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1.
Cardiovasc Toxicol ; 2021 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582931

RESUMO

Oxidative stress in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) contributes greatly to the development of hypertension. The recombinant nuclear respiratory factor 1 (Nrf1) regulates the transcription of several genes related to mitochondrial respiratory chain function or antioxidant expression, and thus may be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Here we show that in the two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) hypertensive rats the transcription level of Nrf1 was elevated comparing to the normotensive controls. Knocking down of Nrf1 in the PVN of 2K1C rats can significantly reduce their blood pressure and level of plasma norepinephrine (NE). Analysis revealed significant reduction of superoxide production level in both whole cell and mitochondria, along with up-regulation of superoxide dismutase 1 (Cu/Zn-SOD), NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), thioredoxin-dependent peroxiredoxin 3 (Prdx3), cytochrome c (Cyt-c) and glutathione synthesis rate-limiting enzyme (glutamyl-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (Gclc) and modifier subunit (Gclm)), and down-regulation of cytochrome c oxidase subunit VI c (Cox6c) transcription after Nrf1 knock-down. In addition, the reduced ATP production and elevated mitochondrial membrane potential in the PVN of 2K1C rats were reinstated with Nrf1 knock-down, together with restored expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam), coiled-coil myosin-like BCL2-interacting protein (Beclin1), and Mitofusin 1 (Mfn1), which are related to the mitochondrial biogenesis, fusion, and autophagy. Together, the results indicate that the PVN Nrf1 is associated with the development of 2K1C-induced hypertension, and Nrf1 knock-down in the PVN can alleviate hypertension through intervention of mitochondrial function and restorement of the production-removal balance of superoxide.

2.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol ; 77(2): 170-181, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538532

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress, the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), and inflammation are some of the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. The aim of this study is to examine the protective effect of the chronic administration of astaxanthin, which is extracted from the shell of crabs and shrimps, into hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Animals were randomly assigned to 2 groups and treated with bilateral PVN infusion of astaxanthin or vehicle (artificial cerebrospinal fluid) through osmotic minipumps (Alzet Osmotic Pumps, Model 2004, 0.25 µL/h) for 4 weeks. Spontaneously hypertensive rats had higher mean arterial pressure and plasma level of norepinephrine and proinflammatory cytokine; higher PVN levels of reactive oxygen species, NOX2, NOX4, IL-1ß, IL-6, ACE, and AT1-R; and lower PVN levels of IL-10 and Cu/Zn SOD, Mn SOD, ACE2, and Mas receptors than Wistar-Kyoto rats. Our data showed that chronic administration of astaxanthin into PVN attenuated the overexpression of reactive oxygen species, NOX2, NOX4, inflammatory cytokines, and components of RAS within the PVN and suppressed hypertension. The present results revealed that astaxanthin played a role in the brain. Our findings demonstrated that astaxanthin had protective effect on hypertension by improving the balance between inflammatory cytokines and components of RAS.

4.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589794

RESUMO

Proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) greatly contributes to vascular remodeling in hypertension. This study is to determine the roles and mechanisms of miR-135a-5p intervention in attenuating VSMC proliferation and vascular remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). MiR-135a-5p level was raised, while fibronectin type III domain-containing 5 (FNDC5) mRNA and protein expressions were reduced in VSMCs of SHRs compared with those of Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYs). Enhanced VSMC proliferation in SHRs was inhibited by miR-135a-5p knockdown or miR-135a-5p inhibitor, but exacerbated by miR-135a-5p mimic. VSMCs of SHRs showed reduced myofilaments, increased or even damaged mitochondria, increased and dilated endoplasmic reticulum, which were attenuated by miR-135a-5p inhibitor. Dual-luciferase reporter assay shows that FNDC5 was a target gene of miR-135a-5p. Knockdown or inhibition of miR-135a-5p prevented the FNDC5 downregulation in VSMCs of SHRs, while miR-135a-5p mimic inhibited FNDC5 expressions in VSMCs of both WKYs and SHRs. FNDC5 knockdown had no significant effects on VSMC proliferation of WKYs, but aggravated VSMC proliferation of SHRs. Exogenous FNDC5 or FNDC5 overexpression attenuated VSMC proliferation of SHRs, and prevented miR-135a-5p mimic-induced enhancement of VSMC proliferation of SHR. MiR-135a-5p knockdown in SHRs attenuated hypertension, normalized FNDC5 expressions and inhibited vascular smooth muscle proliferation, and alleviated vascular remodeling. These results indicate that miR-135a-5p promotes while FNDC5 inhibits VSMC proliferation in SHRs. Silencing of miR-135a-5p attenuates VSMC proliferation and vascular remodeling in SHRs via disinhibition of FNDC5 transcription. Either inhibition of miR-135a-5p or upregulation of FNDC5 may be a therapeutically strategy in attenuating vascular remodeling and hypertension.

