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1.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2022 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35028796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The U.S. foreign-born population is rapidly increasing, and cancer incidence/mortality rates have been shown to differ by nativity status. Our study aimed to characterize differences in gastric cancer presentation and survival among Hispanic patients in Texas by nativity status. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of the Texas Cancer Registry to identify Hispanic patients diagnosed with gastric adenocarcinoma between 2004 and 2017. Existing indices applied to 2010 census tract-level data were utilized to measure neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES) and Hispanic enclaves. Nativity status was imputed for patients with missing data. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were fit for overall survival adjusted for age, insurance status, diagnosis year, tumor location, stage, grade, reporting source, nativity status, nSES, and Hispanic enclave. RESULTS: Our study cohort consisted of 6186 patients and 39% were foreign-born. A greater proportion of foreign-born patients were diagnosed at < 45 years old (16% vs. 11%, p < 0.0001) and had metastatic disease at presentation (47% vs. 34%, p < 0.0001). Foreign-born patients were more often uninsured, in the lowest nSES quintile, and the highest (most ethnically distinct) quintile for Hispanic enclave. Stage-specific overall survival was significantly higher among foreign-born patients. In our multivariate model, foreign-born Hispanic patients had improved survival versus US-born (hazard ratio [HR] 0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.82-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: The clinical presentation of gastric cancer differs significantly between foreign-born and U.S.-born Hispanic patients. Foreign-born Hispanic patients have improved survival after adjusting for socioeconomic, neighborhood, and clinical factors. Further studies are needed to identify specific causal mechanisms driving the observed survival difference by nativity status.

2.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res ; 14(1): 131-142, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983113

RESUMO

Immunoglobulin (Ig) E and IgG anti-thyroid autoantibodies (AAbs) play important roles in the immunopathogenesis of chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). To date, association of IgE and IgG AAbs with Chinese CSU patients has not been fully investigated. We aimed to explore prevalence rates of IgE and IgG AAbs in Chinese CSU patients and their association with clinical and laboratory parameters. Serum IgE and IgG AAbs against thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (TG), total IgE (tIgE) and specific IgEs were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, chemiluminescence microparticle immunoassay and immunoblotting. Meta-analyses and literature review were conducted. The meta-analyses indicated that CSU cases were 4.98, 6.90 and 6.68 times more likely to have positive anti-TPO IgE, anti-TPO IgG and anti-TG IgG (all P < 0.001) compared with controls, respectively, and revealed a positive correlation between the prevalence rates of anti-TPO IgE and anti-TPO IgG (r = 0.53, P = 0.025). A total of 1,100 Chinese Han adult CSU patients and 1,100 ethnicity-, age- and sex-matched healthy controls were recruited from 15 centers. Prevalence rates of anti-TPO IgE, anti-TPO IgG, anti-TG IgE or anti-TG IgG in the patients were all significantly higher than those in the controls. Significant correlations were observed between prevalence rates of anti-TPO IgE and anti-TPO IgG (r = 0.297, P < 0.001) as well as between those of anti-TG IgE and anti-TG IgG in the patients (r = 0.137, P < 0.001). Patients with anti-TPO IgE or anti-TPO IgG had significantly lower tIgE levels (P < 0.001). Positive anti-TPO IgE, positive anti-TPO IgG and tIgE < 40 IU/mL were independent predictors of antihistamine-refractory cases. In conclusion, the prevalence rates of IgE and IgG AAbs in Chinese CSU patients are significantly elevated and reciprocally correlated. This study verifies the results of previous case-control studies of CSU patients from other populations and ethnicities.

