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1.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 727901, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603043

RESUMO

Dermatomyositis (DM) is an idiopathic inflammatory myopathy characterized by cutaneous manifestations. We first identified the profiles of noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs and miRNAs) in peripheral neutrophil exosomes (EXOs) of DM patients and explored their potential functional roles. Bioinformatics analyses were performed with R packages. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to validate the altered RNAs in DM neutrophil EXO-stimulated human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs) and human skeletal muscle myoblasts (HSkMCs). In DM neutrophil EXOs, 124 upregulated lncRNAs (with 1,392 target genes), 255 downregulated lncRNAs (with 1867 target genes), 17 upregulated miRNAs (with 2,908 target genes), and 15 downregulated miRNAs (with 2,176 target genes) were identified. GO analysis showed that the differentially expressed (DE) lncRNAs and DE miRNAs participated in interleukin-6 and interferon-beta production, skeletal muscle cell proliferation and development, and endothelial cell development and differentiation. KEGG analysis suggested that DE lncRNAs and DE miRNAs were enriched in the PI3K-Akt, MAPK, AMPK and FoxO signalling pathways. Many novel and valuable DE lncRNAs and DE miRNAs interacted and cotargeted in the PI3K-Akt, MAPK, AMPK and FoxO signalling pathways. Our study suggests that neutrophil EXOs participate in DM pathogenesis through lncRNAs and miRNAs in the PI3K-Akt, MAPK, AMPK and FoxO signalling pathways.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34698812

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Dermatomyositis (DM) is characterized by skeletal muscle weakness and cutaneous manifestations. Plasma exosomes (EXOs) contain proteins, RNAs, DNA, and lipid cargoes and are transferred among cells. Deeply investigated plasma EXO RNAs potentially improve our understanding of DM pathogenesis. We aimed to identify new potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets of DM. METHODS: The RNAs (mRNA, miRNA and lncRNA) profiles of plasma EXOs were evaluated by sequencing on the Illumina HiSeq 3000 platform. Differentially expressed (DE) RNAs and bioinformatic analyses were performed. Human skeletal muscle myoblasts (HSkMCs) were stimulated with plasma EXOs, rapamycin or IFN-ß. Real-time PCR and western blot were used to detect related genes and proteins. RESULTS: A total of 689 DE mRNAs, 53 DE miRNAs and 452 DE lncRNAs were identified in DM plasma EXOs. Bioinformatic analysis inferred that plasma EXOs were secreted mainly by CD8+ T cells, regulatory T cells and natural killer cells. The DE miRNAs participated in the autophagy, TGF-ß and Wnt signalling pathways. Three DE miRNAs (hsa-miR-125a-3p, hsa-miR-1246 and hsa-miR-3614-5p) were correlated with serological indices, organs involvement and myositis-specific autoantibodies. The DE lncRNAs participated in autophagy, interferon-ß production and mTOR signalling. DM plasma EXOs can induce autophagy in HSkMCs by regulating 3 miRNAs (hsa-miR-125a-3p, hsa-miR-1246 and hsa-miR-3614-5p) and 3 lncRNAs (ENST00000584157.1, ENST00000523380.1, and ENST00000560054.1), which formed an autophagy network, playing the muscle damage roles. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides an overview of distinct RNAs profiles in DM plasma EXOs, and verified some miRNAs as potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets. The findings provide important clues for more in-depth explorations of plasma EXOs in DM.

