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1.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 42(9): 1482-1490, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474709

RESUMO

Zhengganxifeng decoction (ZGXFD) is a traditional Chinese medicinal formula, from "Medical Zhong parameter West recorded" by Xichun Zhang, which has been applied to the treatment of clinical essential hypertension. Besides its effect in blood pressure reduction, ZGXFD is also known to be a radical therapy with little or no side effects. Compared with western medicines, Chinese medicinal formulas have the advantage of simultaneously attacking multiple targets. However, such a property brings trouble to the pharmacological studies of Chinese medicines. This study investigated the composition of gut microbiota in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) treated with ZGXFD. ZGXFD was shown to cause similar effects in the treatment group as benazepril: both were able to reduce in SHR the microbial diversity, Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio and coccus to bacillus (C/B) ratio. Meanwhile, ZGXFD can maintain the integrity of intestinal mechanistic barrier and elevate the percentage of bacteria producing short chain fatty acids (SCFA). By investigating renin-angiotensin system (RAS) system, we found that ZGXFD can decrease the expression of angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) in lungs, which in turn causes a increase in AngI produces angiotensin1-7 (Ang1-7) and decrease in AngII. ZGXFD regulate blood pressure in SHR via RAS.

2.
Bioresour Technol ; 294: 122073, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521982

RESUMO

The mixed soybean processing wastewater (SPW) and clothianidin wastewater treatment and biochemicals with high value production by Rhodopseudomonas spheroides (R. spheroides) were investigated. In comparison with control group, clothianidin was removed and the cleaner production accumulation increased with the supplement of SPW. It was indicated in the molecular analysis that clothianidin could induce the expression of cpm gene to synthesize cytochrome P450 monooxygenase by activating MAPKKKs gene. The induction of cpm gene and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase occurred after one day for R. spheroides. R. capsulate couldn't grow for over one day because there weren't enough organics in original wastewater. The supplement of SPW supplied R. spheroides under three addition dosages with enough carbon sources. This new method could treat the mixed (SPW and clothianidin) wastewater and improve the content of biochemicals at the same time as well as reutilize wastewater and R. spheroides as sludge.


Assuntos
Rhodobacter sphaeroides , Rodopseudomonas , Guanidinas , Neonicotinoides , Tiazóis , Águas Residuárias
3.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 167: 107250, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541622

RESUMO

Protein glycosylation plays important roles in protein structure, function, and immune recognition, among many other activities. One of the major roles of glycans and glycoconjugates on the cell surface is acting as the receptor for outside pathogens such as viruses. During the initial stage of viral replication, viruses interact with cell membrane receptors, which are in many cases glycoproteins. Identifying such glycoproteins is essential to understanding the mechanisms of viral infection, as well as developing antiviral strategies. Silkworm is an important economic insect as well as a model organism for molecular biology, yet current knowledge on its glycoproteome is far from complete due to both analytical challenges and perceived lack of importance. In this study, we performed a large-scale glycoproteomic survey for two silkworm Bombyx mori strains 306 and NB, which are susceptible and resistant to the baculovirus Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), respectively. More than 400 silkworm N- and O- glycoproteins were identified with high confidence, demonstrating that this organism employs extensive glycosylation. We mapped some glycoproteins only to the BmNPV susceptible or resistant strain, underlining the potential relationship between glycosylation and viral susceptibility. We predicted O-glycoproteins and O-glycan compositions for the first time for this organism. The variations in glycan site occupancy, as well as glycan diversity between the two silkworm strains, provide an insight into role of glycosylation in viral recognition and infection processes.

4.
J Environ Manage ; 249: 109226, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442909

RESUMO

In this study, the effects of Rhodopseudomonas capsulata present in wastewater effluent on the biodegradation of carbaryl in soil and improvement of soil fertility were investigated. Compared to control treatment, carbaryl was removed efficiently and soil fertility was remediated with the addition of effluent containing R. capsulata. Molecular analysis revealed that carbaryl induced carbaryl hydrolase gene expression to synthesize carbaryl hydrolase through activating MAPKKKs, MAPKKs, MAPKs genes in MAPK signal transduction pathway. The induction and secretion of carbaryl hydrolase occur after one day in R. capsulata, which can be attributed to its characteristics as an ancient bacteria, which require acclimatization to carbaryl before gene induction. However, lack of organics in soil and control treatment could not maintain R. capsulata growth for over one day. The residual organics in the effluent provided sufficient carbon source and energy for R. capsulata under four effluent treatments. This new method resulted in the remediation of carbaryl pollution and improvement of soil fertility and soybean processing wastewater treatment simultaneously, as well as the reutilization of wastewater and R. capsulata as sludge. Meanwhile, the high-order non-linear mathematical model about carbaryl removal rate was established.