3.
Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes ; 15: 7-13, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35018105

RESUMO

Purpose: Diabetic neurogenic bladder (DNB) has been widely recognized in recent years. It is common in patients with long-term diabetes and may also lead to many severe complications. Although there has been widespread evidence that inflammation is involved in the development of some diabetic complications, there is little evidence that this can also occur in the bladder. In recent years, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) have been viewed as potential novel markers of inflammatory responses. This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between the presence of DNB and the PLR and NLR. Patients and Methods: A total of 371 cases of T2DM patients were included in this retrospective study. Patients were divided into two groups, with 115 diabetic subjects diagnosed with diabetic neurogenic bladder and 256 control subjects without DNB. The independent predictors of DNB were analyzed using logistic regression. Results: Compared with patients without DNB, the mean PLR and NLR were significantly higher in those with DNB (p < 0.001). Based on the logistic regression, PLR was found to be an independent risk factor for DNB (odds ratio [OR]: 1.408, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.248-1.617). From the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, using PLR as indicative of DNB was expected to be 101.1949, and it generated a sensitivity and specificity value of 89.6% and 23.4%, respectively. The area under the curve (AUC) was also found to be 0.899 (95% CI: 0.865-0.932). Conclusion: In our study, PLR and NLR were significantly higher for patients with DNB. The PLR was found to be a risk factor in the presence of DNB after correcting for possible confounding factors. Considering the severe complications associated with DNB, patients with elevated PLR should be seriously cared for in clinics.

4.
J Cancer Surviv ; 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34984632

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To understand the impact of pre-existing conditions on healthcare utilization among under- and uninsured patients in the transition from cancer treatment to post-treatment survivorship. METHODS: Using electronic health record data, we constructed a cohort of patients seen in an integrated county health system between 1/1/2010 and 12/31/2016. Six hundred thirty-one adult patients diagnosed with non-metastatic breast or colorectal cancer during this period (cases) were matched 1:1 on sex and Charlson comorbidity index to non-cancer patients who had at least two chronic conditions and with at least one visit to the health system during the study period (controls). Conditional fixed effects Poisson regression models compared number of primary care and emergency department (ED) visits and completed [vs. no show or missed] appointments between cancer and non-cancer patients. RESULTS: Cancer patients had significantly lower number of visits compared with non-cancer patients (N = 46,965 vs. 85,038). Cancer patients were less likely to have primary care (IRR = 0.25; 95% CI: 0.24, 0.27) and ED visits (IRR = 0.57; 95% CI: 0.50, 0.64) but more likely to complete a scheduled appointment (AOR = 4.83; 95% CI: 4.32, 5.39) compared with non-cancer patients. Cancer patients seen in primary care at a higher rate were more likely to visit the ED (IRR = 2.06; 95% CI: 1.52, 2.80) than those seen in primary care at a lower rate. CONCLUSION: Health systems need to find innovative, effective solutions to increase primary care utilization among cancer patients with chronic care conditions to ensure optimal management of both chronic conditions and cancer. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: Maintaining regular connections with primary care providers during active cancer treatment should be promoted.

5.
Cell Cycle ; : 1-11, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34985386

RESUMO

To investigate the function of lncRNA HOXD-AS1 in cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CESC) and the underlying mechanism. The expressions of HOXD-AS1 and FRRS1 were analyzed on the online software GEPIA based on CESC-related information in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Cervical cancer cells (SiHa and Hela) were accordingly transfected with pCDNA3.1-HOXD-AS1, sh-HOXD-AS1, sh-FRRS1 or pCDNA3.1-ELF1. After cell transfection, CCK-8, EDU and flow cytometry were applied for measurement of cell vitality, quantity and apoptosis, respectively. The relationship between HOXD-AS1 and FRRS1 was predicted on the online software LncMap and further verified by RNA binding protein immunoprecipitation. Nude mice were injected with stabilized SiHa cells transfected with sh-HOXD-AS1 to assess the tumorigenic ability of HOXD-AS1 in vivo. Immunohistochemistry detected the expression of the proliferation marker Ki-67. The levels of HOXD-AS1, ELF1 and FRRS1 were measured in vivo and in vitro. HOXD-AS1 and FRRS1 were overexpressed in CESC. After transfection of sh-HOXD-AS1, sh-ELF1 or sh-FRRS1, the proliferation of SiHa and Hela cells was inhibited and their apoptosis was promoted; while HOXD-AS1 overexpression had opposite effects on CESC development. Co-transfection of sh-FRRS1 and pCDNA3.1-HOXD-AS1 could abolish the tumor suppressive effect of FRRS1 knockdown. HOXD-AS1 elevated the level of FRRS1 by binding ELF1. Furthermore, HOXD-AS1 contributed to the CESC growth in mouse models. HOXD-AS1 promotes CESC by up-regulating FRRS1 via ELF1.

