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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 7040, 2021 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34857773

RESUMO

Phosphate, a key plant nutrient, is perceived through inositol polyphosphates (InsPs) by SPX domain-containing proteins. SPX1 an inhibit the PHR2 transcription factor to maintain Pi homeostasis. How SPX1 recognizes an InsP molecule and represses transcription activation by PHR2 remains unclear. Here we show that, upon binding InsP6, SPX1 can disrupt PHR2 dimers and form a 1:1 SPX1-PHR2 complex. The complex structure reveals that SPX1 helix α1 can impose a steric hindrance when interacting with the PHR2 dimer. By stabilizing helix α1, InsP6 allosterically decouples the PHR2 dimer and stabilizes the SPX1-PHR2 interaction. In doing so, InsP6 further allows SPX1 to engage with the PHR2 MYB domain and sterically block its interaction with DNA. Taken together, our results suggest that, upon sensing the surrogate signals of phosphate, SPX1 inhibits PHR2 via a dual mechanism that attenuates dimerization and DNA binding activities of PHR2.

2.
Nat Plants ; 7(11): 1445-1452, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34782773

RESUMO

Structural variations (SVs), such as inversion and duplication, contribute to important agronomic traits in crops1. Pan-genome studies revealed that SVs were a crucial and ubiquitous force driving genetic diversification2-4. Although genome editing can effectively create SVs in plants and animals5-8, the potential of designed SVs in breeding has been overlooked. Here, we show that new genes and traits can be created in rice by designed large-scale genomic inversion or duplication using CRISPR/Cas9. A 911 kb inversion on chromosome 1 resulted in a designed promoter swap between CP12 and PPO1, and a 338 kb duplication between HPPD and Ubiquitin2 on chromosome 2 created a novel gene cassette at the joint, promoterUbiquitin2::HPPD. Since the original CP12 and Ubiquitin2 genes were highly expressed in leaves, the expression of PPO1 and HPPD in edited plants with homozygous SV alleles was increased by tens of folds and conferred sufficient herbicide resistance in field trials without adverse effects on other important agronomic traits. CRISPR/Cas-based genome editing for gene knock-ups has been generally considered very difficult without inserting donor DNA as regulatory elements. Our study challenges this notion by providing a donor-DNA-free strategy, thus greatly expanding the utility of CRISPR/Cas in plant and animal improvements.

3.
Planta ; 254(5): 98, 2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34657208

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Mota Maradi is a sorghum line that exhibits holistic salinity tolerance mechanisms, making it a viable potential donor in breeding efforts for improved sorghum lines. High soil salinity is one of the global challenges for crop growth and productivity. Understanding the salinity tolerance mechanisms in crops is necessary for genetic breeding of salinity-tolerant crops. In this study, physiological and molecular mechanisms in sorghum were identified through a comparative analysis between a Nigerien salinity-tolerant sorghum landrace, Mota Maradi, and the reference sorghum line, BTx623. Significant differences on physiological performances were observed, particularly on growth and biomass gain, photosynthetic rate, and the accumulation of Na+, K+, proline, and sucrose. Transcriptome profiling of the leaves, leaf sheaths, stems, and roots revealed contrasting differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Mota Maradi and BTx623 which supports the physiological observations from both lines. Among the DEGs, ion transporters such as HKT, NHX, AKT, HAK5, and KUP3 were likely responsible for the differences in Na+ and K+ accumulation. Meanwhile, DEGs involved in photosynthesis, cellular growth, signaling, and ROS scavenging were also identified between these two genotypes. Functional and pathway analysis of the DEGs has revealed that these processes work in concert and are crucial in elevated salinity tolerance in Mota Maradi. Our findings indicate how different complex processes work synergistically for salinity stress tolerance in sorghum. This study also highlights the unique adaptation of landraces toward their respective ecosystems, and their strong potential as genetic resources for future plant breeding endeavors.


