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1.
Menopause ; 26(5): 463-468, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30516712

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of early life exposure to famine, as endured during 1959 to 1961 in China, on reproductive aging in adult women. METHODS: Between 2011 and 2012, 2,868 women born around the Chinese famine period (1956-1964) were enrolled in this study from three communities in China. Age at natural menopause was obtained retrospectively from a structured questionnaire. The associations of early life famine exposure with reproductive aging during adulthood were estimated, with adjustment of socioeconomic status, lifestyle factors, and body mass index. RESULTS: Women exposed to prenatal famine had a higher risk of early menopause (ie, natural menopause <45 years, odds ratio: 1.59, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07, 2.36), and a nonsignificant trend of higher risk of premature ovarian failure (ie, natural menopause <40 y, odds ratio: 1.94, 95% CI: 0.93, 4.00), compared to unexposed women. Exposure to famine during childhood was not significantly associated with reproductive aging. In a secondary analysis focusing on the fetal exposure, prenatal famine exposure was associated with a higher risk of premature ovarian failure (odds ratio: 2.07, 95% CI: 1.08, 3.87), and a nonsignificant trend of higher risk of early menopause (odds ratio: 1.37, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.91), compared to those unexposed to prenatal famine. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that fetal exposure to famine was associated with an increased risk of early menopause. Such findings provided evidence in favor of the thrifty phenotype theory in reproductive aging and helped better understand the etiology of early menopause.

2.
JBMR Plus ; 1(2): 107-115, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30283884

RESUMO

Low bone mineral density (BMD) and microvascular diseases (MVD) share various common risk factors; however, whether MVD is an independent risk factor of vertebral fractures is incompletely understood. The aim of this study is to clarify whether MVD is an independent risk factor of vertebral fractures. In this prospective study, calcaneal BMD and retinal microvascular abnormalities were assessed at baseline from June 2011 to January 2012. A total of 2176 premenopausal women, 2633 postmenopausal women, 2998 men aged <65 years, and 737 men aged ≥65 were included. Then with/without retinal microvascular abnormalities cohorts were followed for an average of 2.93 years to find out the relationship between MVD and vertebral fractures. At the baseline, after full adjustment, retinal microvascular abnormalities were related to risk of low BMD only in men aged ≥65 years (odds ratio [OR] = 2.506; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.454-4.321; p = 0.001). After follow-up of 2.93 years, retinal microvascular abnormalities were related to risk of vertebral fractures in men aged ≥65 years (OR = 2.475; 95% CI 1.085-5.646; p = 0.031) when adjustment for confounding factors. However, no associations were found between MVD and vertebral fractures in men aged <65 years, premenopausal women, and postmenopausal women. When stratified by diabetes, in the without-diabetes group, the men with retinal microvascular abnormalities had higher risk for vertebral fractures than without retinopathy (OR = 2.194; 95% CI 1.097-4.389; p = 0.026); however, the difference was not found in women. In the diabetes group, there were no significant differences of risk for vertebral fractures between those with retinal microvascular abnormalities and those without both in men and women. Stratified by hypertension, the men with retinopathy had higher risk for vertebral fractures than those without among the hypertension group (OR = 2.034; 95% CI 1.163-3.559; p = 0.013), but a difference was not found among women. In the without-hypertension group, no relation was found between MVD and fracture both in men and women. In conclusion, MVD is an independent risk factor of vertebral fractures in old men. © 2017 The Authors. JBMR Plus is published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

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