6.
Int J Gen Med ; 15: 103-114, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35023949

RESUMO

Introduction: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most prevalent sustained cardiac arrhythmia, but the molecular mechanisms underlying AF are not known. We aimed to identify the pivotal genes and pathways involved in AF pathogenesis because they could become potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets of AF. Methods: The microarray datasets of GSE31821 and GSE41177 were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. After combining the two datasets, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened by the Limma package. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) confirmed experimentally to have an interaction with AF were screened through the miRTarBase database. Target genes of miRNAs were predicted using the miRNet database, and the intersection between DEGs and target genes of miRNAs, which were defined as common genes (CGs), were analyzed. Functional and pathway-enrichment analyses of DEGs and CGs were performed using the databases DAVID and KOBAS. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, miRNA- messenger(m) RNA network, and drug-gene network was visualized. Finally, reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to validate the expression of hub genes in the miRNA-mRNA network. Results: Thirty-three CGs were acquired from the intersection of 65 DEGs from the integrated dataset and 9777 target genes of miRNAs. Fifteen "hub" genes were selected from the PPI network, and the miRNA-mRNA network, including 82 miRNAs and 9 target mRNAs, was constructed. Furthermore, with the validation by RT-qPCR, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), MYC proto-oncogene, bHLH transcription factor (MYC), inhibitor of differentiation 1 (ID1), and C-X-C Motif Chemokine Receptor 4 (CXCR4) were upregulated and superoxide Dismutase 2 (SOD2) was downregulated in patients with AF compared with healthy controls. We also found MIF, MYC, and ID1 were enriched in the transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß and Hippo signaling pathway. Conclusion: We identified several pivotal genes and pathways involved in AF pathogenesis. MIF, MYC, and ID1 might participate in AF progression through the TGF-ß and Hippo signaling pathways. Our study provided new insights into the mechanisms of action of AF.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35030640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the major health issues in the world. Circ_0000677 has been shown to upregulated in CRC with unclarified function and mechanism. Methyltransferase-like 3 (METTL3) acts as a regulator for gene expression via the mechanism of RNA N6-methyladenosine (m6A) in different types of cancer, which is under the control of SUMO1-based SUMOylation. We aim to investigate their roles in CRC progression. METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blot were used to detect the expressions of METTL3, circ_0000677 and ABCC1 in CRC patients' tissues and cell lines. The functions of ABCC1 and circ_0000677 in CRC were studied by manipulating their level via knocking down or overexpression. RNA pull-down and RNA immunoprecipitation assays were performed to identify the specific binding of target genes. The biological function of METTL3 was investigated and in vivo by xenograft mice tumor model. RESULTS: METTL3, circ_0000677 and ABCC1 were upregulated in CRC patients' samples and cell lines. Circ_0000677 positively regulate CRC cell proliferation and drug resistance via affecting ABCC1 expression. METTL3 facilitated circ_0000677 level via m6A modification. METTL3 was regulated by SUMO1-mediated SUMOylation in CRC. Mutation of METTL3-K459 could suppress tumor growth in vivo via regulating circ_0000677/ABCC1 axis. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our study revealed that circ_0000677 and its downstream target ABCC1 were upregulated in CRC cells, induced by the METTL3-mediated m6A modification of circ_0000677 and SUMO1-mediated SUMOylation of METTL3. This work provided a new strategy for the therapeutic treatment of CRC.