3.
Gastric Cancer ; 24(6): 1342-1354, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) before radical gastrectomy is preferred for locally advanced gastric cancer (GC). However, clinical practices demonstrate that a considerable proportion of GC patients do not benefit from NACT, largely due to the lack of biomarkers for patient selection and prognosis prediction. A recent study revealed that patients with microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) may be resistant to NACT, however, most tumors in Chinese GC patients (~ 95%) are characterized by microsatellite stability (MSS). Here, we aimed to discover new molecular biomarkers for this larger population. METHODS: We performed whole-exome sequencing on 46 clinical samples (pre- and post-treatment) from 30 stage II/III MSS GC patients whose response to NACT was rigorously defined. Serum tumor markers (TMs), including AFP, CEA, CA199, CA724 and CA242 were measured during the course. RESULTS: High tumor mutation burden (TMB-H) and 19q12 amplification (19q12 +) were positively associated with the NACT response. When TMB and 19q12 amplification were jointly analyzed, those with TMB-H or 19q12 + showed favorable response to NACT (p = 0.035). Further, TMB-H was negatively correlated with ypN stage, lymph node metastasis, and macrophage infiltration. Patients with TMB-H showed better disease-free survival (DFS) than those with TMB-L (P = 0.025, HR = 0.1331), and this was further validated using two larger GC datasets: TCGA-STAD (p = 0.004) and ICGC-CN (p = 0.045). CONCLUSION: The combination of TMB-H and 19q12 + can serve as an early indicator of response to NACT. Superior to traditional clinical indicators, TMB-H is a robust and easily accessible candidate biomarker associated with better DFS, and can be evaluated at the time of diagnosis.

4.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 46(7): 704-710, 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382586

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the risk factors for serious infections among hospitalized systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, and to provide the advice for preventing serious infections in SLE patients. METHODS: Information of SLE patients hospitalized from March 2017 to February 2019 at the Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University was obtained. The patients were assigned into a serious infection group and a non-serious infection group. The risk factors for serious infections among SLE inpatients were identified by comparison between the 2 groups and multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: There were 463 SLE inpatients in total, and 144 were in the serious infection group and 319 in the non-serious infection group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age ≥54.50 years old (OR=4.958, P<0.001), cardiovascular involvement (OR=6.287, P<0.001), hematologic involvement (OR=2.643, P=0.003), serum albumin <20 g/L (OR=2.340, P=0.036), C-reaction protein (CRP)/erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)≥0.12 (OR=2.430, P=0.002), glucocorticoid dose ≥8.75 mg/d prednisone-equivalent (OR=2.465, P=0.002), and the combined use of immunosuppressive agents (OR=2.847, P=0.037) were the risk factors for serious infections in SLE inpatients. CONCLUSIONS: SLE patients with older age, cardiovascular involvement, hematologic involvement, low serum albumin are prone to suffering serious infections. Increased CRP/ESR ratio indicates serious infections in SLE inpatients. High-dose glucocorticoid and the combined use of immunosuppressive agents can increase the risk of serious infections in SLE inpatients.


Assuntos
Pacientes Internados , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico , Idoso , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prednisona , Fatores de Risco
5.
J Exp Med ; 218(9)2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259830

RESUMO

Transforming growth factor-ß (TGFß) is a key mediator of fibroblast activation in fibrotic diseases, including systemic sclerosis. Here we show that Engrailed 1 (EN1) is reexpressed in multiple fibroblast subpopulations in the skin of SSc patients. We characterize EN1 as a molecular amplifier of TGFß signaling in myofibroblast differentiation: TGFß induces EN1 expression in a SMAD3-dependent manner, and in turn, EN1 mediates the profibrotic effects of TGFß. RNA sequencing demonstrates that EN1 induces a profibrotic gene expression profile functionally related to cytoskeleton organization and ROCK activation. EN1 regulates gene expression by modulating the activity of SP1 and other SP transcription factors, as confirmed by ChIP-seq experiments for EN1 and SP1. Functional experiments confirm the coordinating role of EN1 on ROCK activity and the reorganization of cytoskeleton during myofibroblast differentiation, in both standard fibroblast culture systems and in vitro skin models. Consistently, mice with fibroblast-specific knockout of En1 demonstrate impaired fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition and are partially protected from experimental skin fibrosis.