5.
Surg Innov ; : 1553350620984650, 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33393435

RESUMO

Objectives. In this study, we performed a novel type of posterior en bloc elevation cervical laminoplasty (PEEL) to keep the integrity of the posterior structure, aiming to reduce axial symptoms complicated by a conventional cervical laminoplasty procedure. Methods. Twelve human cervical cadaveric spines (C2-T1) were sequentially tested in the following order: intact condition, open-door laminoplasty (ODL) through bilateral intermuscular approach (mini-invasive ODL), PEEL, and laminectomy (LN). After bilateral transecting at the junction of lamina and lateral mass through the tubular retraction system, the PEEL procedure symmetrically elevated all the posterior structure which was further stabilized with bone grafts and titanium plates. Computed tomography (CT) scan and biomechanical testing were performed after each condition. Results. Both mini-invasive ODL and PEEL procedures were accomplished with 2 small incisions on each side. Two types of laminoplasties could enlarge the spinal canal significantly both in cross-sectional area and anteroposterior diameter comparing with intact condition. The PEEL procedure demonstrated a significantly higher enlargement rate on a canal area and a symmetrical expansion pattern. Compared with intact condition, mini-invasive ODL performed from C3-C7 demonstrated significantly decreased motion in all testing directions except the flexion range of motion (ROM); the PEEL procedure showed mild and insignificant decrease on ROM in all directions. Laminectomy resulted in a statistically significant increase in all directions except the lateral bending ROM. Conclusions. Posterior en bloc elevation cervical laminoplasty can enlarge the canal more effectively and preserve better ROM after operation than the ODL procedure. Although technically challenging, the PEEL procedure probably would decrease the common complications associated with ODL laminoplasty.

6.
Cardiovasc Toxicol ; 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33165770

RESUMO

Hypertension, as one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease, significantly affects human health. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and the E3-class prostanoid (EP3) receptor have previously been demonstrated to modulate blood pressure and hemodynamics in various animal models of hypertension. The PGE2-evoked pressor and biochemical responses can be blocked with the EP3 receptor antagonist, L-798106 (N-[(5-bromo-2methoxyphenyl)sulfonyl]-3-[2-(2-naphthalenylmethyl) phenyl]-2-propenamide). In the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), sympathetic excitation can be introduced by PGE2, which can activate EP3 receptors located in the PVN. In such a case, the central knockdown of EP3 receptor can be considered as a potential therapeutic modality for hypertension management. The present study examined the efficacy of the PVN infusion of L-798106, by performing experiments on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYs). The rats were administered with chronic bilateral PVN infusion of L-798106 (10 µg/day) or the vehicle for 28 days. The results indicated that the SHRs had a higher mean arterial pressure (MAP), an increased Fra-like (Fra-LI) activity in the PVN, as well as a higher expression of gp91phox, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and proinflammatory cytokines in the PVN compared with the WKYs. Additionally, the expression of Cu/Zn-SOD in the PVN of the SHRs was reduced compared with the WKYs. The bilateral PVN infusion of L-798106 significantly reduced MAP, as well as plasma norepinephrine (NE) levels in the SHRs. It also inhibited Fra-LI activity and reduced the expression of gp91phox, proinflammatory cytokines, and MAPK, whereas it increased the expression of Cu/Zn-SOD in the PVN of SHRs. In addition, L-798106 restored the balance of the neurotransmitters in the PVN. On the whole, the findings of the present study demonstrate that the PVN blockade of EP3 receptor can ameliorate hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy partially by attenuating ROS and proinflammatory cytokines, and modulating neurotransmitters in the PVN.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985779

