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1.
World J Emerg Med ; 13(1): 27-31, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35003412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated troponin I (TnI) is common among trauma patients. TnI is an indicator of myocardial injury, but clinical diagnosis of blunt cardiac injury cannot be based solely on an increase in TnI. Therefore, this study aims to explore the changes and clinical significance of serum TnI in trauma patients. METHODS: The clinical data of consecutive trauma patients admitted to our trauma center between July 1, 2017 and July 31, 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. According to TnI levels within 24 hours of admission, patients were divided into the elevated and normal TnI groups. According to the TnI levels after 7 days of admission, a graph depicting a change in trend was drawn and then analyzed whether TnI was related to in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: A total of 166 patients (69 and 97 cases with elevated and normal TnI, respectively) were included in this study. The average hospital stay, intensive care time, mechanical ventilation time, and in-hospital mortality were higher in the elevated TnI group than in the normal TnI group (P<0.05). The TnI level of trauma patients gradually increased after admission and peaked at 48 hours (7.804±1.537 ng/mL). Subsequently, it decreased, and then recovered to normal within 7 days. However, 13 patients did not recover. Logistic regression analysis revealed that abnormal TnI at 7 days was independently related to in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Trauma patients with elevated TnI levels may have a worse prognosis. Monitoring the changes in serum TnI is important, which can reflect the prognosis better than the TnI measured immediately after admission.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34978026

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder is characterized by the deficiencies of monoamine neurotransmitters, neurotrophic factors and persistent neuroinflammation. Microglial activation has been associated with neuroinflammation-related mental diseases, accompanied by NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. Here, we investigated the effect of NLRP3 inhibition by its small molecular inhibitor MCC950 on inflammatory activity and depressive-like mice induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), followed by the behavioral tests including sucrose preference test and forced swimming test. NLRP3/caspase-1/IL-1ß signaling and microglial morphology in the prefrontal cortex were measured. The results showed that CUMS caused a decrease in sucrose preference and an increase in immobility time, which were reversed by NLRP3 inhibitor MCC950. In addition, NLRP3 inhibition decreased the number of microglia and changed the activated state of microglia to a resting state by morphology 3D reconstruction. Moreover, NLRP3 inhibition inactivated NLRP3/caspase-1/IL-1ß signaling in the prefrontal cortex. The results from immunofluorescence demonstrated that NLRP3 and IL-1ß expression was decreased in microglia in response to MCC950 treatment. Accordingly, proinflammatory cytokines were also decreased by NLRP3 inhibition. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that microglial NLRP3 inhibition prevents stress-induced neuroinflammation in the prefrontal cortex and suggests that microglial NLRP3 could be one of the potential therapeutic targets for depression treatment.

3.
Br J Radiol ; : 20201004, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34918942

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of nutritional factors in predicting radiotherapy-associated toxicities for gastric cancer patients. METHODS: A total of 285 gastric cancer patients who underwent radiotherapy in our hospital (Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center) between 2010 and 2017 were included in this retrospective study. Nutritional status assessment included body weight loss (BWL), body mass index (BMI), serum albumin, nutrition risk screening 2002(NRS-2002), patient-generated subjective global assessment(PG-SGA) and nutritional risk index (NRI). RESULTS: Of all patients, 19.6% were underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m2), 25.6% were hypoalbuminemia (<35 g l-1) and 48.8% lost ≥10% of body weight in the 6-month interval before radiotherapy(BWL). Meanwhile, 73.3%, 78.6 and 47.2% of the patients were diagnosed as malnutrition based on NRS-2002, PG-SGA and NRI, respectively. Hematological adverse events were present in 91.2% (≥Grade 1) and 20.4% (≥Grade 3) of the patients. Non-hematological adverse events occurred in 89.8% (≥Grade1) and 14.4% (≥Grade 3) of the patients. Multivariate analyses indicated that only hypoalbuminemia(<35 g l-1) was independent predictor for Grade 3/4 hematological and non-hematological adverse events. Meanwhile, higher BWL(≥10%) was also independent predictor for Grade 3/4 non-hematological adverse events. NRS-2002, PG-SGA and NRI score were not associated with treatment-induced adverse events. CONCLUSION: BWL and serum albumin are useful factors for predicting severe adverse events in gastric cancer patients who undergo radiotherapy. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: The use of nutritional factors in predicting severe adverse events enables implementation of individualized treatment strategies for early and intensive nutritional interventions in high-risk patients.

