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1.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 23(5): 271-277, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190678

RESUMO

Previous genetic studies on hair morphology focused on the overall morphology of the hair using data collected by self-report or researcher observation. Here, we present the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of a micro-level quantitative measure of hair curvature. We compare these results to GWAS results obtained using a macro-level classification of observable hair curvature performed in the same sample of twins and siblings of European descent. Observational data were collected by trained observers, while quantitative data were acquired using an Optical Fibre Diameter Analyser (OFDA). The GWAS for both the observational and quantitative measures of hair curvature resulted in genome-wide significant signals at chromosome 1q21.3 close to the trichohyalin (TCHH) gene, previously shown to harbor variants associated with straight hair morphology in Europeans. All genetic variants reaching genome-wide significance for both GWAS (quantitative measure lead single-nucleotide polymorphism [SNP] rs12130862, p = 9.5 × 10-09; observational measure lead SNP rs11803731, p = 2.1 × 10-17) were in moderate to very high linkage disequilibrium (LD) with each other (minimum r2 = .45), indicating they represent the same genetic locus. Conditional analyses confirmed the presence of only one signal associated with each measure at this locus. Results from the quantitative measures reconfirmed the accuracy of observational measures.

2.
Chin J Integr Med ; 26(9): 663-669, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740825

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To select potential molecules that can target viral spike proteins, which may potentially interrupt the interaction between the human angiotension-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor and viral spike protein by virtual screening. METHODS: The three-dimensional (3D)-coordinate file of the receptor-binding domain (RBD)-ACE2 complex for searching a suitable docking pocket was firstly downloaded and prepared. Secondly, approximately 15,000 molecular candidates were prepared, including US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs from DrugBank and natural compounds from Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology (TCMSP), for the docking process. Then, virtual screening was performed and the binding energy in Autodock Vina was calculated. Finally, the top 20 molecules with high binding energy and their Chinese medicine (CM) herb sources were listed in this paper. RESULTS: It was found that digitoxin, a cardiac glycoside in DrugBank and bisindigotin in TCMSP had the highest docking scores. Interestingly, two of the CM herbs containing the natural compounds that had relatively high binding scores, Forsythiae fructus and Isatidis radix, are components of Lianhua Qingwen (), a CM formula reportedly exerting activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-Cov-2. Moreover, raltegravir, an HIV integrase inhibitor, was found to have a relatively high binding score. CONCLUSIONS: A class of compounds, which are from FDA-approved drugs and CM natural compounds, that had high binding energy with RBD of the viral spike protein. Our work provides potential candidates for other researchers to identify inhibitors to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection, and highlights the importance of CM and integrative application of CM and Western medicine on treating COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Glicoproteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , China , Simulação por Computador , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/efeitos dos fármacos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Ligação Proteica , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration
3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12609, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32724068

RESUMO

Scores on an optimistic-pessimistic personality scale have been associated with mortality, but optimism and pessimism scores are separable traits and it is unclear which has effects on health or longevity. The Life Orientation Test (LOT), containing items for optimism and pessimism, was included in a twin study on health of Australians aged over 50 in 1993-1995. After a mean of 20 years, participants were matched against death information from the Australian National Death Index. 1,068 out of 2,978 participants with useable LOT scores had died. Survival analysis tested for associations between separate optimism and pessimism scores and mortality from any cause, and from cancers, cardiovascular diseases or other known causes. Age-adjusted scores on the pessimism scale were associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality (Hazard Ratios per 1 standard deviation unit, 95% confidence intervals and p-values 1.134, 1.065-1.207, 8.85 × 10-5 and 1.196, 1.045-1.368, 0.0093, respectively) but not with cancer deaths. Optimism scores, which were only weakly correlated with pessimism scores (age-adjusted rank correlation = - 0.176), did not show significant associations with overall or cause-specific mortality. Reverse causation (disease causing pessimism) is unlikely because in that case both cardiovascular diseases and cancers would be expected to lead to pessimism.

4.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 23(2): 90-93, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638676

RESUMO

One of Nick's key early achievements at QIMR was to establish a twin study on melanoma risk factors. The Brisbane Twin Nevus Study (BTNS) had an initial focus on nevus (mole) count in adolescents but, reflecting Nick's broad interests, expanded in scope enormously over the decades. In the skin cancer arena, BTNS was essential to genetic discoveries in melanoma, eye color and pigmentation. Later studies amassed data on thousands of phenotypes, ranging from molecular phenotypes such as gene expression to studies where gene mapping findings in adolescents turned out to have translational potential in late-onset diseases. Nick's twin data have formed the basis for an enormous range of discoveries, with Nick and his colleagues continuing to capitalize on these data.