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Adrenomedullin (ADM) possesses therapeutic potential for inflammatory diseases. Consequently, the effects of ADM on inflammation in visceral white adipose tissue (vWAT) of obese rats or in adipocytes were explored in this study. METHODS: Male rats were fed a high-fat diet for 12 weeks to induce obesity, and obese rats were implanted with osmotic minipumps providing constant infusion of ADM (300 ng/kg per hour) and continued to be fed a high-fat diet for 4 weeks. RESULTS: When compared with the control group, endogenous protein expression of ADM and ADM receptors in vWAT and in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated adipocytes was markedly increased. ADM significantly decreased the protein expression of the inflammatory mediators TNFα, IL-1ß, cyclooxygenase-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase in vWAT of obese rats and in adipocytes stimulated by LPS. It also inhibited the activation of the inflammatory signaling pathways MAPK and NF-κB induced by LPS in adipocytes. These effects of ADM in adipocytes were inhibited by the administration of ADM receptor antagonist and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activation inhibitor. CONCLUSIONS: ADM can inhibit inflammation in WAT in obesity, which may be mediated by the activation of ADM receptors and PKA.

8.
Pflugers Arch ; 472(11): 1577-1586, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915316

RESUMO

Chemical stimulation of kidney causes sympathetic activation and pressor responses in rats. The excitatory renal reflex (ERR) is mediated by angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) and superoxide anions in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). The aim of this study is to determine whether interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) in the PVN mediates the ERR, and whether the IL-1ß production in the PVN is dependent on the AT1R-superoxide anion signaling. Experiments were performed in adult rats under anesthesia. The ERR was induced by renal infusion of capsaicin, and evaluated by the responses of the contralateral renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). Inhibition of IL-1ß production with MCC950 in the PVN dose-dependently inhibited the capsaicin-induced ERR and sympathetic activation. The PVN microinjection of IL-1 receptor antagonist IL-1Ra or specific IL-1ß antibody abolished the capsaicin-induced ERR, while IL-1ß enhanced the ERR. Renal infusion of capsaicin promoted p65-NFκB phosphorylation and IL-1ß production in the PVN, which were prevented by PVN microinjection of NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin or the superoxide anion scavenger tempol. The PVN microinjection of NFκB inhibitor BMS-345541 abolished the capsaicin induced-ERR and IL-1ß production, but not the NADPH oxidase activation and superoxide anion production. Furthermore, capsaicin-induced p65-NFκB phosphorylation and IL-1ß production in the PVN were prevented by AT1R antagonist losartan, or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor captopril. These results indicate that capsaicin-induced ERR and sympathetic activation are mediated by IL-1ß in the PVN. The IL-1ß production in the PVN is dependent on the AT1R-mediated superoxide anion generation and NFκB activation.

9.
Andrology ; 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Estimated 30%-40% of patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) suffer from premature ejaculation (PE), which is difficult to cure, but the mechanism is still unknown. Based on the results of our previous clinical studies and animal experiments, we propose that the glutamatergic system dysfunction in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) may be involved. METHODS: To test this hypothesis, we used experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP) rats to investigate the effects of CP/CPPS on ejaculation behavior through integrating copulatory behavior testing, neuroelectrophysiologic experiments, and molecular biology technologies. RESULTS: Histological examination of prostate tissue in EAP rats exhibited consistent pathological findings with that in CP/CPPS patients. Behavior testing showed that ejaculation latency (EL) of EAP rats significantly shortened compared with the controls (5.1 ± 1.8 vs 9.1 ± 2.4 min, P < .001). Sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity testing revealed that EAP rats displayed significantly higher plasma norepinephrine (NE) level (1780 ± 493 vs 1421 ± 453 pg/mL, P = .043) and SNS sensitivity (67.8 ± 9.6 vs 44.6 ± 8.7%, P < .001). Immunohistochemical detection and Western blot analysis both displayed that NR1 subunit expression of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors in the PVN of EAP rats was significantly upregulated (P = .007 and P < .001). Furthermore, the expression of NMDA NR1 subunit positively correlated both with SNS sensitivity (r = .917, P < .001) and prostatic inflammation scores (r = .964, P < .001). CONCLUSION: This study shows that EAP rats suffer from the same PE symptom as CP/CPPS patients. CP/CPPS-induced inflammatory-immune response can significantly upregulate the expression of NMDA receptors in the PVN, which shortening the EL by enhancing SNS sensitivity. However, the exact mechanism of chronic inflammation in the prostate causing the upregulated expression of NMDA receptors needs to be further studied.