8.
Neural Regen Res ; 17(1): 115-121, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34100446

RESUMO

Exposure to explosive shockwave often leads to blast-induced traumatic brain injury in military and civilian populations. Unprotected ears are most often damaged following exposure to blasts. Although there is an association between tympanic membrane perforation and TBI in blast exposure victims, little is known about how and to what extent blast energy is transmitted to the central nervous system via the external ear canal. The present study investigated whether exposure to blasts directed through the ear canal causes brain injury in Long-Evans rats. Animals were exposed to a single blast (0-30 pounds per square inch (psi)) through the ear canal, and brain injury was evaluated by histological and behavioral outcomes at multiple time-points. Blast exposure not only caused tympanic membrane perforation but also produced substantial neuropathological changes in the brain, including increased expression of c-Fos, induction of a profound chronic neuroinflammatory response, and apoptosis of neurons. The blast-induced injury was not limited only to the brainstem most proximal to the source of the blast, but also affected the forebrain including the hippocampus, amygdala and the habenula, which are all involved in cognitive functions. Indeed, the animals exhibited long-term neurological deficits, including signs of anxiety in open field tests 2 months following blast exposure, and impaired learning and memory in an 8-arm maze 12 months following blast exposure. These results suggest that the unprotected ear canal provides a locus for blast waves to cause TBI. This study was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at the University of Mississippi Medical Center (Animal protocol# 0932E, approval date: September 30, 2016 and 0932F, approval date: September 27, 2019).

9.
Bioengineered ; 13(1): 624-633, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34898375

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer (OC) is the main type of cancer that affects the female reproductive system and has a high morbidity and mortality rate. This study aimed to explore the regulatory effect of the chromosomal region maintenance 1 (CRM1)-survivin axis on the progression of OC. Ovarian cancer cells were transfected with pcDNA3.1-survivin and short hairpin RNA (sh)-CRM1. Cell proliferation was analyzed by cell counting kit-8 (CCK8), 5-ethynyl-2´-deoxyuridine (EdU) staining, and colony formation assays. Apoptosis was detected using flow cytometry. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting were performed to analyze the expression of RNA and protein, respectively. qRT-PCR and prognostic correlation analyses revealed that CRM1 is highly expressed in OC cells and related to survival. The results of qRT-PCR, CCK8, colony formation test, EdU staining, flow cytometry, and Western blotting showed that CRM1 silencing inhibited the proliferation and colony formation of OVCAR 3 and SKOV3 cells and promoted cell apoptosis by promoting Caspase-3 activation. Survivin was positively regulated by CRM1 and promoted the development of OC. The results of the rescue experiment showed that overexpression of survivin reversed the inhibitory effect of CRM1 knockdown on the proliferation of ovarian cancer cells and its inhibitory effect on apoptosis. Our findings confirm the role of the CRM1-survivin signal transduction axis in OC by regulating the proliferation and apoptosis of OC cells, and may thus serve as a potential therapeutic target for OC.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34898770

RESUMO

Conditional independence assumption of truncation and failure times conditioning on covariates is a fundamental and common assumption in the regression analysis of left-truncated and right-censored data. Testing for this assumption is essential to ensure the correct inference on the failure time, but this has often been overlooked in the literature. With consideration of challenges caused by left truncation and right censoring, tests for this conditional independence assumption are developed in which the generalized odds ratio derived from a Cox proportional hazards model on the failure time and the concept of Kendall's tau are combined. Except for the Cox proportional hazards model, no additional model assumptions are imposed, and the distributions of the truncation time and conditioning variables are unspecified. The asymptotic properties of the test statistic are established and an easy implementation for obtaining its distribution is developed. The performance of the proposed test has been evaluated through simulation studies and two real studies.