4.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2021 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34874028

RESUMO

Ruthenium-doped amorphous molybdenum dioxide coupled with a reduced graphene oxide hybrid (Ru-MoO2@PC/rGO) is synthesized using polyoxometalate-based MOFs/GO as a precursor. Benefitting from the synergistic effect of numerous exposed active sites, Ru dopants and the introduction of GO, the designed catalyst shows exceptional electrocatalytic performance toward the HER in alkaline media.

5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(51): e28245, 2021 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34941095

RESUMO

RATIONALE: There is evidence that tigecycline has broad-spectrum antibiotic activity against a variety of complicated infections. However, adverse effects are inevitable, including gastrointestinal side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea; in 2006, acute pancreatitis was also brought into the side-effect list after postmarketing surveillance. Here, we present a case of tigecycline-induced acute pancreatitis. PATIENT CONCERNS: An 87-year-old female patient with urinary tract infection received an intravenous drip of tigecycline for 6 days, after which she developed abdominal distension, vomiting, abdominal pain, and abdominal rigidity. DIAGNOSIS: The patient was suspected to have tigecycline-induced acute pancreatitis. INTERVENTIONS: Tigecycline was discontinued immediately, and the patient received a series of immediate treatments including an indwelling gastric tube for continuous gastrointestinal decompression and inhibition of gastric acid and pancreatic enzyme secretion. OUTCOMES: Following initial interventions, we observed that the patient's symptoms improved significantly, and abdominal distension, vomiting, abdominal pain, and abdominal rigidity were slightly relieved. After 5 days of follow-up, blood lipase and amylase levels decreased to normal levels. Unfortunately, the patient developed convulsions during the use of multiple antibiotics after 1 week and then died of septic shock and acute liver failure. LESSONS: Acute pancreatitis caused by tigecycline is rare. However, in the application of antibiotics, the possibility of adverse effects must be considered, and antibiotics should be used reasonably. If the patient has relevant symptoms, it is necessary to stop using tigecycline immediately, carry out symptomatic treatment, and change to other types of antibiotics for antibacterial treatment.

7.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 21(1): 347, 2021 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34903225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) frequently remain at risk for cirrhosis after sustained virologic response (SVR). Existing cirrhosis predictive models for HCV do not account for dynamic antiviral treatment status and are limited by fixed laboratory covariates and short follow up time. Advanced fibrosis assessment modalities, such as transient elastography, remain inaccessible in many settings. Improved cirrhosis predictive models are needed. METHODS: We developed a laboratory-based model to predict progression of liver disease after SVR. This prediction model used a time-varying covariates Cox model adapted to utilize longitudinal laboratory data and to account for antiretroviral treatment. Individuals were included if they had a history of detectable HCV RNA and at least 2 AST-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) scores available in the national Veterans Health Administration from 2000 to 2015, Observation time extended through January 2019. We excluded individuals with preexisting cirrhosis. Covariates included baseline patient characteristics and 16 time-varying laboratory predictors. SVR, defined as permanently undetectable HCV RNA after antiviral treatment, was modeled as a step function of time. Cirrhosis development was defined as two consecutive APRI scores > 2. We predicted cirrhosis development at 1-, 3-, and 5-years follow-up. RESULTS: In a national sample of HCV patients (n = 182,772) with a mean follow-up of 6.32 years, 42% (n = 76,854) achieved SVR before 2016 and 16.2% (n = 29,566) subsequently developed cirrhosis. The model demonstrated good discrimination for predicting cirrhosis across all combinations of laboratory data windows and cirrhosis prediction intervals. AUROCs ranged from 0.781 to 0.815, with moderate sensitivity 0.703-0.749 and specificity 0.723-0.767. CONCLUSION: A novel adaptation of time-varying covariates Cox modeling technique using longitudinal laboratory values and dynamic antiviral treatment status accurately predicts cirrhosis development at 1-, 3-, and 5-years among patients with HCV, with and without SVR. It improves upon earlier cirrhosis predictive models and has many potential population-based applications, especially in settings without transient elastography available.