10.
Mol Cytogenet ; 13: 34, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32831907

RESUMO

Progression of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is frequently accompanied by cytogenetic evolution. Additional genetic abnormalities are seen in 10-20% of CML cases at the time of diagnosis, and in 60-80% of cases of advanced disease. Unbalanced chromosomal changes such as an extra copy of the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph), trisomy 8, and i(17)(q10) are common. Balanced chromosomal translocations, such as t(3;3), t(8;21), t(15;17), and inv(16) are typically found in acute myeloid leukemia, but rarely occur in CML. Translocations involving 11q23, t(8;21), and inv(16) are relatively common genetic abnormalities in acute leukemia, but are extremely rare in CML. In the literature to date, there are at least 76 Ph+ cases with t(3;21), 47 Ph+ cases with inv(16), 16 Ph+ cases with t(8;21), and 9 Ph+ cases with t(9;11). But most of what has been published is now over 30 years old, without the benefit of modern immunophenotyping to confirm diagnosis, and before the introduction of treatment regimes such as TKI. In this study, we explored the rare concomitant occurrence of coexistence current chromosomal translocation and t(9;22) in CML or acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

11.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 6384803, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32509148

RESUMO

Vascular oxidative stress and inflammation play a major role in vascular diseases. This study was aimed at determining the protective roles of fibronectin type III domain-containing 5 (FNDC5) in angiotensin II- (Ang II-) induced vascular oxidative stress and inflammation and underlying mechanisms. Wild-type (WT) and FNDC5-/- mice, primary mouse vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), and the rat aortic smooth muscle cell line (A7R5) were used in the present study. Subcutaneous infusion of Ang II caused more serious hypertension, vascular remodeling, oxidative stress, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, AMPK phosphorylation inhibition, and SIRT1 downregulation in the aorta of FNDC5-/- mice than those of WT mice. Exogenous FNDC5 attenuated Ang II-induced superoxide generation, NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) and NLRP3 upregulation, mature caspase-1, and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) production in A7R5 cells. The protective roles of FNDC5 were prevented by SIRT-1 inhibitor EX527, AMPK inhibitor compound C, or integrin receptor inhibitor GLPG0187. FNDC5 attenuated the Ang II-induced inhibition in SIRT1 activity, SIRT1 protein expression, and AMPKα phosphorylation in A7R5 cells, which were prevented by compound C, EX527, and GLPG0187. FNDC5 deficiency deteriorated Ang II-induced oxidative stress, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, AMPK phosphorylation inhibition, and SIRT1 downregulation in primary aortic VSMCs of mice, which were prevented by exogenous FNDC5. These results indicate that FNDC5 deficiency aggravates while exogenous FNDC5 alleviates the Ang II-induced vascular oxidative stress and NLRP3 inflammasome activation via the AMPK-SIRT1 signal pathway in VSMCs.