Assuntos
Rhodobacter capsulatus , Águas Residuárias , Biodegradação Ambiental , Carbaril , Solo
5.
J Environ Manage ; 245: 168-172, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152960

RESUMO

The biorestoration of cyhalofop-butyl and fertility in soil using Rhodopseudanonas palustris (R. palustris) in the treated wastewater were investigated in this research. Cyhalofop-butyl was not degraded under control group. The treated wastewater containing R. palustris degraded cyhalofop-butyl and remediated fertility. Interestingly, the cyhalofop-butyl-hydrolyzing carboxylesterase gene was expressed after inoculation 24 h. Subsequently, the cyhalofop-butyl-hydrolyzing carboxylesterase were synthesized to degrade cyhalofop-butyl. The cyhalofop-butyl started to be degraded after inoculation 24 h. The cyhalofop-butyl as stimulus signal induced cyhalofop-butyl-hydrolyzing carboxylesterase gene expression through signal transduction pathway. This process took 24 h for R. palustris as they were ancient bacteria. The residual organics in the wastewater provided sufficient carbon sources and energy for R. palustris under three dosage groups. The new method completed the remediation of cyhalofop-butyl pollution, the improvement of soil fertility and soybean processing wastewater treatment simultaneously, and realized the resource reutilization of wastewater and R. palustris as sludge.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Águas Residuárias , Butanos , Nitrilos , Solo
6.
Chemosphere ; 233: 597-602, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195264

RESUMO

Carbaryl wastewater treatment and the resource recycling of biomass as sludge by Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides (R. sphaeroides) with the assistance of starch processing wastewater (SPW) was investigated in this research. It was observed that carbaryl was not degraded under the 100, 500 mg/L COD groups. The addition of SPW assisted R. sphaeroides to degrade carbaryl efficiently. Carbaryl removal reached 100% after 5 days under the optimal group (3500 mg/L). Interestingly, carbaryl in the mixed wastewater began to be degraded after day 1. Further research indicated that cehA gene was expressed after day 1. Subsequently, carbaryl hydrolase was synthesized under gene regulation. Analysis revealed that cehA and carbaryl hydrolase were adaptive gene expressions and enzymes. Carbaryl as stimulus signal started cehA gene expression through signal transduction pathway. This process took one day for R. sphaeroides. However, organics in 100, 500 mg/L COD groups were deficient, which could not maintain R. sphaeroides growth for over one day. Organics in SPW provided sufficient carbon sources for R. sphaeroides under other groups. The method could complete the mixed (SPW and carbaryl) wastewater treatment, carbaryl removal, the resource recycling of R. sphaeroides biomass as sludge simultaneously.


Assuntos
Carbaril/metabolismo , Rhodobacter sphaeroides/metabolismo , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Esgotos , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Purificação da Água
7.
Ecol Appl ; 29(6): e01920, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058370