8.
Transpl Immunol ; : 101508, 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34843936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tolerance is more easily induced in liver transplant models than in other organs; CD8+CD45RClowregulatory T cells (Tregs) have been shown to induce tolerance in heart allografts. Whether CD8+CD45RClowTregs could induce tolerance in a liver transplant model and how dendritic cells (DCs) mediate the CD8+CD45RClowTregs effect remains to be investigated. METHODS: A rat liver transplantation model was established and used to test tolerance and acute rejection compared to control groups. Liver function and histopathological changes of allograft were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, respectively. The distribution and proportion of CD8+CD45RClowTregs and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) in the allografts and spleen were determined using flow cytometry. Cytokine secretion levels were determined using ELISA and real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR). RESULTS: The rat liver transplantation model was well established, with a success rate of 93.3% (28/30). The mean survival time of the tolerant and acute-rejection rats were 156 and 14 days, respectively. The proportions of CD8+CD45RClowTegs were higher in the allografts of tolerant rats than in those of acute-rejection rats (33.1 ±â€¯4.3 and 12.4 ±â€¯4.6, respectively; P = 0.04). Significant accumulation of pDCs was observed in tolerant liver graft rats compared to that in acute-rejection rats (1.46 ±â€¯0.23 and 0.80 ±â€¯0.20, respectively; P = 0.02). Importantly, CD8+CD45RClowTregs were positively associated with the frequency of pDCs (P = 0.001, r2 = 0.775). The protein and mRNA expression of IL-10 and TGF-ß in the allograft group were increased, possibly being responsible for tolerance induction. CONCLUSION: CD8+CD45RClowT cells interact with pDCs through the induction of IL-10 and TGF-ß expression and are responsible for inducing immune tolerance in rat liver transplantation.

9.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 722459, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34721454

RESUMO

The efficient utilization of irrigation water and nitrogen is of great importance for sustainable agricultural production. Alternate partial root-zone drip irrigation (APRD) is an innovative water-saving drip irrigation technology. However, the coupling effects of water and nitrogen (N) supply under APRD on crop growth, water and N use efficiency, as well as the utilization and fate of residual nitrates accumulated in the soil profile are not clear. A simulated soil column experiment where 30-40 cm soil layer was 15NO3-labeled as residual nitrate was conducted to investigate the coupling effects of different water [sufficient irrigation (W1), two-thirds of the W1(W2)] and N [high level (N1), 50% of N1 (N2)] supplies under different irrigation modes [conventional irrigation (C), APRD (A)] on tomato growth, irrigation water (IWUE) and N use efficiencies (NUE), and the fate of residual N. The results showed that, compared with CW1N1, AW1N1 promoted root growth and nitrogen absorption, and increased tomato yield, while the N absorption and yield did not vary significantly in AW2N1. The N absorption in AW2N2 decreased by 16.1%, while the tomato yield decreased by only 8.8% compared with CW1N1. The highest IWUE appeared in AW2N1, whereas the highest NUE was observed in AW2N2, with no significant difference in NUE between AW2N1 and CW1N1 at the same N supply level. The 15N accumulation peak layer was almost the same as the originally labeled layer under APRD, whereas it moved 10-20 cm downwards under CW1N1. The amount of 15N accumulated in the 0-40 cm layer increased with the decreasing irrigation water and nitrogen supply, with an increase of 82.9-141.1% in APRD compared with that in CW1N1. The utilization of the 15N labeled soil profile by the tomato plants increased by 9-20.5%, whereas the loss rate of 15N from the plant-soil column system decreased by 21.3-50.1% in APRD compared with the CW1N1 treatment. Thus, APRD has great potential in saving irrigation water, facilitating water use while reducing the loss of residual nitrate accumulated in the soil profile, but has no significant effect on the NUE absorbed.

10.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(20): 1513, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34790719