12.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 9(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32121598

RESUMO

Migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is essential for vascular reconstruction in hypertension and several vascular diseases. Our recent study showed that extracellular vesicles derived from vascular adventitial fibroblasts of normal rats inhibited VSMC proliferation by delivering miR155-5p to VSMCs. It is unknown whether miR155-5p inhibits cell migration and oxidative stress in VSMCs of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and in angiotensin II (Ang II)-treated VSMCs. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of miR155-5p in VSMC migration and its underlying mechanisms. Primary VSMCs were isolated from the aortic media of Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) and SHR. Wound healing assay and Boyden chamber assay were used to evaluate VSMC migration. A miR155-5p mimic inhibited, and a miR155-5p inhibitor promoted the migration of VSMC of SHR but had no significant effect on the migration of VSMC of WKY. The miR155-5p mimic inhibited angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) mRNA and protein expression in VSMCs. It also reduced superoxide anion production, NAD(P)H oxidase (NOX) activity, as well as NOX2, interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) expression levels in VSMCs of SHR but not in VSMCs of WKY rats. Overexpression of miR155-5p inhibited VSMC migration and superoxide anion and IL-1ß production in VSMCs of SHR but had no impact on exogenous Ang II-induced VSMC migration and on superoxide anion and IL-1ß production in WKY rats and SHR. These results indicate that miR155-5p inhibits VSMC migration in SHR by suppressing ACE expression and its downstream production of Ang II, superoxide anion, and inflammatory factors. However, miR155-5p had no effects on exogenous Ang II-induced VSMC migration.

13.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 394: 114953, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165127

RESUMO

Exercise training is one of the major non-pharmacological treatments for hypertension. However, the central mechanism by which exercise training attenuates the hypertensive responses remains unclear. Irisin is a muscle-secreted cytokine derived from fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5) that will be released into the circulation during exercise. We hypothesized that irisin may play a role in the blood pressure regulation by exercise. To examine the hypothesis, our study investigated the effect of irisin on hypertension and its central mechanism. The study was performed in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats. We found that intravenous injection of irisin effectively reduced blood pressure, plasma norepinephrine, paraventricular nucleus (PVN) levels of neuronal activation, oxidative stress and inflammation in SHRs. Moreover, irisin activated nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and restored the imbalance of neurotransmitters in the PVN. Our study also found PVN knockdown of Nrf2 abolished the protective effects of irisin on hypertension. These findings demonstrate irisin can improve hypertension via Nrf2-mediated antioxidant in the PVN.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Fibronectinas/farmacologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Norepinefrina/sangue , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Esforço Físico , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY
14.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 394: 114950, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147540

RESUMO

The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) plays crucial roles in central cardiovascular regulation. Increasing evidence in humans and rodents shows that vitamin D intake is important for achieving optimal cardiovascular function. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether calcitriol, an active form of vitamin D, improves autonomic and cardiovascular function in hypertensive rats and whether PVN oxidative stress and inflammation are involved in these beneficial effects. Male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive control Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats were treated with either calcitriol (40 ng/day) or vehicle (0.11 µL/h) through chronic PVN infusion for 4 weeks. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded continuously by radiotelemetry. PVN tissue, heart and plasma were collected for molecular and histological analysis. Compared to WKY rats, SHR exhibited increased systolic blood pressure, sympathetic drive, and cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling. These were associated with higher mRNA and protein expression levels of high mobility box 1 (HMGB1), receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), proinflammatory cytokines, NADPH oxidase subunit in the PVN. In addition, increased norepinephrine in plasma, elevated reactive oxygen species levels and activation of microglia in the PVN were also observed in SHR. Chronic calcitriol treatment ameliorated these changes but not in WKY rats. Our results demonstrate that chronic infusion of calcitriol in the PVN ameliorates hypertensive responses, sympathoexcitation and retains cardiovascular function in SHR. Reduced inflammation and oxidative stress within the PVN are involved in these calcitriol-induced effects.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/tratamento farmacológico , Calcitriol/uso terapêutico , Agonistas dos Canais de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/genética , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Cardiomegalia/prevenção & controle , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão/genética , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY
15.
Neurosci Bull ; 36(5): 463-474, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989424