11.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(2): 673-679, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34213038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Flaxseed is an economically important oilseed crop whose geographic origin is of significant interest to producers and consumers because every region may exhibit particular quality characteristics. The lipid/fatty acid method of determining the geographic origin of flaxseed has not been found to be adequate. RESULTS: To improve the discrimination rate and the geographical traceability of this crop, the chemical profiles of the flaxseed samples were characterized via lipids/fatty acids, stable isotopes, and antioxidant capacity. Principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were also performed. A satisfactory discrimination rate of 98.6% was obtained after combining fatty acids, stable isotopes, and antioxidant capacity to trace the origin of flaxseed from five regions in northern China. CONCLUSION: This study provides an effective method for distinguishing the geographic origin of flaxseed. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Linho/química , Isótopos/química , China , Análise Discriminante , Linho/classificação , Análise de Componente Principal , Sementes/química , Sementes/classificação
12.
Food Chem ; 370: 131326, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656020

RESUMO

Theanaphthoquinone (TNQ) is the initial and main oxidation product of theaflavin, a representative black tea pigment. Nevertheless, TNQ is virtually undetected in the high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of black tea leaves using photodiode array detection. To elucidate the degradation mechanism of theaflavin in the black tea production process, this study investigated the reaction of TNQ with epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCg), which is the most abundant polyphenol in tea leaves. In citrate-phosphate buffer solution at pH 6 and room temperature, TNQ reacted nonenzymatically with EGCg to afford three products, whose structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data. The results indicated that the double bond of the ortho-naphthoquinone moiety in TNQ reacted with the autoxidation product of EGCg. This study demonstrates novel reactions occurring in the process of theaflavin degradation, which might be involved in the formation of thearubigins, the major black tea pigments composing oligomeric catechin oxidation products.


Assuntos
Biflavonoides , Catequina , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Chá
13.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126802, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396977

RESUMO

The coexistence of hazardous substances enhances their toxicities to plants, but its mechanism is still unclear due to the unknown cytochemical behavior of hazardous substance in plants. In this study, by using interdisciplinary methods, we observed the cytochemical behavior of coexisting hazardous substances {terbium [Tb(III)], benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and cadmium [Cd(II)] in environments} in plants and thus identified a new mechanism by which coexisting hazardous substances in environments enhance their toxicities to plants. First, Tb(III) at environmental exposure level (1.70 × 10-10 g/L) breaks the inert rule of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) in leaf cells. Specifically, Tb(III) binds to its receptor [FASCICLIN-like arabinogalactan protein 17 (FLA17)] on the plasma membrane of leaf cells and then docks to an intracellular adaptor protein [adaptor protein 2 (AP2)] to form ternary complex [Tb(III)-FLA17-AP2], which finally initiates CME pathway in leaf cells. Second, coexisting Tb(III), BaP and Cd(II) in environments are simultaneously transported into leaf cells via Tb(III)-initiated CME pathway, leading to the accumulation of them in leaf cells. Finally, these accumulated hazardous substances simultaneously poison plant leaf cells. These results provide theoretical and experimental bases for elucidating the mechanisms of hazardous substances in environments poisoning plants, evaluating their risks, and protecting ecosystems.


Assuntos
Clatrina , Substâncias Perigosas , Ecossistema , Endocitose , Substâncias Perigosas/toxicidade , Plantas
14.
J Hazard Mater ; 423(Pt B): 127109, 2022 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517299

RESUMO

Activated alumina is the most common adsorbent for purifying fluoride in water, however, little is known so far about the adsorption mechanisms and comparison of adsorption behaviors for F on different crystal phase alumina surfaces, which seriously obstacles the development of high-performance sorbents. Herein, employing the density functional theory approach, we have studied F adsorbed on α-Al2O3(0001), γ-Al2O3(110), and θ-Al2O3(010) surfaces. Results accentuate that the θ-Al2O3 (010) is the most reactive than ɑ-Al2O3 (0001) and γ-Al2O3 (110) for F adsorption and the high reactivity is mainly attributed to the high unsaturation level of Al atoms. Detailly, the most stable adsorption sites are top of Al1 site, bridge of Al6 and adjacent Al atom, and bridge of AlⅢ atoms for α, γ, θ-alumina, respectively. The bonding picture shows that the bonding between F and alumina surface is attributed to the hybridization between F-p orbitals and Al-s,p orbitals. In addition, the alumina surfaces are hydroxylated with water molecules when exposing to the atmosphere, exhibiting a great impact on the performance of purifying F element. Results suggest that the hydroxylated θ-Al2O3 (010) adsorbs F with the smallest adsorption energy than other hydroxylated alumina surfaces, exhibiting the lowest performance of purifying F element.