6.
Front Oncol ; 11: 675873, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34221994

RESUMO

Combination immunotherapy can overcome the limited objective response rates of PD-1 blockade. Interferon alpha (IFN-α) has been proven to be effective in modulating immune responses and may enhance the clinical responses to PD-1 blockade. According to clinical practice guidelines, IFN-α was recommended as adjuvant therapy for stage IIB/C melanoma patients. However, the impact of prior IFN-α therapy on the efficacy of subsequent PD-1 blockade in melanoma has not been previously reported. Therefore, we performed a retrospective analysis for melanoma patients and addressed whether prior IFN-α therapy enhanced adjuvant pembrolizumab as later-line treatment. Fifty-six patients with resectable stage III/IV melanoma who received adjuvant therapy with pembrolizumab were retrospectively enrolled in this study. Notably, 25 patients received adjuvant pegylated IFN-α (PEG-IFN-α) in the prior line of treatment while 31 patients did not receive prior PEG-IFN-α therapy. Cox regression analysis showed that prior PEG-IFN-α therapy was associated with the efficacy of later-line adjuvant pembrolizumab (hazard ratio=0.37, 95% CI 0.16-0.89; P = 0.026). The recurrence rates after treatment with adjuvant pembrolizumab were significantly reduced in the prior PEG-IFN-α group (P < 0.001). The Kaplan-Meier analysis also showed that recurrence-free survival (RFS) after adjuvant pembrolizumab therapy was prolonged by prior PEG-IFN-α treatment (median RFSPem 8.5 months vs. 4.5 months; P = 0.0372). These findings indicated that prior PEG-IFN-α could enhance the efficacy of adjuvant pembrolizumab. The long-lasting effects of PEG-IFN-α provide a new rationale for designing combination or sequential immunotherapy.

7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4404, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34285225

RESUMO

Activation of fibroblasts is essential for physiological tissue repair. Uncontrolled activation of fibroblasts, however, may lead to tissue fibrosis with organ dysfunction. Although several pathways capable of promoting fibroblast activation and tissue repair have been identified, their interplay in the context of chronic fibrotic diseases remains incompletely understood. Here, we provide evidence that transforming growth factor-ß (TGFß) activates autophagy by an epigenetic mechanism to amplify its profibrotic effects. TGFß induces autophagy in fibrotic diseases by SMAD3-dependent downregulation of the H4K16 histone acetyltransferase MYST1, which regulates the expression of core components of the autophagy machinery such as ATG7 and BECLIN1. Activation of autophagy in fibroblasts promotes collagen release and is both, sufficient and required, to induce tissue fibrosis. Forced expression of MYST1 abrogates the stimulatory effects of TGFß on autophagy and re-establishes the epigenetic control of autophagy in fibrotic conditions. Interference with the aberrant activation of autophagy inhibits TGFß-induced fibroblast activation and ameliorates experimental dermal and pulmonary fibrosis. These findings link uncontrolled TGFß signaling to aberrant autophagy and deregulated epigenetics in fibrotic diseases and may contribute to the development of therapeutic interventions in fibrotic diseases.


Assuntos
Autofagia/genética , Epigênese Genética , Histona Acetiltransferases/metabolismo , Escleroderma Sistêmico/patologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Proteína 7 Relacionada à Autofagia/genética , Proteína 7 Relacionada à Autofagia/metabolismo , Biópsia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Fibroblastos , Fibrose , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células NIH 3T3 , Cultura Primária de Células , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento Transformadores beta , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Pele/citologia , Pele/patologia , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 132(2): 148-153, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33994113

RESUMO

Neurospora crassa has been generally recognized as a safe organism and possesses a remarkable ability to produce yellow-to-orange carotenoids. The present work mainly explored the potential mechanism of exogenous oleic acid on promoting lycopene production in N. crassa. Carbon flux was conducively channelized into the mevalonate metabolic pathway to synthesize more lycopene, associating with the increased levels of acetyl-CoA, NADPH and factors related to the mevalonate pathway. Additionally, exogenous oleic acid boosted the intracellular triacylglycerol production through de novo and ex novo fatty acid synthesis pathways, which contributed to improving the accumulation of lycopene via lipid bodies. Further, the regulated fatty acid profile also enhanced the storage capacity of lipid bodies. Consequently, this study provided an effective strategy to enhance the lycopene production in N. crassa by adding oleic acid to the culture medium and elucidated an extraordinary insight into the potential mechanism.