RESUMO

Chemical stimulation of the kidney increases sympathetic activity and blood pressure in rats. The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is important in mediating the excitatory renal reflex (ERR). In this study, we examined the role of molecular signaling in the PVN in mediating the capsaicin-induced ERR and sympathetic activation. Bilateral PVN microinjections were performed in rats under anesthesia. The ERR was elicited by infusion of capsaicin into the cortico-medullary border of the right kidney. The reflex was evaluated as the capsaicin-induced changes in left renal sympathetic nerve activity and mean arterial pressure. Blockade of angiotensin type 1 receptors with losartan or inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme with captopril in the PVN abolished the capsaicin-induced ERR. Renal infusion of capsaicin significantly increased NAD(P)H oxidase activity and superoxide anion production in the PVN, which were prevented by ipsilateral renal denervation or microinjection of losartan into the PVN. Furthermore, either scavenging of superoxide anions or inhibition of NAD(P)H oxidase in the PVN abolished the capsaicin-induced ERR. We conclude that the ERR induced by renal infusion of capsaicin is mediated by angiotensin type 1 receptor-related NAD(P)H oxidase activation and superoxide anion production within the PVN.

16.
J Extracell Vesicles ; 9(1): 1698795, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839907

RESUMO

Proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays crucial roles in vascular remodelling and stiffening in hypertension. Vascular adventitial fibroblasts are a key regulator of vascular wall function and structure. This study is designed to investigate the roles of adventitial fibroblasts-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) in VSMC proliferation and vascular remodelling in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), an animal model of human essential hypertension. EVs were isolated from aortic adventitial fibroblasts of WKY (WKY-EVs) and SHR (SHR-EVs). Compared with WKY-EVs, miR155-5p content was reduced, while angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) content was increased in SHR-EVs. WKY-EVs inhibited VSMC proliferation of SHR, which was prevented by miR155-5p inhibitor. SHR-EVs promoted VSMC proliferation of both strains, which was enhanced by miR155-5p inhibitor, but abolished by captopril or losartan. Dual luciferase reporter assay showed that ACE was a target gene of miR155-5p. MiR155-5p mimic or overexpression inhibited VSMC proliferation and ACE upregulation of SHR. WKY-EVs reduced ACE mRNA and protein expressions while SHR-EVs only increased ACE protein level in VSMCs of both strains. However, the SHR-EVs-derived from the ACE knockdown-treated adventitial fibroblasts lost the roles in promoting VSMC proliferation and ACE upregulation. Systemic miR155-5p overexpression reduced vascular ACE, angiotensin II and proliferating cell nuclear antigen levels, and attenuated hypertension and vascular remodelling in SHR. Repetitive intravenous injection of SHR-EVs increased blood pressure and vascular ACE contents, and promoted vascular remodelling in both strains, while WKY-EVs reduced vascular ACE contents and attenuated hypertension and vascular remodelling in SHR. We concluded that WKY-EVs-mediated miR155-5p transfer attenuates VSMC proliferation and vascular remodelling in SHR via suppressing ACE expression, while SHR-EVs-mediated ACE transfer promotes VSMC proliferation and vascular remodelling.

17.
Neuroendocrinology ; 110(11-12): 899-913, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation and oxidative stress play important roles in energy imbalance and its complications. Recent research indicates that hypothalamic inflammation may contribute to the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome and cardiac dysfunction, but the mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesized that suppression of the proinflammatory IKKß/NF-κB pathway in the hypothalamus can improve energy balance and cardiac function in type 2 diabetic (T2D) rats. METHODS: Normal and T2D rats received bilateral hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) infusions of the IKKß inhibitor SC-514 or vehicle via osmotic minipump. Metabolic phenotyping, immunohistochemical analyses, and biochemical analyses were used to investigate the outcomes of inhibition of the hypothalamic IKKß. Echocardiography and glucometer were used for measuring cardiac function and blood glucose, respectively. Blood samples were collected for the evaluation of circulating proinflammatory cytokines. Heart was harvested for cardiac morphology evaluations. The ARC was harvested and analyzed for IKKß, NF-κB, proinflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and NAD(P)H (gp91phox, p47phox) oxidase activity levels and neuropeptides. RESULTS: Compared with normal rats, T2D rats were characterized by hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, cardiac dysfunction, as well as higher ARC levels of IKKß, NF-κB, proinflammatory cytokines, ROS, gp91phox, and p47phox. ARC infusion of the IKKß inhibitor SC-514 attenuated all these changes in T2D rats, but not in normal rats. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the hypothalamic IKKß/NF-κB pathway plays a key role in modulating energy imbalance and cardiac dysfunction, suggesting its potential therapeutic role during type 2 diabetes mellitus.