15.
Cancer Manag Res ; 13: 8673-8683, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34849024

RESUMO

Objective: The significance of surgical treatment was analyzed by retrospectively collecting data on the re-resection of intra-abdominal metastases after hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surgery in our center over the past 10 years. Methods: The clinical and pathological data of 15 patients who developed intra-abdominal metastases after HCC resection and underwent re-resection from January 2010 to January 2020 were collected to analyze the patients' characteristics and prognosis. Results: Of the 15 cases of abdominal metastasis, the majority (8 cases) had greater omental metastasis. There were 4 cases of mesenteric metastases, 1 case of abdominal wall metastasis, 1 case of mesenteric plus rectal wall metastasis, and 1 case of colon and mesenteric metastasis. The 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 31.1%, 23.3%, and 11.7%, respectively. The 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year overall survival rates were 93.3%, 28.7%, and 19.1%, respectively. Three patients are currently surviving disease-free, with survival times of 130.4 months, 43.3 months, and 9.4 months, respectively. Conclusion: Although the current guidelines do not recommend surgical resection as the preferred treatment for postoperative abdominal metastases of HCC, surgical resection is recommended for patients with limited or solitary metastasis in the abdominal cavity.

16.
Mol Cancer ; 20(1): 154, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34852849

RESUMO

To identify novel cancer therapies, the tumor microenvironment (TME) has received a lot of attention in recent years in particular with the advent of clinical successes achieved by targeting immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). The TME consists of multiple cell types that are embedded in the extracellular matrix (ECM), including immune cells, endothelial cells and cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs), which communicate with cancer cells and each other during tumor progression. CAFs are a dominant and heterogeneous cell type within the TME with a pivotal role in controlling cancer cell invasion and metastasis, immune evasion, angiogenesis and chemotherapy resistance. CAFs mediate their effects in part by remodeling the ECM and by secreting soluble factors and extracellular vesicles. Exosomes are a subtype of extracellular vesicles (EVs), which contain various biomolecules such as nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins. The biomolecules in exosomes can be transmitted from one to another cell, and thereby affect the behavior of the receiving cell. As exosomes are also present in circulation, their contents can also be explored as biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer patients. In this review, we concentrate on the role of CAFs-derived exosomes in the communication between CAFs and cancer cells and other cells of the TME. First, we introduce the multiple roles of CAFs in tumorigenesis. Thereafter, we discuss the ways CAFs communicate with cancer cells and interplay with other cells of the TME, and focus in particular on the role of exosomes. Then, we elaborate on the mechanisms by which CAFs-derived exosomes contribute to cancer progression, as well as and the clinical impact of exosomes. We conclude by discussing aspects of exosomes that deserve further investigation, including emerging insights into making treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitor blockade more efficient.

17.
Front Oncol ; 11: 762653, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34868978

RESUMO

Most randomized trials for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) have investigated highly selected patients under idealized conditions, and the findings need to be validated in the real world. We conducted a population-based study of all APL patients in Zhejiang Province, China, with a total population of 82 million people, to assess the generalization of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic as front-line treatment. The outcomes of APL patients were also analyzed. Between January 2015 and December 2019, 1,233 eligible patients were included in the final analysis. The rate of ATRA and arsenic as front-line treatment increased steadily from 66.2% in 2015 to 83.3% in 2019, with no difference among the size of the center (≥5 or <5 patients per year, p = 0.12) or age (≥60 or <60 years, p = 0.35). The early death (ED) rate, defined as death within 30 days after diagnosis, was 8.2%, and the 3-year overall survival (OS) was 87.9% in the whole patient population. Age (≥60 years) and white blood cell count (>10 × 109/L) were independent risk factors for ED and OS in the multivariate analysis. This population-based study showed that ATRA and arsenic as front-line treatment are widely used under real-world conditions and yield a low ED rate and a high survival rate, which mimic the results from clinical trials, thereby supporting the wider application of APL guidelines in the future.

