hydroxy-4-(3-methoxyphenyl)piperidine-1-carboxamide derivatives were designed and synthesized, and their in vitro and in vivo activities were evaluated. Our campaign afforded selective µ opioid receptor (MOR) ligand 2a (KiMOR: 7.3 ± 0.5 nM; KiDOR: 849.4 ± 96.6 nM; KiKOR: 49.1 ± 6.9 nM) as potent analgesic with ED50 of 3.1 mg/kg in 55 °C hot plate model. Its antinociception effect was blocked by opioid antagonist naloxone. High binding affinity toward MOR of compound 2a was associated with water bridge, salt bridge, hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interaction with MOR. The high selectivity of compound 2a for MOR over δ opioid receptor (DOR) and κ opioid receptor (KOR) was due to steric hindrance of compound 2a with DOR and KOR. 2a, a compound with novel scaffold, could serve as a lead for the development of novel opioid ligands.

8.
J Chem Inf Model ; 60(1): 235-248, 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913624

RESUMO

5-HT1A receptor (5-HT1AR) agonists have been implicated in the treatment of a variety of central nervous system (CNS) diseases such as depression and anxiety, et al. Based on our previously found compound FW01 (Ki = 51 ± 16 nM) obtained by virtual screening, a series of FW01 derivatives were designed and synthesized by the modification of the amide tail group as well as indole headgroup of FW01. SAR exploration found that amide tail group and indole headgroup play pivotal roles in determining the binding affinity and selectivity on dopamine and serotonin receptor subtypes. Among all tested compounds, 9_24 has a Ki value of 5 ± 0.6 nM with a good selectivity toward 5-HT1AR. The [35S] GTPγS assay showed that 9_24 is a full agonist toward 5-HT1AR with an EC50 value of 0.059 nM, which shows 266.2 and 146.4-fold selectivity to 5-HT2A and D3 respectively. Molecular dynamics simulations and molecular docking studies with 5-HT1AR-9_24 were performed to disclose the mechanism of its high activity and selectivity. Finally, a detailed stepwise 9_24 induced signal transduction mechanism of 5-HT1AR is proposed.

9.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0228423, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immobility is common and associated with adverse outcomes in hospitalized patients, especially older people. However, the factors contributing to mortality in bedridden patients are not well known. This study aimed to estimate short-term mortality and analyze risk factors that affect the prognosis of bedridden patients. METHODS: This was a multicenter study in China involving 23,738 patients admitted to 25 hospitals between November 2015 and June 2016. All-cause mortality was recorded for 90 days after enrollment regardless of whether death occurred before or after discharge. Socio-demographic and clinical information was obtained from an electronic database. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with mortality. RESULTS: In total, 23,738 hospitalized bedridden patients, there were 1,114 (4.7%) observed deaths. The overall mortality rate was therefore 4.7%. Of these, 318 (1.4%) died while hospitalized and 796 (3.4%) after discharge. The univariate Cox regression analysis showed that variables significantly associated with 90-day mortality included total time spent bedridden, urinary tract infection and pulmonary infection (p<0.05). The multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that the independent risk factors for death were age (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.006, 95% CI 1.000-1.011), and pulmonary infection (aHR 1.439, 95% CI 1.266-1.635). The hazard ratios for mortality were reduced with urinary tract infection and more time spent bedridden. CONCLUSIONS: The mortality after discharge was significantly higher than mortality in hospital. The factors affecting short-term mortality in bedridden patients included age, time spent bedridden, urinary tract infection and pulmonary infection. This suggests these factors may be potential predictors of mortality in bedridden patients. It is essential for medical staff to improve health education of patients and family members, pay more attention to follow up after discharge and meet care needs at home.