RESUMO

Background: Lymph node ratio (LNR) has advantages in predicting prognosis compared with American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) pathological N stage. However, the prognostic value of a novel T stage-lymph node ratio (TLNR) classification for colon cancer combining LNR and pathological primary tumor stage (T stage) is currently unknown. Methods: We included 62,294 patients with stage I-III colon cancer from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program as a training cohort. External validation was performed in 3,327 additional patients. A novel LNR stage was established and combined with T stage in a novel TLNR classification. Patients with similar survival were grouped according to T and LNR stages, with T1LNR1 as a reference. Results: We developed a novel TLNR classification as follows: stages I (T1LNR1-2, T1LNR4), IIA (T1LNR3, T2LNR1-2, T3LNR1), IIB (T1LNR5, T2LNR3-4, T3LNR2, T4aLNR1), IIC (T2LNR5, T3LNR3-4, T4aLNR2, T4bLNR1), IIIA (T3LNR5, T4aLNR3-4, T4bLNR2), IIIB (T4aLNR5, T4bLNR3-4), and IIIC (T4bLNR5). In the training cohort, the novel TLNR classification had better prognostic discrimination (area under receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.621 vs. 0.608, two-sided P<0.001), superior model-fitting ability for predicting overall survival (Akaike information criteria, 561,129 vs. 562,052), and better net benefits compared with the AJCC 8th tumor/node/metastasis classification. Similar results were found in the validation cohort for predicting both overall and disease-free survival. Conclusions: This novel TLNR classification may provide better prognostic discrimination, model-fitting ability, and net benefits than the AJCC 8th TNM classification, for potentially better stratification of patients with operable stage I-III colon cancer; however, further studies are required to validate the novel TLNR classification.

11.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 760331, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34803702

RESUMO

Lagotis brachystachya Maxim is a characteristic herb commonly used in Tibetan medicine. Tibetan medicine records it as an important medicine for the clinical treatment of "Yellow Water Disease," the symptoms of which are similar to that of arthritis. Our previous study showed that the flavonoid fraction extracted from L. brachystachya could attenuate hyperuricemia. However, the effects of the active flavonoids on gouty arthritis remain elusive, and the underlying mechanism is not understood. In the present study, the effects of the active flavonoids were evaluated in rats or Raw264.7 cells with gouty arthritis induced by monosodium urate (MSU) crystal, followed by the detection of TLR4, MyD88, pNF-κB, and NLR family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) expression. The swelling of the ankle joint induced by MSU crystal began to be relieved 6 h post the administration with the active flavonoids. In addition, the active flavonoids not only alleviated MSU crystal-induced inflammation in synovial tissues by histopathological examination but also reduced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß) levels in the joint tissue fluid of MSU crystal-induced rats. Furthermore, Western blot analysis indicated that the active flavonoids reduced the production of these cytokines by inhibiting the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB pathway and decreasing NLRP3 expression in synovial tissues of rats. More importantly, the inhibition of TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB pathway and NLRP3 expression was also confirmed in MSU-induced Raw264.7 cells. In conclusion, these results indicated that the active flavonoids from L. brachystachya could effectively attenuate gouty arthritis induced by MSU crystal through the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB pathway and NLRP3 expression in vivo and in vitro, suggesting several potential candidates for the treatment of gouty arthritis.

12.
Gland Surg ; 10(10): 2910-2924, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804879

RESUMO

Background: Whether standard lymphadenectomy or extended lymphadenectomy should be performed is still under debate during pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). We aimed to compare their morbidity and mortality rates among patients with pancreatic head cancer (PHC). Methods: In this retrospective study, a total of 322 patients were enrolled. According to the scope of intraoperative lymph node dissection, patients were divided into extended lymphadenectomy group (n=120) and standard lymphadenectomy group (n=202). Based on the resectability of the tumor, there were 198 cases of resectable PHC and 124 cases of borderline resectable PHC, respectively, in which further stratified analysis was carried out according to the extent of lymph node dissection. Results: All patients completed the operation successfully, with a perioperative morbidity rate of 27.9% and mortality rate of 0.9%. As for the overall patients, patients in the extended lymphadenectomy group had higher neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), longer operation time, more intraoperative blood loss, lymph node dissection and patients with borderline resectable pancreatic head cancer (BRPHC) (P<0.05). The 1-, 2- and 3-year overall survival rates of patients with extended lymphadenectomy and standard lymphadenectomy were 71.9%, 50.6%, 30.0% and 70.0%, 32.9%, 21.5%, respectively (P=0.068). With regards to patients with BRPHC, the number of lymph node dissection in the extended lymphadenectomy group was more (P<0.05), and the 1-, 2- and 3-year overall survival rates of patients with extended lymphadenectomy and standard lymphadenectomy were 60.7%, 43.3%, 27.4% and 43.2%, 17.7%, 17.7%, respectively (P=0.007). Conclusions: Patients with BRPHC tended to have vast lymph node metastasis. Extended lymphadenectomy can improve their long-term survival.