RESUMO

The impacts of anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition on forest ecosystems depend in large part on its fate. However, our understanding of the fates of different forms of deposited N as well as the redistribution over time within different ecosystems is limited. In this study, we used the 15 N-tracer method to investigate both the short-term (1 week to 3 months) and long-term (1-3 yr) fates of deposited NH4 + or NO3 - by following the recovery of the 15 N in different ecosystem compartments in a larch plantation forest and a mixed forest located in northeastern China. The results showed similar total ecosystem retention for deposited NH4 + and NO3 - , but their distribution within the ecosystems (plants vs. soil) differed distinctly particularly in the short-term, with higher 15 NO3 - recoveries in plants (while lower recoveries in organic layer) than found for 15 NH4 + . The different short-term fate was likely related to the higher mobility of 15 NO3 - than 15 NH4 + in soils instead of plant uptake preferences for NO3 - over NH4 + . In the long-term, differences between N forms became less prevalent but higher recoveries in trees (particularly in the larch forest) of 15 NO3 - than 15 NH4 + tracer persisted, suggesting that incoming NO3 - may contribute more to plant biomass increment and forest carbon sequestration than incoming NH4 + . Differences between the two forests in recoveries were largely driven by a higher 15 N recovery in the organic layer (both N forms) and in trees (for 15 NO3 - ) in the larch forest compared to the mixed forest. This was due to a more abundant organic layer and possibly higher tree N demand in the larch forest than in the mixed forest. Leachate 15 N loss was minor (<1% of the added 15 N) for both N forms and in both forests. Total 15 N recovery averaged 78% in the short-term and decreased to 55% in the long-term but with increasing amount of 15 N label (re)-redistributed into slow turn-over pools (e.g., trees and mineral soil). The different retention dynamics of deposited NH4 + and NO3 - may have implications in environmental policy related to the anthropogenic emissions of the two N forms.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Florestas , China , Nitrogênio , Solo , Árvores
8.
Open Biol ; 9(1): 180232, 2019 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958118

RESUMO

Glycosylation refers to the covalent attachment of sugar residues to a protein or lipid, and the biological importance of this modification has been widely recognized. While glycosylation in mammals is being extensively investigated, lower level animals such as invertebrates have not been adequately interrogated for their glycosylation. The rich diversity of invertebrate species, the increased database of sequenced invertebrate genomes and the time and cost efficiency of raising and experimenting on these species have enabled a handful of the species to become excellent model organisms, which have been successfully used as tools for probing various biologically interesting problems. Investigation on invertebrate glycosylation, especially on model organisms, not only expands the structural and functional knowledgebase, but also can facilitate deeper understanding on the biological functions of glycosylation in higher organisms. Here, we reviewed the research advances in invertebrate glycosylation, including N- and O-glycosylation, glycosphingolipids and glycosaminoglycans. The aspects of glycan biosynthesis, structures and functions are discussed, with a focus on the model organisms Drosophila and Caenorhabditis. Analytical strategies for the glycans and glycoconjugates are also summarized.

9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 241: 111905, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31022565

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Potentilla discolor Bunge (PDB) is a commonly used herbal for alleviating diabetes mellitus and its complications. Although accumulating evidences show the anti-diabetic efficacy of PDB, the vital anti-diabetic compounds and their functional targets remain elusive. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the anti-diabetic ingredients and their functional mechanisms in PDB, gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry analysis was performed on PDB extract and 21 were testified as anti-diabetic compounds. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subsequently their potential protein targets were also identified. The bioinformatics analysis was implemented by network pharmacology-based approaches. STRING analysis was performed to reveal enrichment of these target proteins, protein-protein interactions, pathways and related diseases. Cytoscape was used to determine the potential protein targets for these components in PDB, indicating that 21 anti-diabetic compounds in PDB regulate 33 diabetes-related proteins in 28 signal pathways and involve 21 kinds of diabetes-related diseases. Among the 21 potential anti-diabetic components predicted by network analysis, tricetin was firstly experimentally validated at the molecular and cellular level. RESULTS: Results indicated that this active small-molecule compound may have beneficial effects on improving glucose uptake. CONCLUSIONS: We envisage that network analysis will be useful in screening bioactive compounds of medicinal plants.

10.
Bioresour Technol ; 282: 390-397, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30884459

RESUMO

Simultaneous (SPW and cyhalofop-butyl) wastewater treatment and the production of biochemicals by Rhodopseudomonas palustris (R. palustris) was investigated with supplementation of soybean processing wastewater (SPW). Compared to control group, cyhalofop-butyl was removed and single cell protein, carotenoid, bacteriochlorophyll productions were enhanced with the supplementation of SPW. Cyhalofop-butyl removal reached 100% after 5 days under 4000 mg/L COD group. Cyhalofop-butyl induced chbH gene expression to synthesize cyhalofop-butyl-hydrolyzing carboxylesterase through activating MAPKKKs, MAPKKs, MAPKs genes in MAPK signal transduction pathway. The induction process took one day for R. palustris. However, lack of organics in original wastewater did not maintain R. palustris growth for over one day. The supplementation of SPW provided sufficient carbon source. This new method resulted in the mixed wastewater treatment and improvement of biochemicals simultaneously, as well as the realization of reutilization of R. palustris. High-order non-linear mathematical model of the relationship between Rchb, Xc, and Xt was established.