Assuntos
Neurospora crassa , Carotenoides , Licopeno , Ácido Mevalônico , Ácido Oleico
9.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903093

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) is a multifunctional protein with important functions in apoptosis, cellular differentiation and cytoskeletal organisation and is emerging as potential target for the treatment of various cancers. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of XIAP in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: The expression of XIAP in human skin samples of patients with SSc and chronic graft versus host disease (cGvHD) and healthy individuals was analysed by quantitative PCR, immunofluorescence (IF) and western blot. XIAP was inactivated by siRNA-mediated knockdown and pharmacological inhibition. The effects of XIAP inactivation were analysed in cultured fibroblasts and in the fibrosis models bleomycin-induced and topoisomerase-I-(topoI)-induced fibrosis and in Wnt10b-transgenic mice. RESULTS: The expression of XIAP, but not of other inhibitor of apoptosis protein family members, was increased in fibroblasts in SSc and sclerodermatous cGvHD. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß) induced the expression of XIAP in a SMAD3-dependent manner. Inactivation of XIAP reduced WNT-induced fibroblast activation and collagen release. Inhibition of XIAP also ameliorated fibrosis induced by bleomycin, topoI and overexpression of Wnt10b in well-tolerated doses. The profibrotic effects of XIAP were mediated via WNT/ß-catenin signalling. Inactivation of XIAP reduces binding of ß-catenin to TCF to in a TLE-dependent manner to block WNT/ß-catenin-dependent transcription. CONCLUSIONS: Our data characterise XIAP as a novel link between two core pathways of fibrosis. XIAP is overexpressed in SSc and cGvHD in a TGF-ß/SMAD3-dependent manner and in turn amplifies the profibrotic effects of WNT/ß-catenin signalling on fibroblasts via transducin-like enhancer of split 3. Targeted inactivation of XIAP inhibits the aberrant activation of fibroblasts in murine models of SSc.

10.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 643520, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33897433

RESUMO

Rheumatic diseases are a group of chronic autoimmune disorders that involve multiple organs or systems and have high mortality. The mechanisms of these diseases are still ill-defined, and targeted therapeutic strategies are still challenging for physicians. Recent research indicates that cell metabolism plays important roles in the pathogenesis of rheumatic diseases. In this review, we mainly focus on lipid metabolism profiles (dyslipidaemia, fatty acid metabolism) and mechanisms in rheumatic diseases and discuss potential clinical applications based on lipid metabolism profiles.

11.
Front Oncol ; 11: 569429, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33912440

RESUMO

Background: Brain metastasis mainly originates from lung cancer. Napsin A and TTF-1 factors have frequently been detected in lung adenocarcinoma cases. Brain metastasis tumors with napsin A and TTF-1 positive are easily classified as lung adenocarcinoma origin. However, some thyroid cancers also exhibit these clinical features. Besides, lung is the most common metastasis of undifferential thyroid cancer. Therefore, it requires development of novel diagnostic tools to aid in distinguishing between pulmonary and thyroid origin. Patient Findings: We reported a case that was initially diagnosed as brain metastatic lung cancer based on immunohistochemistry results. Analysis of next-generation sequencing (NGS) data from the brain lesion revealed that the cancer may have originated from the thyroid. We detected combo mutations in TERT promoter mutation, RET fusion and TP53, which are common in undifferential thyroid cancer (UTC), but rare for lung cancer. These results, coupled with identification of PAX8, indicated that this patient had UTC. Additionally, her three sons, despite being asymptomatic, were all diagnosed with papillary thyroid carcinoma. Summary: The patient received anlotinib treatment and showed good clinical outcomes. One month after anlotinib treatment, the pulmonary nodules were found to be controlled, and the thyroid tumor drastically reduced, and tracheal compression relieved. She continued anlotinib treatment for the following two months, but died one month later because the treatment stopped owing to financial reasons. All her sons underwent total thyroidectomy with lymph node dissection. Conclusions: Although NGS has been reported to assist in diagnosis of the origin of some tumors, this is the first evidence of NGS for the determination of the origin of thyroid tumors. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a combination of multiple mutations has been used to help determine the origin of a tumor, compared with the previous single mutant gene. Moreover, this is the first evidence on the use of anlotinib for treatment of UTC with distant metastasis. Besides, all three sons of the patient had thyroid carcinoma in subsequent examinations, indicating high-risk for familial non-medullary thyroid cancer in UTC patients and necessity for performing thyroid ultrasound testing in other family members.