10.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 62, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The APETALA2/ethylene responsive factor (AP2/ERF) superfamily members are transcription factors that regulate diverse developmental processes and stress responses in plants. They have been identified in many plants. However, little is known about the AP2/ERF superfamily in longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.), which is an important tropical/subtropical evergreen fruit tree that produces a variety of bioactive compounds with rich nutritional and medicinal value. We conducted a genome-wide analysis of the AP2/ERF superfamily and its roles in somatic embryogenesis (SE) and developmental processes in longan. RESULTS: A genome-wide survey of the AP2/ERF superfamily was carried out to discover its evolution and function in longan. We identified 125 longan AP2/ERF genes and classified them into the ERF (101 members), AP2 (19 members), RAV (four members) families, and one Soloist. The AP2 and Soloist genes contained one to ten introns, whereas 87 genes in the ERF and RAV families had no introns. Hormone signaling molecules such as methyl jasmonate (MeJA), abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellin, auxin, and salicylic acid (SA), and stress response cis-acting element low-temperature (55) and defense (49) boxes also were identified. We detected diverse single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between the 'Hong He Zi' (HHZ) and 'SI JI MI' (SJM) cultivars. The number of insertions and deletions (InDels) was far fewer than SNPs. The AP2 family members exhibited more alternative splicing (AS) events in different developmental processes of longan than members of the other families. Expression pattern analysis revealed that some AP2/ERF members regulated early SE and developmental processes in longan seed, root, and flower, and responded to exogenous hormones such as MeJA, SA, and ABA, and 2,4-D, a synthetic auxin. Protein interaction predictions indicated that the Baby Boom (BBM) transcription factor, which was up-regulated at the transcriptional level in early SE, may interact with the LALF/AGL15 network. CONCLUSIONS: The comprehensive analysis of molecular evolution and expression patterns suggested that the AP2/ERF superfamily may plays an important role in longan, especially in early SE, and in seed, root, flower, and young fruit. This systematic analysis provides a foundation for further functional characterization of the AP2/ERF superfamily with the aim of longan improvement.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901214

RESUMO

Alkynes are an important class of organic molecules due to their utility as versatile building blocks in synthesis. Although efforts have been devoted to the difunctionalization of alkynes, general and practical strategies for the direct hydroalkylation and alkylarylation of terminal alkynes under mild reaction conditions are less explored. Herein, we report a photoredox/nickel dual-catalyzed anti-Markovnikov-type hydroalkylation of terminal alkynes as well as a one-pot arylalkylation of alkynes with alkyl carboxylic acids and aryl bromides via a three-component cross-coupling. The results indicate that the transformations proceed via a new mechanism involving a single-electron transfer with subsequent energy-transfer activation pathways. Moreover, steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence-spectroscopy measurements, density functional theory (DFT) calculations, and wavefunction analysis have been performed to give an insight into the catalytic cycle.

12.
Neurol Sci ; 41(1): 57-63, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) is a clinical condition arising from stroke and causes significant changes to memory, thinking, and behavior. Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), the metabolite produced by gut microbiota, has mechanistic relevance to atherosclerotic diseases. This study aimed to investigate whether an association existed between elevated plasma TMAO levels and PSCI. METHODS: Consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke were prospectively enrolled during Jan. 2017 to Dec. 2017. TMAO concentration was measured within 24 h after admission. PSCI was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score after 1 year and defined as MMSE score ≤ 26. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to determine the contribution of TMAO level in the prediction of PSCI. RESULTS: Of the 256 patients studied (age, 67.1 ± 11.0 years; male, 54.3%), 86 (33.6%) patients were diagnosed as PSCI. The mean TMAO level was 5.6 ± 2.4 µM, with quartile level as follows: < 3.9 µM (first quartile), 3.9-5.1 µM (second quartile), 5.2-7.4 µM (third quartile), and > 7.4 µM (fourth quartile). After controlling for potential confounders, multivariable logistic analysis showed that higher level of plasma TMAO was an independent predictor for cognitive impairment in post-stroke patients (the quartile 1 was used as reference, the quartile 4 odds ratio, 3.304; 95% confidence intervals, 1.335-8.178; P = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that increasing plasma level of TMAO may be associated with PSCI.

13.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(1): 457-464, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778289

RESUMO

Chemical transformations based on cascade reactions have the potential to simplify the preparation of diverse and architecturally complex molecules dramatically. Herein, we disclose an unprecedented and efficient method for the cross-coupling of radical precursors, dienes, and electrophilic coupling partners via a photoredox- and nickel-enabled cascade cross-coupling process. The cascade reaction furnishes a diverse array of saturated carbo- and heterocyclic scaffolds, thus providing access to a quick gain in C-C bond saturation.