13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 748573, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34759927

RESUMO

The cytokine storm is a marker of severity of various diseases and increased mortality. The altered metabolic profile and energy generation of immune cells affects their activation, exacerbating the cytokine storm. Currently, the emerging field of immunometabolism has highlighted the importance of specific metabolic pathways in immune regulation. The glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) is a key regulator of immunometabolism and bridges metabolic and inflammatory dysfunction. This enzyme changes its conformation thus walks in different fields including metabolism and inflammation and associates with various transcription factors. This review summarizes the vital role of PKM2 in mediating immunometabolic reprogramming and its role in inducing cytokine storm, with a focus on providing references for further understanding of its pathological functions and for proposing new targets for the treatment of related diseases.

14.
Pain Res Manag ; 2021: 7849623, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733377

RESUMO

Objective: Serratus anterior plane block (SAPB) provides effective thoracic analgesia. This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of SAPB for postoperative analgesia after breast surgery. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed using Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for eligible randomised controlled trials. The primary outcomes involved the administration of intraoperative and postoperative opioids. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used for rating the quality of evidence for making recommendations. Results: Overall, 13 studies comprising 826 patients met the inclusion criteria (412 in the SAPB group and 414 in the control group). Patients treated with SAPB exhibited a significantly lower postoperative opioid consumption (mean difference, -38.51 mg of oral morphine equivalent; 95% confidence interval (CI), -60.97 to -16.05; P < 0.01; I 2 = 100%), whereas no difference was observed in the intraoperative opioid consumption (mean difference, -9.85 mg of oral morphine equivalent; 95% CI, -19.52 to -0.18; P=0.05; I 2 = 94%). In addition, SAPB significantly decreased the occurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (risk ratio, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.19-0.55; P < 0.05;I 2 = 38%) and reduced pain scores during the postoperative period (1 h: standardised mean difference (SMD), -1.23; 95% CI, -2.00 to -0.45; I 2 = 92%; 2 h: SMD, -0.71; 95% CI, -1.00 to -0.41; I 2 = 48%; 4 h: SMD, -1.52; 95% CI, -2.77 to -0.27; I 2 = 95%; 6 h: SMD, -0.80; 95% CI, -1.51 to -0.08; I 2 = 81%; 8 h: SMD, -1.12; 95% CI, -1.98 to -0.27; I 2 = 92%; 12 h: SMD, -0.78; 95% CI, -1.21 to -0.35; I 2 = 83%; and 24 h: SMD, -0.71; 95% CI, -1.20 to -0.23; I 2 = 87%; P < 0.05 for all). Conclusion: SAPB was safe and effective after breast surgery to relieve postsurgical pain. However, additional well-developed trials are required to validate these findings.

15.
Laryngoscope ; 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622964

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To develop a deep-learning-based automatic diagnosis system for identifying nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) from noncancer (inflammation and hyperplasia), using both white light imaging (WLI) and narrow-band imaging (NBI) nasopharyngoscopy images. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. METHODS: A total of 4,783 nasopharyngoscopy images (2,898 WLI and 1,885 NBI) of 671 patients were collected and a novel deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) framework was developed named Siamese deep convolutional neural network (S-DCNN), which can simultaneously utilize WLI and NBI images to improve the classification performance. To verify the effectiveness of combining the above-mentioned two modal images for prediction, we compared the proposed S-DCNN with two baseline models, namely DCNN-1 (only considering WLI images) and DCNN-2 (only considering NBI images). RESULTS: In the threefold cross-validation, an overall accuracy and area under the curve of the three DCNNs achieved 94.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 93.3%-96.5%) and 0.986 (95% CI 0.982-0.992), 87.0% (95% CI 84.2%-89.7%) and 0.930 (95% CI 0.906-0.961), and 92.8% (95% CI 90.4%-95.3%) and 0.971 (95% CI 0.953-0.992), respectively. The accuracy of S-DCNN is significantly improved compared with DCNN-1 (P-value <.001) and DCNN-2 (P-value = .008). CONCLUSION: Using the deep-learning technology to automatically diagnose NPC under nasopharyngoscopy can provide valuable reference for NPC screening. Superior performance can be obtained by simultaneously utilizing the multimodal features of NBI image and WLI image of the same patient. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3 Laryngoscope, 2021.