5.
Cytokine ; 134: 155189, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645537

RESUMO

In cataract surgery, it is often found that patients infected hepatitis B virus (HBV) are likely to suffer from more pain than other patients. In order to assess the inflammation status of the aqueous humor in the eyes of cataract patients infected with HBV. RayBio Human Inflammation Array was used to assay aqueous humor samples collected from 14 eyes of patients infected with HBV and 14 eyes of cataract patients without HBV infection (the controls) during the cataract surgery. RayBio Human Quantibody Cutom Array was adopted for the validation of the screened cytokines, with aqueous humor samples collected from 40 eyes of patients infected with HBV and 40 eyes of the controls. A pain questionnaire survey about the surgery was conducted in all patients after operation. The results of questionnaire showed that patients infected with HBV were more likely to have pain during operation. The Human Inflammation Array revealed that the expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and tumor necrosis factor ß (TNF-ß) were very high in HBV infected patients and IL-1ra was much lower in patients infected with HBV (all, P < 0.05). In validation, the Human Quantibody Cutom Array revealed that the expression levels of MCP-1 and TNF-α were high in HBV infected patients with significant difference (all P < 0.05). These results revealed that pain-related inflammatory factors MCP-1 and TNF-α were increased in aqueous humor of cataract patients infected with HBV, which indicates that patients infected with HBV may be more prone to intraoperative pain.

6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1647, 2020 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242144

RESUMO

Vitamin D deficiency is a candidate risk factor for a range of adverse health outcomes. In a genome-wide association study of 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentration in 417,580 Europeans we identify 143 independent loci in 112 1-Mb regions, providing insights into the physiology of vitamin D and implicating genes involved in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, dermal tissue properties, and the sulphonation and glucuronidation of 25OHD. Mendelian randomization models find no robust evidence that 25OHD concentration has causal effects on candidate phenotypes (e.g. BMI, psychiatric disorders), but many phenotypes have (direct or indirect) causal effects on 25OHD concentration, clarifying the epidemiological relationship between 25OHD status and the health outcomes examined in this study.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Vitamina D/genética , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Reino Unido , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue
7.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157176

RESUMO

Smoking behaviors, including amount smoked, smoking cessation, and tobacco-related diseases, are altered by the rate of nicotine clearance. Nicotine clearance can be estimated using the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) (ratio of 3'hydroxycotinine/cotinine), but only in current smokers. Advancing the genomics of this highly heritable biomarker of CYP2A6, the main metabolic enzyme for nicotine, will also enable investigation of never and former smokers. We performed the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) to date of the NMR in European ancestry current smokers (n = 5185), found 1255 genome-wide significant variants, and replicated the chromosome 19 locus. Fine-mapping of chromosome 19 revealed 13 putatively causal variants, with nine of these being highly putatively causal and mapping to CYP2A6, MAP3K10, ADCK4, and CYP2B6. We also identified a putatively causal variant on chromosome 4 mapping to TMPRSS11E and demonstrated an association between TMPRSS11E variation and a UGT2B17 activity phenotype. Together the 14 putatively causal SNPs explained ~38% of NMR variation, a substantial increase from the ~20 to 30% previously explained. Our additional GWASs of nicotine intake biomarkers showed that cotinine and smoking intensity (cotinine/cigarettes per day (CPD)) shared chromosome 19 and chromosome 4 loci with the NMR, and that cotinine and a more accurate biomarker, cotinine + 3'hydroxycotinine, shared a chromosome 15 locus near CHRNA5 with CPD and Pack-Years (i.e., cumulative exposure). Understanding the genetic factors influencing smoking-related traits facilitates epidemiological studies of smoking and disease, as well as assists in optimizing smoking cessation support, which in turn will reduce the enormous personal and societal costs associated with smoking.