12.
Immunity ; 54(5): 1002-1021.e10, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761330

RESUMO

Arthritis typically involves recurrence and progressive worsening at specific predilection sites, but the checkpoints between remission and persistence remain unknown. Here, we defined the molecular and cellular mechanisms of this inflammation-mediated tissue priming. Re-exposure to inflammatory stimuli caused aggravated arthritis in rodent models. Tissue priming developed locally and independently of adaptive immunity. Repeatedly stimulated primed synovial fibroblasts (SFs) exhibited enhanced metabolic activity inducing functional changes with intensified migration, invasiveness and osteoclastogenesis. Meanwhile, human SF from patients with established arthritis displayed a similar primed phenotype. Transcriptomic and epigenomic analyses as well as genetic and pharmacological targeting demonstrated that inflammatory tissue priming relies on intracellular complement C3- and C3a receptor-activation and downstream mammalian target of rapamycin- and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α-mediated metabolic SF invigoration that prevents activation-induced senescence, enhances NLRP3 inflammasome activity, and in consequence sensitizes tissue for inflammation. Our study suggests possibilities for therapeutic intervention abrogating tissue priming without immunosuppression.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/imunologia , Fibroblastos/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Membrana Sinovial/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa/imunologia , Animais , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Cães , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/imunologia , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
13.
Blood ; 137(17): 2403-2416, 2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529322

RESUMO

Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a major life-threatening complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The molecular mechanisms underlying cGVHD remain poorly understood, and targeted therapies for clinical use are not well established. Here, we examined the role of the canonical WNT pathway in sclerodermatous cGVHD (sclGVHD). WNT signaling was activated in human sclGVHD with increased nuclear accumulation of the transcription factor ß-catenin and a WNT-biased gene expression signature in lesional skin. Treatment with the highly selective tankryase inhibitor G007-LK, the CK1α agonist pyrvinium, or the LRP6 inhibitor salinomycin abrogated the activation of WNT signaling and protected against experimental cGVHD, without a significant impact on graft-versus-leukemia effect (GVL). Treatment with G007-LK, pyrvinium, or salinomycin almost completely prevented the development of clinical and histological features in the B10.D2 (H-2d) → BALB/c (H-2d) and LP/J (H-2b) → C57BL/6 (H-2b) models of sclGVHD. Inhibition of canonical WNT signaling reduced the release of extracellular matrix from fibroblasts and reduced leukocyte influx, suggesting that WNT signaling stimulates fibrotic tissue remodeling by direct effects on fibroblasts and by indirect inflammation-dependent effects in sclGVHD. Our findings may have direct translational potential, because pyrvinium is in clinical use, and tankyrase inhibitors are in clinical trials for other indications.

14.
Aging Dis ; 12(1): 247-260, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33532139

RESUMO

Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) are chronic autoimmune disorders involving multiple organs, such as the muscle, skin, lungs and joints. Although the detailed pathogenesis of IIMs remains unclear, immune mechanisms have long been recognised as of key importance. Immune cells contribute to many inflammatory processes via intercellular interactions and secretion of inflammatory factors, and many studies have demonstrated the participation of a variety of immune cells, such as T cells and B cells, in the development of IIMs. Here, we summarise the current knowledge regarding immune cells in IIM patients and discuss their potential roles in IIM pathogenesis.