16.
Am J Cancer Res ; 11(9): 4485-4499, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34659900

RESUMO

Lymphocytes play an important role in antitumor immunity following organ transplantation. However, the function of granzyme B+CD19+B cells on the hepatocellular carcinoma cells from liver transplant recipients remains largely unknown; we aimed to analyze the function and elucidate the mechanisms behind it. Blood samples and clinical data from liver transplant recipients and healthy controls at Beijing Chaoyang Hospital as well as from a validation cohort were collected and analyzed. In this study, we found decreased granzyme B+CD19+B cells were correlated with early hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence and could further identify liver transplant recipients with poor tumor differentiation, microvascular invasion, increased total tumor diameter, and tumor beyond Milan criteria. Notably, granzyme B+CD19+B cells directly inhibited the proliferation, migration, and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Upon activation regulatory B cells from liver transplant recipients with hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence displayed a CD5+CD38+CD27+CD138+CD19+ granzyme B+ phenotype, but the increased expression of CD5, CD38, and CD138, and the decreased protein level and transcriptional level requiring JAK/STAT signaling. In an independent validation cohort, liver transplant recipients with decreased granzyme B+CD19+B cells had not only early hepatocellular carcinoma cell recurrence but also shorter survival. Our study provides comprehensive data from liver transplant recipients with hepatocellular carcinoma, indicating a critical role of granzyme B+CD19+B cells in preventing cancer progression. Our findings warrant further investigations for the design of future immunotherapies leading to immune responses and improved patient survival.

17.
Phys Med Biol ; 66(22)2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34700300

RESUMO

Objective:Megavoltage computed tomography (MV-CT) is used for setup verification and adaptive radiotherapy in tomotherapy. However, its low contrast and high noise lead to poor image quality. This study aimed to develop a deep-learning-based method to generate synthetic kilovoltage CT (skV-CT) and then evaluate its ability to improve image quality and tumor segmentation.Approach:The planning kV-CT and MV-CT images of 270 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated on an Accuray TomoHD system were used. An improved cycle-consistent adversarial network which used residual blocks as its generator was adopted to learn the mapping between MV-CT and kV-CT and then generate skV-CT from MV-CT. A Catphan 700 phantom and 30 patients with NPC were used to evaluate image quality. The quantitative indices included contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), uniformity and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the phantom and the structural similarity index measure (SSIM), mean absolute error (MAE), and peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) for patients. Next, we trained three models for segmentation of the clinical target volume (CTV): MV-CT, skV-CT, and MV-CT combined with skV-CT. The segmentation accuracy was compared with indices of the dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and mean distance agreement (MDA).Mainresults:Compared with MV-CT, skV-CT showed significant improvement in CNR (184.0%), image uniformity (34.7%), and SNR (199.0%) in the phantom study and improved SSIM (1.7%), MAE (24.7%), and PSNR (7.5%) in the patient study. For CTV segmentation with only MV-CT, only skV-CT, and MV-CT combined with skV-CT, the DSCs were 0.75 ± 0.04, 0.78 ± 0.04, and 0.79 ± 0.03, respectively, and the MDAs (in mm) were 3.69 ± 0.81, 3.14 ± 0.80, and 2.90 ± 0.62, respectively.Significance:The proposed method improved the image quality of MV-CT and thus tumor segmentation in helical tomotherapy. The method potentially can benefit adaptive radiotherapy.

18.
Hepatology ; 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) affects >290 million persons globally, and only 10% have been diagnosed, presenting a severe gap that must be addressed. We developed logistic regression (LR) and machine learning (ML; random forest) models to accurately identify patients with HBV, using only easily obtained demographic data from a population-based data set. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We identified participants with data on HBsAg, birth year, sex, race/ethnicity, and birthplace from 10 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2018) and divided them into two cohorts: training (cycles 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, and 10; n = 39,119) and validation (cycles 1, 4, 7, and 9; n = 21,569). We then developed and tested our two models. The overall cohort was 49.2% male, 39.7% White, 23.2% Black, 29.6% Hispanic, and 7.5% Asian/other, with a median birth year of 1973. In multivariable logistic regression, the following factors were associated with HBV infection: birth year 1991 or after (adjusted OR [aOR], 0.28; p < 0.001); male sex (aOR, 1.49; p = 0.0080); Black and Asian/other versus White (aOR, 5.23 and 9.13; p < 0.001 for both); and being USA-born (vs. foreign-born; aOR, 0.14; p < 0.001). We found that the ML model consistently outperformed the LR model, with higher area under the receiver operating characteristic values (0.83 vs. 0.75 in validation cohort; p < 0.001) and better differentiation of high- and low-risk persons. CONCLUSIONS: Our ML model provides a simple, targeted approach to HBV screening, using only easily obtained demographic data.