18.
Food Chem ; 374: 131675, 2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34883432

RESUMO

Cellulose is a most abundant natural biopolymer, however, the strong hydrogen bonding system makes cellulose hard to dissolve, limiting its further applications. In this study, an innovative cold plasma (CP) technology was used to modify cellulose from sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) bagasse pulp. Dissolution, structure, and surface chemistry of cellulose before and after CP treatment were investigated. Results showed that the dissolution rate of cellulose after different CP treatment time (3-12 min) and operating voltage (40-70 kV) was significantly improved. Roughness, even holes (CP treatment 9 min with 50 kV) and breakage (CP treatment 9 min with 70 kV) were observed on the surface. The crystallinity index decreased from 62.31% (control) to 60.88% (CP treatment 3 min with 50 kV). The hydrogen bonding force was weakened and the peak intensity of CO and CO stretching vibration groups were enhanced. Therefore, CP-modified cellulose may be applied more in future, such as biological films for food future packaging.

19.
Biomed J ; 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34863964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypoxia-induced apoptosis is linked to the pathogenesis of myocardial infarction. The role of apoptosis-inducing factor mitochondria associated 1 (AIFM1) in cardiomyocyte injury remains unclear. This study was aimed at probing into the role and the underlying regulatory mechanism of AIFM1 in myocardial injury. METHODS: H9c2 cardiomyocytes and C57BL/6 mice were used for myocardial hypoxic/ischemic injury and myocardial infarction animal models. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed to evaluate the expression levels of AIFM1 mRNA and miR-145-5p. Western blot was used for examining the expression levels of AIFM1, caspase-3, cleaved caspase-3, p-53, and γ-H2AX. Cell viability was examined by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and BrdU assay. Interaction between AIFM1 and miR-145-5p was determined by bioinformatics analysis, qRT-PCR, Western blot, and dual-luciferase reporter assay. RESULTS: AIFM1 expression was markedly highly elevated, while miR-145-5p expression was significantly down-regulated in the myocardial infarction animal model and H9c2 cells under hypoxia. Augmentation of AIFM1 led to a dramatic decrease of cell viability, accompanied by an increase of the secretion of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1ß, TNF-α, IL-6, and the expression of cleaved caspase-3. Furthermore, AIFM1 was identified as a target of miR-145-5p. In addition, miR-145-5p/AIFM1 axis regulated the expression of p53. CONCLUSION: AIFM1 may exacerbate myocardial ischemic injury by promoting inflammation and the injury of cardiomyocytes, and its up-regulation may partly due to the down-regulation of miR-145-5p.

20.
Brief Bioinform ; 2021 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34891172

RESUMO

Identifying new indications for drugs plays an essential role at many phases of drug research and development. Computational methods are regarded as an effective way to associate drugs with new indications. However, most of them complete their tasks by constructing a variety of heterogeneous networks without considering the biological knowledge of drugs and diseases, which are believed to be useful for improving the accuracy of drug repositioning. To this end, a novel heterogeneous information network (HIN) based model, namely HINGRL, is proposed to precisely identify new indications for drugs based on graph representation learning techniques. More specifically, HINGRL first constructs a HIN by integrating drug-disease, drug-protein and protein-disease biological networks with the biological knowledge of drugs and diseases. Then, different representation strategies are applied to learn the features of nodes in the HIN from the topological and biological perspectives. Finally, HINGRL adopts a Random Forest classifier to predict unknown drug-disease associations based on the integrated features of drugs and diseases obtained in the previous step. Experimental results demonstrate that HINGRL achieves the best performance on two real datasets when compared with state-of-the-art models. Besides, our case studies indicate that the simultaneous consideration of network topology and biological knowledge of drugs and diseases allows HINGRL to precisely predict drug-disease associations from a more comprehensive perspective. The promising performance of HINGRL also reveals that the utilization of rich heterogeneous information provides an alternative view for HINGRL to identify novel drug-disease associations especially for new diseases.

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