8.
Mol Vis ; 26: 150-157, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32180680

RESUMO

Purpose: To analyze the expression of 440 human cytokines in aqueous humor of high myopic patients with cataracts. Methods: Eighty-five patients with cataracts were recruited in this study. In the screening stage, the RayBio G-Series Human Cytokine Antibody Array 440 was used to assay the aqueous humor samples collected from nine high myopic patients with cataracts and eight non-myopic patients with cataracts right before the surgery. The array was further used for verification of the screened cytokines, with aqueous humor samples obtained from 34 eyes of high myopic patients with cataracts and 34 eyes of non-myopic patients with cataracts. Results: Compared with the non-myopic patients with cataracts, the expression levels of decorin, receptor activator of NF-kB (RANK), angiopoietin-1 (ANG-1), C-X-C motif ligand 16 (CXCL16), ß-inducible gene-h3 (bIG-H3), insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 (IGFBP-2), and interleukin-17B (IL-17B) were statistically significantly higher in high myopic patients with cataracts (all p<0.000114). The matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) level also increased in the aqueous humor of high myopic patients with cataracts (p = 0.0034). The concentrations of ANG-1 and MMP-2 were also increased in the aqueous humor of the confirmatory stage (all p<0.05). Conclusions: In this study, numerous cytokines in aqueous humor were detected in high myopic patients with cataracts and non-myopic patients with cataracts, and it was confirmed that the MMP-2 level in the aqueous humor of patients with high myopia was statistically significantly increased. Further verification also revealed the elevation of ANG-1 in the aqueous humor of high myopic patients with cataracts, which suggests that ANG-1 may be related to the pathogenesis of high myopia.

9.
Elife ; 82019 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31763980

RESUMO

The human face represents a combined set of highly heritable phenotypes, but knowledge on its genetic architecture remains limited, despite the relevance for various fields. A series of genome-wide association studies on 78 facial shape phenotypes quantified from 3-dimensional facial images of 10,115 Europeans identified 24 genetic loci reaching study-wide suggestive association (p < 5 × 10-8), among which 17 were previously unreported. A follow-up multi-ethnic study in additional 7917 individuals confirmed 10 loci including six unreported ones (padjusted < 2.1 × 10-3). A global map of derived polygenic face scores assembled facial features in major continental groups consistent with anthropological knowledge. Analyses of epigenomic datasets from cranial neural crest cells revealed abundant cis-regulatory activities at the face-associated genetic loci. Luciferase reporter assays in neural crest progenitor cells highlighted enhancer activities of several face-associated DNA variants. These results substantially advance our understanding of the genetic basis underlying human facial variation and provide candidates for future in-vivo functional studies.


Assuntos
Face/anatomia & histologia , Loci Gênicos/genética , Desenvolvimento Maxilofacial/genética , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Adulto , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos , Padronização Corporal/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Ontologia Genética , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
11.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(6): 1724-1737, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005972

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individual differences in human perception of sweetness are partly due to genetics; however, which genes are associated with the perception and the consumption of sweet substances remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to verify previous reported associations within genes involved in the peripheral receptor systems (i.e., TAS1R2, TAS1R3, and GNAT3) and reveal novel loci. METHODS: We performed genome-wide association scans (GWASs) of the perceived intensity of 2 sugars (glucose and fructose) and 2 high-potency sweeteners (neohesperidin dihydrochalcone and aspartame) in an Australian adolescent twin sample (n = 1757), and the perceived intensity and sweetness and the liking of sucrose in a US adult twin sample (n = 686). We further performed GWASs of the intake of total sugars (i.e., total grams of all dietary mono- and disaccharides per day) and sweets (i.e., handfuls of candies per day) in the UK Biobank sample (n = ≤174,424 white-British individuals). All participants from the 3 independent samples were of European ancestry. RESULTS: We found a strong association between the intake of total sugars and the single nucleotide polymorphism rs11642841 within the FTO gene on chromosome 16 (P = 3.8 × 10-8) and many suggestive associations (P < 1.0 × 10-5) for each of the sweet perception and intake phenotypes. We showed genetic evidence for the involvement of the brain in both sweet taste perception and sugar intake. There was limited support for the associations with TAS1R2, TAS1R3, and GNAT3 in all 3 European samples. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that genes additional to those involved in the peripheral receptor system are also associated with the sweet taste perception and intake of sweet-tasting foods. The functional potency of the genetic variants within TAS1R2, TAS1R3, and GNAT3 may be different between ethnic groups and this warrants further investigations.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Glucose/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo , Edulcorantes/metabolismo , Percepção Gustatória , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Criança , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Paladar , Adulto Jovem
12.
Behav Genet ; 49(4): 386-398, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877414