Assuntos
Butanos/metabolismo , Nitrilos/metabolismo , Rodopseudomonas/metabolismo , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias/química , Fenômenos Bioquímicos , Modelos Teóricos
11.
Environ Pollut ; 247: 541-549, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30708316

RESUMO

Excess ammonia (NH3) emissions and deposition can have negative effects on air quality and terrestrial ecosystems. Identifying NH3 sources is a critical step for effectively reducing NH3 emissions, which are generally unregulated around the world. Stable nitrogen isotopes (δ15N) of ammonium (NH4+) in precipitation have been directly used to partition NH3 sources. However, nitrogen isotope fractionation during atmospheric processes from NH3 sources to sinks has been previously overlooked. Here we measured δ15NNH4+ in precipitation on a daily basis at a rural forested site in Northeast China over three years to examine its seasonal pattern and attempt to constrain the NH3 sources. We found that the NH4+ concentrations in precipitation ranged from 5 to 1265 µM, and NH4+ accounted for 65% of the inorganic nitrogen deposition (20.0 kg N ha-1 yr-1) over the study period. The δ15N values of NH4+ fluctuated from -24.6 to +16.2‰ (average -6.5‰) and showed a repeatable seasonal pattern with higher values in summer (average -2.3‰) than in winter (average -16.4‰), which could not be explained by only the seasonal changes in the NH3 sources. Our results suggest that in addition to the NH3 sources, isotope equilibrium fractionation contributed to the seasonal pattern of δ15NNH4+ in precipitation, and thus, nitrogen isotope fractionation should be considered when partitioning NH3 sources based on δ15NNH4+ in precipitation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Compostos de Amônio/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Florestas , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Amônia/análise , China , Ecossistema , Nitrogênio/análise , Chuva/química , Estações do Ano
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 172: 388-395, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30731270

RESUMO

The widespread use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has raised public concern due to their potential toxic effects on humans and the environment. Although some studies have evaluated the toxicity of nanomaterials in vertebrates, studies on their hazardous effects on insects are limited. Here we focused on different concentrations of AgNPs to silkworms, a promising model organism, to evaluate their toxic effects by omics analysis. After the silkworms were fed with 100 mg L-1 AgNPs, transcriptomics analysis showed differential expression of 43 genes: 39 upregulated and 4 downregulated. These differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were involved in the digestion process, various metabolic pathways, transmembrane transport and energy synthesis. Proteomic results for silkworms fed with 400 mg L-1 AgNPs revealed 14 significantly differentially expressed proteins: 11 downregulated and 3 upregulated. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results showed that the expression levels of eight proteins were similar to the transcription levels of their corresponding genes. As the AgNPs concentration was increased, the expression of digestive enzymes was downregulated, which damaged the silkworm tissue and suppressed the activity of the enzyme superoxide dismutase and the protein HSP 1, causing oxidative stress and the production of reactive oxygen species, which had toxic effects on the silkworm digestive system. Histopathological results showed that treatment with 400 mg L-1 AgNPs destroyed the basal lamina and the columnar cells, caused adverse effects on tissues and had the potential to induce harmful effects on the digestive system. The data presented herein provide valuable information on the hazards and risks of nanoparticle contamination. Main finding: AgNPs would downregulate some digestive enzymes, damage the tissue of midgut in silkworm, meantime induce the accumulation of reactive oxygen species which may cause oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Bombyx/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Prata/toxicidade , Animais , Bombyx/genética , Bombyx/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Proteômica , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
13.
J Clin Lab Anal ; : e22694, 2018 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30338547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serological tests are indispensable in the diagnosis of early infection. At present, only procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are commonly used in clinical practice. Recently, serum amyloid A1 (SAA1) and heparin binding protein (HBP) have been shown to be new biomarkers, because SAA1 is highly sensitive and specific for viral infections, and HBP is predictive for septic shock. In this study, PCT, CRP, HBP, and SAA1 were detected in different combinations to improve the diagnostic accuracy of early infection using the biotin-avidin amplifying system-based time-resolved fluorescent immunoassay (BA-TRFIA). METHODS: A time-resolved fluorescent immunoassay for PCT, CRP, HBP, and SAA1 was developed and then tested in a clinical setting. All experiments were carried out using the DR6608 time-resolved fluorescent immunoassay analyzer. RESULTS: The cutoff values of PCT, CRP, HBP, and SAA1 were 0.05 µg/L, 5.59 mg/L, 3.83 µg/L, and 1.56 mg/L, respectively. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) showed that PCT Ëƒ SAA1 Ëƒ CRP Ëƒ HBP > 0.8. A methodological comparison of the results showed that a combination of the four biomarkers had the highest accuracy for the diagnosis of infectious diseases. CONCLUSION: The time-resolved fluorescent immunoassay-based combined detection of PCT, CRP, HBP, and SAA1 was shown to significantly improve the diagnostic accuracy of early infection. Thus, our results indicate that combined detection based on BA-TRFIA may represent a promising strategy in the clinical diagnosis of infection.