18.
Neurosci Bull ; 36(2): 143-152, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392556

RESUMO

Sympathetic activation and the kidney play critical roles in hypertension and chronic heart failure. The role of the kidney in sympathetic activation is still not well known. In this study, we revealed an excitatory renal reflex (ERR) in rats induced by chemical stimulation of the kidney that regulated sympathetic activity and blood pressure. The ERR was induced by renal infusion of capsaicin, and evaluated by the changes in renal sympathetic outflow, blood pressure, and heart rate. Renal infusion of capsaicin dose-dependently increased the contralateral renal sympathetic nerve activity, mean arterial pressure, and heart rate. Capsaicin in the cortico-medullary border had greater effects than in the cortex or medulla. Intravenous infusion of capsaicin had no significant effects. The effects of renal infusion of capsaicin were abolished by ipsilateral renal denervation, but were not affected by bilateral sinoaortic denervation. Renal infusion of capsaicin increased the ipsilateral renal afferent activity. The ERR was also induced by renal infusion of bradykinin, adenosine, and angiotensin II, but not by ATP. Renal infusion of capsaicin increased c-Fos expression in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of hypothalamus. Lesion of neurons in the PVN with kainic acid abolished the capsaicin-induced ERR. These findings indicate that chemical stimulation of kidney causes an excitatory reflex, leading to sympathetic activation, pressor response, and accelerated heart rate. The PVN is an important central nucleus in the pathway of the ERR.

19.
Neurosci Bull ; 36(4): 385-395, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641986

RESUMO

Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and cellular Src (c-Src) are closely associated with inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress in hypertension, so we designed this study to explore the exact role of c-Src in the mechanism of action of the TLR4 signaling pathway in salt-induced hypertension. Salt-sensitive rats were given a high salt diet for 10 weeks to induce hypertension. This resulted in higher levels of TLR4, activated c-Src, pro-inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress, and arterial pressure. Infusion of a TLR4 blocker into the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) decreased the activated c-Src, while microinjection of a c-Src inhibitor attenuated the PVN levels of nuclear factor-kappa B, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that a long-term high-salt diet increases TLR4 expression in the PVN and this promotes the activation of c-Src, which upregulates the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and results in the overproduction of reactive oxygen species. Therefore, inhibiting central c-Src activity may be a new target for treating hypertension.

20.
J Nutr Biochem ; 72: 108212, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473513

RESUMO

Migration of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of hypertension and several other vascular diseases. Curcumin (1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione), a bioactive constituent from Curcuma longa, is commonly used as a spice, food additive or dietary pigment. It has several health benefits including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. This study examined the roles of curcumin in VSMC migration in hypertension and underlying mechanism. VSMC was isolated and prepared from thoracic aorta of Wistar-Kyoto rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). VSMC migration was evaluated with Boyden chamber assay and wound-healing assay. Curcumin attenuated VSMC migration, inhibited nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) expression and reduced interleukin (IL)-1ß concentration in VSMC of SHR, which were similar to the effects of NLRP3 knockdown on IL-1ß concentration and VSMC migration. Curcumin inhibited NFκB activation in VSMC of SHR, which was similar to the effects of NFκB inhibitor BAY11-7082 on NFκB activation. In another in vitro model of rat VSMC migration, curcumin also inhibited angiotensin II-induced VSMC migration, NFκB activation, NLRP3 expression and IL-1ß production. Intragastric administration of curcumin in SHR attenuated hypertension and reduced NFκB activation, NLRP3 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 expressions and aortic media thickness. These results indicate that curcumin inhibits VSMC migration via inhibiting NFκB-mediated NLRP3 expression in VSMC of SHR or in angiotensin II-treated VSMC. Curcumin attenuates hypertension, vascular inflammation and vascular remodeling in SHR.


Assuntos
Curcumina/farmacologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Animais , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Curcumina/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/patologia , Masculino , Músculo Liso Vascular/citologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Ratos Wistar
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