RESUMO

This study assessed the heritability of 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) in a large twin cohort and the shared effect of sun exposure and skin colour on 25(OH)D3 variance. Study participants included 1604 twin pairs and their siblings (n = 4020). Twin correlations for 25(OH)D3 concentration were rMZ=0.79 (584 pairs) and rDZ = 0.52 (1020 pairs) consistent with an average h2 = 0.50 throughout the year. Significant phenotypic and genetic seasonal fluctuation was observed in 25(OH)D3 concentrations with heritability decreasing during the winter (h2 = 0.37) compared to summer (h2 = 0.62). Skin colour (measured both ordinally and quantitatively) and self-reported sun exposure were found to significantly affect 25(OH)D3 concentration. Twins with olive/dark skin had significantly lower 25(OH)D3 concentrations than those with fair/pale skin and multivariate genetic analysis showed that approximately half of the total additive genetic variation in 25(OH)D3 results from genes whose primary influence is on skin colour and sun exposure. Additionally, 37% of the total variance was attributed to shared environmental effects on vitamin D, skin colour and sun exposure measures. These results support a moderate estimate of vitamin D heritability and suggest significant influence of season, skin colour and sun exposure on the genetic variance.


Assuntos
Calcifediol/genética , Pigmentação da Pele/genética , Luz Solar/efeitos adversos , 25-Hidroxivitamina D 2/análise , 25-Hidroxivitamina D 2/sangue , 25-Hidroxivitamina D 2/metabolismo , Adolescente , Calcifediol/análise , Calcifediol/sangue , Criança , Feminino , Variação Genética/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pigmentação da Pele/fisiologia , Vitamina D/análise , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/metabolismo
15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 29, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30604766

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects ~10% of the global population, with considerable ethnic differences in prevalence and aetiology. We assemble genome-wide association studies of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), a measure of kidney function that defines CKD, in 312,468 individuals of diverse ancestry. We identify 127 distinct association signals with homogeneous effects on eGFR across ancestries and enrichment in genomic annotations including kidney-specific histone modifications. Fine-mapping reveals 40 high-confidence variants driving eGFR associations and highlights putative causal genes with cell-type specific expression in glomerulus, and in proximal and distal nephron. Mendelian randomisation supports causal effects of eGFR on overall and cause-specific CKD, kidney stone formation, diastolic blood pressure and hypertension. These results define novel molecular mechanisms and putative causal genes for eGFR, offering insight into clinical outcomes and routes to CKD treatment development.


Assuntos
Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/genética , Hipertensão/genética , Cálculos Renais/genética , Rim/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Feminino , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Código das Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipertensão/etnologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Cálculos Renais/etnologia , Cálculos Renais/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etnologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia
16.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 43(3): 473-482, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30589442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol dependence and long-term excessive alcohol use may cause liver damage, but only some patients develop cirrhosis. Similarly, high alcohol intake without evident liver disease often but not always produces abnormal enzymatic liver function tests (LFTs), particularly gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT). We postulate that the factors predisposing to cirrhosis in alcoholics and to liver enzyme abnormality in drinkers are similar, and that biochemical LFTs could therefore be useful as markers of risk of alcoholic liver disease in excessive drinkers. METHODS: Data from participants in twin and twin-family studies on alcohol use and dependence were used to identify 1,003 people who had reported excessive alcohol intake (28 drinks or more per week). A total of 962 of these provided blood for biochemical tests at the same time. Body mass index (BMI) and biomarkers of metabolic syndrome, inflammation, and iron stores were used in logistic regression with abnormality in serum GGT, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), or aspartate aminotransferase (AST) as outcomes. We conducted genome-wide association analyses for GGT, ALT, and AST separately in the group reporting excessive alcohol intake (N = 951) and a low-intake group reporting 14 drinks or fewer per week (N = 8,716), and compared results. RESULTS: Abnormal GGT and ALT among excessive drinkers were associated with higher BMI, triglycerides, insulin, uric acid, C-reactive protein, ferritin, and transferrin saturation; and with lower high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol. Abnormal AST was associated with triglycerides, ferritin, and transferrin saturation. ALT was significantly associated with variants at reported genetic loci for alcoholic liver disease (PNPLA3, rs738409, p = 0.0076; TM6SF2, rs10401969, p = 0.0076; HSD17B13, rs10433879, p = 0.0024). CONCLUSIONS: Known risk factors for alcoholic cirrhosis including obesity and markers of metabolic syndrome, iron overload and inflammation are associated with liver enzyme abnormality in excessive drinkers.