14.
Mol Med Rep ; 21(1): 69-76, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746399

RESUMO

Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM­MSCs) are important for postnatal angiogenesis and are suitable for use in construction of blood vessels by tissue engineering. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of recombination signal binding protein for immunoglobulin kappa J region (RBP­JK) on the differentiation of BM­MSCs into vascular endothelial cells, and to assess the underlying mechanisms. BM­MSCs were isolated and identified by flow cytometry. Lentiviral vectors encoding RBP­JK shRNA (shRBPJK) were constructed to knockdown RBP­JK expression and endothelial differentiation of BM­MSCs was induced. The experimental groups were treated with: empty lentiviral vector (vector group), growth factors (bFGF and VEGF; induced group), shRBPJK (shRBPJK group), and growth factors + shRBPJK (induced + shRBPJK group). The expression of endothelial markers, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (Flk­1), and von Willebrand factor (vWF) were detected by immunofluorescence. Additionally, in vitro blood vessel formation and phagocytosis were assessed using acetylated LDL, Dil complex and the underlying molecular mechanisms evaluated by western blotting. BM­MSCs were separated and transduced with shRBPJK to reduce RBP­JK expression. Compared with the vector group, the expression of the endothelial cell markers, Flk­1 and vWF, in vitro tubule formation, and phagocytosis ability increased, while the expression levels of p­AKT/AKT and p­NF­κB/NF­κB were significantly decreased (P<0.05) in the induced, shRBPJK, and induced + shRBPJK groups. Compared with the induced group, the expression of Flk­1 and vWF, the number of tubules, and phagocytosis were higher in the induced + shRBPJK group, while the expression levels of p­AKT/AKT and p­NF­κB/NF­κB were lower (P<0.05). Collectively, the present data indicated that silencing of RBP­JK promotes the differentiation of MSCs into vascular endothelial cells, and this process is likely regulated by AKT/NF­κB signaling.

15.
Eur J Med Chem ; 187: 111984, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881455

RESUMO

Targeting the nuclear receptor RORγt is thought to be effective in autoimmune disorders. Tertiary sulfonamide 1 was found to be a potent RORγt inverse agonist previously. However, the high hepatic clearance value limits its druggability. In this study, we designed and synthesized a series of N-sulfonamide-tetrahydroquinolines by molecular modeling and scaffold hopping strategy, aiming at improving the metabolic stabilities. Detailed SAR exploration led to identification of potent RORγt inverse agonists such as 13 with moderate binding affinity and inhibitory activity of Th17 cell differentiation. Binding mode of 13 with RORγt-LBD was revealed by molecular docking. Moreover, 13 showed lower intrinsic clearance in mouse liver microsomes compared with 1 and potent in vivo efficacy and safety in psoriasis models, which can be used as a good starting point for the further optimization.

16.
Pharmacology ; : 1-11, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825931

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Rhynchophylline, as a traditional Chinese medicine, was used for the treatment of drug addiction. OBJECTIVE: To investigate miRNAs expression profile in the rat hearts of methamphetamine dependence and the intervention mechanisms of rhynchophylline. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study detected the expression profile of miRNAs in the methamphetamine-induced rat hearts by microarray and verified the expression of miR-133a-5P and Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase 2 (ROCK2) protein. RESULTS: After conditioned place preference training, methamphetamine significantly increased the time spent in the drug-paired compartment, while rhynchophylline and MK-801 could reduce the time. Cluster analysis results of miRNAs showed that compared with the control group, the expression of miR-133a-5p in methamphetamine-induced rat hearts was decreased significantly; rhynchophylline could significantly increase the expression of miR-133a-5p. The result was verified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results of target gene predictive software and related research showed that ROCK2 protein may be the target gene of miR-133a-5p. The immunohistochemistry results of heart tissues showed that the expression of ROCK2 protein was significantly upregulated in the methamphetamine group and downregulate in the rhynchophylline group; the difference between the MK-801 group and the methamphetamine group was not significant. The result of western blot was consistent with the immunohistochemistry. CONCLUSION: The active ingredient of Chinese herbal medicine rhynchophylline can effectively inhibit the formation of methamphetamine-dependent conditional place preference (CPP) effect in rats to some extent. MiR-133a-5p may participate in the cardioprotective effects of CPP rats by targeting ROCK2.