14.
Life Sci ; 212: 194-202, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30243649

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most common diseases of endocrine and metabolic disorders, whose mechanism is still largely unknown. Fortunately, various "omics" tools have been employed to better understand the progression pathologies of T2DM and its complications. More specifically, proteomics, metabolomics and metagenomics have played crucial roles in advancing deeper understanding of the physiological processes and regulatory mechanisms of T2DM, such as regulation of signaling pathways perturbed by glucose levels, intestinal microorganism, and inflammation and so on. By analyzing the dynamic change and modification of proteins, proteomics has become an important tool in biology and medicine. Metabolomic analysis can amplify and quantify metabolites in living organisms to reveal the relative relationship between metabolites and physiological and pathological changes. There are also increasing evidences that the human microbiome, specifically the gastrointestinal microbiome have a potential role in the etiology and pathological outcomes of T2DM and its complications. This article summarized and discussed the recent applications of these "omics" tools in finding biomarkers for T2DM and its complications. We also reviewed employing multiple "omics" to further advance our understanding of this pathology. This review will benefit deeper understanding in new therapeutic and/or diagnostic biological target for the discovery of T2DM and its complications.

15.
Bioresour Technol ; 270: 476-481, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30245317

RESUMO

In this paper, the filamentous microalgae Tribonema sp. grown in the open photobioreactors (PBRs) was directly integrated with the traditional Anaerobic/Oxic (A/O) process for the advanced treatment of low concentration petrochemical wastewater. The COD removal rate was only 71.7% after direct treatment of wastewater effluent from the primary clarifier in the open PBRs, while in-depth purification could be achieved in the secondary clarifier with COD removal rates reached to 97.8% in the open PBRs. The NH3-N and P of the two effluents were almost completely removed after 5-7 days in the open PBRs. The biomass concentration, productivity and the oil content in the open PBRs with the secondary clarifier effluent were all higher than those in the primary clarifier group. The filamentous microalgae Tribonema sp. as a post-treatment step for the A/O process can achieve deep removal of the pollutants and accumulate higher biomass concentration and oil content.

16.
Proteomics Clin Appl ; : e1800043, 2018 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30035378

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. So far, the pathogenesis of diabetes has not been fully elucidated. Identifying new potential molecule mechanisms and biomarkers in this process could contribute to the understanding of pathophysiology. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Proteomic changes in the liver of type 2 diabetic mice (n = 6) and normal mice (n = 6) are studied. Triplicate experiments are carried out for each sample. RESULTS: A total of 15 differentially expressed proteins (DEPS ) are identified and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analysis indicates that DEPS mainly involved two inflammatory pathways: glutathione metabolic pathway and the arachidonic acid metabolic pathway. The core of protein-protein interaction is the tumor necrosis factor inflammatory pathway, indicating the connection between inflammation and diabetes. Ten out of fifteen gene transcript levels are consistent with proteomics by quantitative RT-PCR validation. The transcriptional levels of OAT (ornithine aminotransferase) and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase1 (FBP1) were significantly increased, whereas fatty acid binding protein 5 (FABP5) and ef-2 transcription levels decreased significantly. In addition, western blotting results showed that the expression of OAT and FBP protein increased significantly in the diabetes group, while elongation factor 2 decreased significantly and FABP do not have significant difference in the diabetes group. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Taken together, the present exploratory liver proteomic analysis might be seen as an important starting point for studies targeting specific liver proteins aimed at the implementation of new biomarkers for the early detection of type 2 diabetes mellitus-related potential mechanisms, hoping to provide biomarkers and clinical therapeutic targets of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29966774