Assuntos
Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/sangue , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Testes de Função Hepática/estatística & dados numéricos , gama-Glutamiltransferase/sangue , 17-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenases/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Lipase/genética , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(5): 691-706, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388399

RESUMO

C-reactive protein (CRP) is a sensitive biomarker of chronic low-grade inflammation and is associated with multiple complex diseases. The genetic determinants of chronic inflammation remain largely unknown, and the causal role of CRP in several clinical outcomes is debated. We performed two genome-wide association studies (GWASs), on HapMap and 1000 Genomes imputed data, of circulating amounts of CRP by using data from 88 studies comprising 204,402 European individuals. Additionally, we performed in silico functional analyses and Mendelian randomization analyses with several clinical outcomes. The GWAS meta-analyses of CRP revealed 58 distinct genetic loci (p < 5 × 10-8). After adjustment for body mass index in the regression analysis, the associations at all except three loci remained. The lead variants at the distinct loci explained up to 7.0% of the variance in circulating amounts of CRP. We identified 66 gene sets that were organized in two substantially correlated clusters, one mainly composed of immune pathways and the other characterized by metabolic pathways in the liver. Mendelian randomization analyses revealed a causal protective effect of CRP on schizophrenia and a risk-increasing effect on bipolar disorder. Our findings provide further insights into the biology of inflammation and could lead to interventions for treating inflammation and its clinical consequences.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos/genética , Inflamação/genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Transtorno Bipolar/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Criança , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esquizofrenia/genética , Esquizofrenia/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
19.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4774, 2018 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30429480

RESUMO

The total number of acquired melanocytic nevi on the skin is strongly correlated with melanoma risk. Here we report a meta-analysis of 11 nevus GWAS from Australia, Netherlands, UK, and USA comprising 52,506 individuals. We confirm known loci including MTAP, PLA2G6, and IRF4, and detect novel SNPs in KITLG and a region of 9q32. In a bivariate analysis combining the nevus results with a recent melanoma GWAS meta-analysis (12,874 cases, 23,203 controls), SNPs near GPRC5A, CYP1B1, PPARGC1B, HDAC4, FAM208B, DOCK8, and SYNE2 reached global significance, and other loci, including MIR146A and OBFC1, reached a suggestive level. Overall, we conclude that most nevus genes affect melanoma risk (KITLG an exception), while many melanoma risk loci do not alter nevus count. For example, variants in TERC and OBFC1 affect both traits, but other telomere length maintenance genes seem to affect melanoma risk only. Our findings implicate multiple pathways in nevogenesis.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Pleiotropia Genética/genética , Melanoma/genética , Nevo Pigmentado/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Fosfolipases A2 do Grupo VI/genética , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Histona Desacetilases/genética , Humanos , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Fator de Células-Tronco/genética , Telomerase/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Telômeros/genética
20.
Psychiatr Genet ; 28(6): 97-109, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30260901

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Two widely studied genetic polymorphisms in the dopaminergic system [DRD4 exon III variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) and COMT Val158Met] have been reported to be associated with novelty-seeking, but the results have been highly inconsistent. Therefore, a meta-analysis of the associations between these two polymorphisms and novelty-seeking was conducted. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: For DRD4, 24 studies comprising 27 samples and including 4933 participants were selected. Genotype grouping, sex, mean age, ethnicity, and sample characteristics were examined as moderators. For COMT, nine studies comprising 13 samples and including 2633 participants were selected. Sex, mean age, ethnicity, and sample characteristics were included as moderators. We also tested for possible publication bias. RESULTS: The significant association between the DRD4 polymorphism and novelty-seeking was supported, but no association was found between the COMT polymorphism and novelty-seeking. In addition, our findings revealed that sex and age both directly moderate the relationship between DRD4 and novelty-seeking. Meanwhile, ethnicity can interact with age, sex, and genotype grouping, and age and sex can interact with each other, to moderate the association between the DRD4 exon III VNTR polymorphism and novelty-seeking. CONCLUSION: Our results provide evidence of association between the DRD4 exon III VNTR polymorphism and novelty-seeking, which is inconsistent with the results of previous meta-analysis. Furthermore, several direct and indirect moderators are also identified to explain contradictory results in the existing literature. However, our results regarding COMT are consistent with those of previous meta-analysis.


Assuntos
Catecol O-Metiltransferase/genética , Comportamento Exploratório/fisiologia , Receptores de Dopamina D4/genética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Catecol O-Metiltransferase/fisiologia , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Repetições Minissatélites/genética , Personalidade/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptores de Dopamina D4/fisiologia , Fatores Sexuais
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