17.
World J Clin Cases ; 7(22): 3792-3799, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sagliker syndrome (SS) resulting from uncontrolled secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in chronic renal failure (CRF) is seldom reported. CASE SUMMARY: A 24-year-old woman presented with asymmetric facial deformity and stature shortening. She was diagnosed with SS, SHPT, CRF, and thyroid cancer. The patient underwent a total parathyroidectomy and thyroidectomy with central lymph node dissection. The patient's condition was stable and was discharged from the hospital. CONCLUSION: Undergoing dialysis vintage, presenting high serum phosphate levels, and female gender may be risk factors for SS. Intramembranous ossification in the craniomaxillofacial region is possibly activated in this special pathophysiological condition. What's more, the choice of surgery mainly depends on the treatment goal and the experience of the individual surgeon.

18.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 20(1): 591, 2019 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) are essential cellular components in inflammatory joint diseases such as osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Despite the growing use of FLS isolated from OA and RA patients, a detailed functional and parallel comparison of FLS from these two types of arthritis has not been performed. METHODS: In the present study, FLS were isolated from surgically removed synovial tissues from twenty-two patients with OA and RA to evaluate their basic cellular functions. RESULTS: Pure populations of FLS were isolated by a sorting strategy based on stringent marker expression (CD45-CD31-CD146-CD235a-CD90+PDPN+). OA FLS and RA FLS at the same passage (P2-P4) exhibited uniform fibroblast morphology. OA FLS and RA FLS expressed a similar profile of cell surface antigens, including the fibroblast markers VCAM1 and ICAM1. RA FLS showed a more sensitive inflammatory status than OA FLS with regard to proliferation, migration, apoptosis, inflammatory gene expression and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. In addition, the responses of OA FLS and RA FLS to both the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and the anti-inflammatory drug methotrexate (MTX) were also evaluated here. CONCLUSION: The parallel comparison of OA FLS and RA FLS lays a foundation in preparation for when FLS are considered a potential therapeutic anti-inflammatory target for OA and RA.

19.
J Atheroscler Thromb ; 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852858

RESUMO

AIM: We sought to validate the 2010 Caprini risk assessment model (RAM) in risk stratification for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis among Chinese bedridden patients. METHODS: We performed a prospective study in 25 hospitals in China over 9 months. Patients were risk-stratified using the 2010 Caprini RAM. RESULTS: We included a total 24,524 patients. Fresh DVT was found in 221 patients, with overall incidence of DVT 0.9%. We found a correlation of DVT incidence with Caprini score according to risk stratification (χ2 =196.308, P<0.001). Patients in the low-risk and moderate-risk groups had DVT incidence <0.5%. More than half of patients with DVT were in the highest risk group. Compared with the low-risk group, risk was 2.10-fold greater in the moderate-risk group, 3.34-fold greater in the high-risk group, and 16.12-fold greater in the highest-risk group with Caprini scores ≥ 9. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.74 (95% confidence interval, 0.71-0.78; P<0.01) for all patients. A Caprini score of ≥ 5 points was considered the criterion of a reliably increased risk of DVT in surgical patients with standard thromboprophylaxis. Predicting DVT using a cumulative risk score ≥ 4 is recommended for nonsurgical patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggested that the 2010 Caprini RAM can be effectively used to stratify hospitalized Chinese patients into DVT risk categories, based on individual risk factors. Classification of the highest risk levels using a cumulative risk score ≥ 4 and ≥ 5 provides significantly greater clinical information in nonsurgical and surgical patients, respectively.

20.
J Integr Plant Biol ; 2019 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872527

RESUMO

In eukaryotic cells, the expression of protein-coding genes is greatly influenced by the dynamic chromatin environment. Epigenetic mechanisms, including covalent modifications to DNA and histone tails and the accessibility of chromatin, create various chromatin situations for stress-responsive gene expression for adaptation to formidable conditions in nature. Most epigenetic modifications are reversible. For example, DNA and histone methylation can be catalyzed by methyltransferases and can be undone by demethylases. Recent studies have revealed that many epigenetic factors participate in abiotic stress responses, and many specific modifications are inducible and changeable in stressful environments. In this review, we summarize recent progresses on the cross-talk between epigenetic mechanisms and abiotic stress responses in plants. Our review focuses on extreme-temperature stress, drought stress, salt stress, abscisic acid (ABA)-mediated stresses, nutrient stress, ultraviolet (UV) stress and stress memory. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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