19.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257520, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543353

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Previous work had shown that machine learning models can predict inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-related hospitalizations and outpatient corticosteroid use based on patient demographic and laboratory data in a cohort of United States Veterans. This study aimed to replicate this modeling framework in a nationally representative cohort. METHODS: A retrospective cohort design using Optum Electronic Health Records (EHR) were used to identify IBD patients, with at least 12 months of follow-up between 2007 and 2018. IBD flare was defined as an inpatient/emergency visit with a diagnosis of IBD or an outpatient corticosteroid prescription for IBD. Predictors included demographic and laboratory data. Logistic regression and random forest (RF) models were used to predict IBD flare within 6 months of each visit. A 70% training and 30% validation approach was used. RESULTS: A total of 95,878 patients across 780,559 visits were identified. Of these, 22,245 (23.2%) patients had at least one IBD flare. Patients were predominantly White (87.7%) and female (57.1%), with a mean age of 48.0 years. The logistic regression model had an area under the receiver operating curve (AuROC) of 0.66 (95% CI: 0.65-0.66), sensitivity of 0.69 (95% CI: 0.68-0.70), and specificity of 0.74 (95% CI: 0.73-0.74) in the validation cohort. The RF model had an AuROC of 0.80 (95% CI: 0.80-0.81), sensitivity of 0.74 (95% CI: 0.73-0.74), and specificity of 0.72 (95% CI: 0.72-0.72) in the validation cohort. Important predictors of IBD flare in the RF model were the number of previous flares, age, potassium, and white blood cell count. CONCLUSION: The machine learning modeling framework was replicated and results showed a similar predictive accuracy in a nationally representative cohort of IBD patients. This modeling framework could be embedded in routine practice as a tool to distinguish high-risk patients for disease activity.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Algoritmos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/diagnóstico , Leucócitos/citologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Eur J Surg Oncol ; 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531116

RESUMO

AIM: Log Odds of Positive Lymph Nodes (LODDS) have a better predictive ability than N stage for colon cancer. However, the prognostic value of developing a novel prognostic classification by combining T stage and LODDS (TLODDS) for colon cancer remains unknown. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to develop a TLODDS classification for colon cancer, and assess whether or not the novel TLODDS classification could improve survival stratification by comparing its discrimination, model-fitting, and net benefits, with the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Tumor/Node/Metastasis (TNM) classification. METHODS: 45,558 Western colon cancers were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database as a training set. A novel LODDS stage was established and patients with similar survival rates were grouped by combining T and LODDS stages to develop a novel TLODDS classification. The TLODDS classification was further assessed in a Chinese validation set of 3,515 colon cancers and an application set of 3,053 rectal cancers. RESULTS: We developed a novel TLODDS classification that incorporated 7 stages: stage I (T1LODDS1), IIA (T2LODDS1, T1LODDS2, T1LODDS3), IIB (T2LODDS2-3, T3LODDS1, T1LODDS4), IIC (T3LODDS2, T2LODDS4, T4aLODDS1), IIIA (T3LODDS3, T1-2LODDS5, T4bLODDS1, T4aLODDS2), IIIB (T3LODDS4-5, T4aLODDS3-4, T4bLODDS2) and IIIC (T4bLODDS3-5, T4aLODDS5). In the training set, it showed significantly better discrimination (area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, 0.691 vs. 0.664, P < 0.001), better model-fitting (Akaike information criteria, 265,644 vs. 267,410), and superior net benefits, than the latest AJCC TNM classification. The predictive performance of the TLODDS classification was further validated in colon cancers and was successfully applied in rectal cancers with regards to both overall and disease-free survival. CONCLUSIONS: The TLODDS classification has better discriminatory ability, model-fitting, and net benefits than the existing TNM classification, and represents an alternative to the current TNM classifications for colon and rectal cancers.

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