RESUMO

Dietary restriction (DR) leads to extended lifespan in many species ranging from yeasts to mammal, and it can also affect the immune system to some extent. Herein, we investigated whether DR can enhance the immunity of Bombyx mori suffering from acute pathogenic microorganism infection. The results showed that DR could accelerate the melanisation reaction, delay the early death in silkworms, meanwhile Staphylococcus aureus (SA) load was lower in the early stage of infection. Moreover, more immune-related genes were identified to be down-regulated in the DR group infected with SA compared with the ad libitum - fed (AL) group infected with SA through mRNA deep sequencing (RNAseq) and quantitation PCR. We speculate that rapid melanization may beneficial to the lower SA load and delay the time point of the early death, and the lower SA load may lead to many immune-related DEGs were down-regulated. These results may help us to understand the mechanisms by which DR affects the immune system in insects and other animals.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29848278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, the chemotherapeutic drug-induced cellular senescence is considered per se a promising anti-cancer approach. This drug-induced senescence, which shows both similar, and different hallmarks from replicative senescence and oncogene-induced senescence, was regarded as a key determinant of tumor response to chemotherapy in vitro and in vivo. To date, plenty of effective chemotherapeutic drugs that evoke senescence in cancer cells have been reported. The targets of these drugs differ substantially from each other, as well as from DNA damage response, telomerase activity inhibition through senescence-related CDK, p53 and Rb signaling pathways. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review is to summarize these senescence-targeting small-molecular drugs and remark their specific traits and corresponding mechanisms that offer novel perspectives in cancer therapy. METHOD: We collected information and data from manuscripts, publications and online database. RESULT: In this review, 50 senescence-targeting small-molecular drugs were summarized with emphasis on their molecular structures, targets/mechanisms as well as the effects for inducing senescent phenotype in certain cancer cell lines. CONCLUSION: To date, plenty of effective small-molecular chemotherapeutic drugs were exploited to evoke cellular senescence in cancer therapy through different mechanisms and pathways. Insight into the mechanisms and signaling pathways of these senescence-targeting chemotherapeutic drugs will facilitate the successful treatment of cancers in clinic.

19.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 83: 114-123, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29408049

RESUMO

Baculoviruses are double-stranded circular DNA viruses that infect arthropods via the midgut. Because of their superiority as eukaryotic expression systems and their importance as biopesticides, extensive research on the functions of baculovirus genes as well as on the host response to baculovirus infection has been carried out, including transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of the midgut. The morphological and cellular changes caused by baculovirus infection are also important to better understand the infection pathway. Thanks to these previous studies, we now have a clearer picture of the mechanisms of action of the virus and of host immunity. In this paper, we systematically reviewed studies on the interaction between baculoviruses and their insect hosts. By better understanding these interactions, baculoviruses can be developed for use as more efficient biopesticides to improve agricultural development in the future.


Assuntos
Baculoviridae/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Insetos/virologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Agricultura , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Intestinos/virologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores
20.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 154: 12-18, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29453967

RESUMO

The silkworm Bombyx mori (B. mori), a lepidopteran model organism, has become an important model for molecular biology researches with its genome completely sequenced. Silkworms confront different types of virus diseases, mainly including those caused by Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), Bombyx mori densovirus type 1 (BmDNV-1), Bombyx mori bidesovirus (BmBDV) which was termed as Bombyx mori densovirus type 2 (BmDNV-2) or Bombyx mori parvo-like virus (BmPLV) before in sericulture. B. mori offers excellent models to study the molecular mechanisms of insect innate immune responses to viruses. A variety of molecules and pathways have been identified to be involved in the immune responses in the silkworm to viruses, such as the antimicrobial peptides, prophenoloxidase-activating system, apoptosis, ROS, small RNA and related molecules. Here in this review, we summarize the current research advances in molecules involved in silkworm anti-virus pathways. Moreover, taking BmNPV as an example, we proposed a schematic model of molecules and pathways involved in silkworm immune responses against virus infection. We hope this review can facilitate further study of antiviral mechanisms in silkworm, and provide a reference for virus diseases in other organisms.

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