15.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 60(5): 2177-2189, 2021 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33165604

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Muscle cell necrosis is the most common pathological manifestation of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Evidence suggests that glycolysis might participate in it. However, the mechanism is unclear. This study aimed to determine the role of glycolysis in the muscle damage that occurs in DM/PM. METHODS: Mass spectrometry was performed on muscle lesions from DM/PM and control subjects. The expression levels of pyruvate kinase isozyme M2 (PKM2), the nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and pyroptosis-related genes in muscle tissues or plasma were determined by real-time PCR, western blot analysis, IF and ELISA. In addition, IFNγ was used to stimulate myotubes, and the relationships among PMK2 expression, NLRP3 inflammasome activation and pyroptosis were investigated. RESULTS: Mass spectrometry and bioinformatics analysis suggested that multiple glycolysis processes, the NLRP3 inflammasome and programmed cell death pathway-related proteins were dysregulated in the muscle tissues of DM/PM. PKM2 and the NLRP3 inflammasome were upregulated and positively correlated in the muscle fibres of DM/PM. Moreover, the pyroptosis-related proteins were increased in muscle tissues of DM/PM and were further increased in PM. The levels of PKM2 in muscle tissues and IL-1ß in plasma were high in patients with anti-signal recognition particle autoantibody expression. The pharmacological inhibition of PKM2 in IFNγ-stimulated myotubes attenuated NLRP3 inflammasome activation and subsequently inhibited pyroptosis. CONCLUSION: Our study revealed upregulated glycolysis in the lesioned muscle tissues of DM/PM, which activated the NLRP3 inflammasome and leaded to pyroptosis in muscle cells. The levels of PKM2 and IL-1ß were high in patients with anti-signal recognition particle autoantibody expression. These proteins might be used as new biomarkers for muscle damage.

16.
Genome Biol ; 21(1): 281, 2020 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a clinically heterogeneous autoimmune disease characterized by the development of anti-nuclear antibodies. Susceptibility to SLE is multifactorial, with a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors contributing to disease development. Like other polygenic diseases, a significant proportion of estimated SLE heritability is not accounted for by common disease alleles analyzed by SNP array-based GWASs. Death-associated protein 1 (DAP1) was implicated as a candidate gene in a previous familial linkage study of SLE and rheumatoid arthritis, but the association has not been explored further. RESULTS: We perform deep sequencing across the DAP1 genomic segment in 2032 SLE patients, and healthy controls, and discover a low-frequency functional haplotype strongly associated with SLE risk in multiple ethnicities. We find multiple cis-eQTLs embedded in a risk haplotype that progressively downregulates DAP1 transcription in immune cells. Decreased DAP1 transcription results in reduced DAP1 protein in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, monocytes, and lymphoblastoid cell lines, leading to enhanced autophagic flux in immune cells expressing the DAP1 risk haplotype. Patients with DAP1 risk allele exhibit significantly higher autoantibody titers and altered expression of the immune system, autophagy, and apoptosis pathway transcripts, indicating that the DAP1 risk allele mediates enhanced autophagy, leading to the survival of autoreactive lymphocytes and increased autoantibody. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate how targeted sequencing captures low-frequency functional risk alleles that are missed by SNP array-based studies. SLE patients with the DAP1 genotype have distinct autoantibody and transcription profiles, supporting the dissection of SLE heterogeneity by genetic analysis.

17.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(563)2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998972

RESUMO

Aberrant activation of fibroblasts with progressive deposition of extracellular matrix is a key feature of systemic sclerosis (SSc), a prototypical idiopathic fibrotic disease. Here, we demonstrate that the profibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor ß selectively up-regulates fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) and its ligand FGF9 to promote fibroblast activation and tissue fibrosis, leading to a prominent FGFR3 signature in the SSc skin. Transcriptome profiling, in silico analysis and functional experiments revealed that FGFR3 induces multiple profibrotic pathways including endothelin, interleukin-4, and connective tissue growth factor signaling mediated by transcription factor CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein). Inhibition of FGFR3 signaling by fibroblast-specific knockout of FGFR3 or FGF9 or pharmacological inhibition of FGFR3 blocked fibroblast activation and attenuated experimental skin fibrosis in mice. These findings characterize FGFR3 as an upstream regulator of a network of profibrotic mediators in SSc and as a potential target for the treatment of fibrosis.


Assuntos
Receptor Tipo 3 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos , Escleroderma Sistêmico , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Fibroblastos/patologia , Fibrose , Camundongos , Receptor Tipo 3 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Escleroderma Sistêmico/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Pele/patologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta
18.
Inorg Chem ; 59(20): 15467-15477, 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991151

RESUMO

Multivariate metal-organic frameworks (MTV-MOFs) have drawn much attention in recent years for their promising applications in many fields of chemistry and materials. Constructing functional MOFs from multiple components for electrochemical water is crucial to high performance renewable energy storage and conversion devices. In this work, a series of bitmetallic-, trimetallic-, and tetrametallic-MOF-74/NFs were grown in situ on nickel foam (NF) by a facile solvothermal route. Specifically, the optimized FeCoMnNi-MOF-74/NF with a multilevel and hollow nanostructure was successfully fabricated and used as highly efficient bifunctional electrocatalysts for water splitting. It exhibited an ultralow overpotential of 250 and 108 mV to achieve the current density of 50 and 10 mA cm-2, along with the relatively small Tafel slope of 41.28 and 72.89 mV dec-1 for OER and HER in 1 M KOH, respectively. It is superior to other multimetallic-MOF-74 composites at the same condition and also surpasses the benchmark of commercial noble-metal catalysts as well. As a result, a low cell voltage of ca. 1.62 V was obtained at a current density of 10 mA cm-2, when tetrametallic FeCoMnNi-MOF-74/NF is employed as both anode and cathode electrodes for the real water splitting. The present work potentially provides a new insight into prospecting and designing multivariate MOFs as a promising material for efficient electrocatalysis in the practical application.

19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(31): 8255-8262, 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643946

RESUMO

Medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols (MLCTs) were synthesized from rapeseed oil (RO), one kind of commonly used edible long-chain triacylglycerols (TGs), and then delivered to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. Compared with RO, MLCT consumption exhibited more potent effects on reducing body and tissue weight gains, plasma TG, and total cholesterol (TC) levels and on improving hepatic TG, TC, fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and lipoprteinlipase contents. Meanwhile, lower amounts of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and endotoxin in plasma, lower levels of interleukin-6 and TNF-α, and higher levels of interleukin-10 in both livers and white adipose tissues were detected in MLCT-fed rats. MLCT intake also remarkably suppressed the size of adipocytes and the number of macrophages. In conclusion, our study suggested that the interesterified MLCT was more efficacious in improving the lipid metabolism and inflammation in HFD-induced obese rats than RO.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Triglicerídeos/química , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/imunologia , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Animais , Quimiocina CCL2/genética , Quimiocina CCL2/imunologia , Colesterol/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Esterificação , Humanos , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/imunologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Óleo de Brassica napus/química , Óleo de Brassica napus/metabolismo , Ratos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
20.
Semin Arthritis Rheum ; 50(4): 627-635, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502727

RESUMO

Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) are a group of heterogeneous autoimmune diseases characterized by muscle weakness, muscle inflammation and extramuscular manifestations. Despite extensive efforts, the mechanisms of IIMs remain largely unknown, and treatment is still a challenge for physicians. Metabolism changes have emerged as a crucial player in autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, little is known about metabolism changes in IIMs. In this review, we focus on the alteration of metabolism profile in IIMs, and the relationships with clinical information. We highlight the potential roles of metabolism in the pathogenesis of IIMs and discuss future perspectives for metabolic checkpoint-based therapeutic interventions.

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