Assuntos
Tolerância ao Sal , Sorghum , Ecossistema , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Melhoramento Vegetal , Salinidade , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Sorghum/genética , Estresse Fisiológico , Transcriptoma
4.
Natl Sci Rev ; 8(1): nwaa149, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34691553

RESUMO

Salt stress is a major environmental factor limiting plant growth and productivity. We recently discovered an important new salt tolerance pathway, where the cell wall leucine-rich repeat extensins LRX3/4/5, the RAPID ALKALINIZATION FACTOR (RALF) peptides RALF22/23 and receptor-like kinase FERONIA (FER) function as a module to simultaneously regulate plant growth and salt stress tolerance. However, the intracellular signaling pathways that are regulated by the extracellular LRX3/4/5-RALF22/23-FER module to coordinate growth, cell wall integrity and salt stress responses are still unknown. Here, we report that the LRX3/4/5-RALF22/23-FER module negatively regulates the levels of jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA). Blocking JA pathway rescues the dwarf phenotype of the lrx345 and fer-4 mutants, while disruption of ABA biosynthesis suppresses the salt-hypersensitivity of these mutants. Many salt stress-responsive genes display abnormal expression patterns in the lrx345 and fer-4 mutants, as well as in the wild type plants treated with epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), an inhibitor of pectin methylesterases, suggesting cell wall integrity as a critical factor that determines the expression pattern of stress-responsive genes. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is constitutively increased in the lrx345 and fer-4 mutants, and inhibition of ROS accumulation suppresses the salt-hypersensitivity of these mutants. Together, our work provides strong evidence that the LRX3/4/5-RALF22/23-FER module controls plant growth and salt stress responses by regulating hormonal homeostasis and ROS accumulation.

5.
Nat Rev Genet ; 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34561623

RESUMO

Plants cannot move, so they must endure abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity and extreme temperatures. These stressors greatly limit the distribution of plants, alter their growth and development, and reduce crop productivity. Recent progress in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the responses of plants to abiotic stresses emphasizes their multilevel nature; multiple processes are involved, including sensing, signalling, transcription, transcript processing, translation and post-translational protein modifications. This improved knowledge can be used to boost crop productivity and agricultural sustainability through genetic, chemical and microbial approaches.

7.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435370

RESUMO

Facing the challenges of the world's food sources posed by a growing global population and a warming climate will require improvements in plant breeding and technology. Enhancing crop resiliency and yield via genome engineering will undoubtedly be a key part of the solution. The advent of new tools, such as CRIPSR/Cas, has ushered in significant advances in plant genome engineering. However, several serious challenges remain in achieving this goal. Among them are efficient transformation and plant regeneration for most crop species, low frequency of some editing applications, and high attrition rates. On March 8 and 9, 2021, experts in plant genome engineering and breeding from academia and industry met virtually for the Keystone eSymposium "Plant Genome Engineering: From Lab to Field" to discuss advances in genome editing tools, plant transformation, plant breeding, and crop trait development, all vital for transferring the benefits of novel technologies to the field.

9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(35)2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453006

RESUMO

The CMT2 and RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) pathways have been proposed to separately maintain CHH methylation in specific regions of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome. Here, we show that dysfunction of the chromatin remodeler DDM1 causes hundreds of genomic regions to switch from CMT2 dependency to RdDM dependency in DNA methylation. These converted loci are enriched at the edge regions of long transposable elements (TEs). Furthermore, we found that dysfunction in both DDM1 and RdDM causes strong reactivation of TEs and a burst of TE transposition in the first generation of mutant plants, indicating that the DDM1 and RdDM pathways together are critical to maintaining TE repression and protecting genomic stability. Our findings reveal the existence of a pathway conversion-based backup mechanism to guarantee the maintenance of DNA methylation and genome integrity.

10.
J Integr Plant Biol ; 63(8): 1451-1461, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289245

RESUMO

DNA cytosine methylation confers stable epigenetic silencing in plants and many animals. However, the mechanisms underlying DNA methylation-mediated genomic silencing are not fully understood. We conducted a forward genetic screen for cellular factors required for the silencing of a heavily methylated p35S:NPTII transgene in the Arabidopsis thaliana rdm1-1 mutant background, which led to the identification of a Hsp20 family protein, RDS1 (rdm1-1 suppressor 1). Loss-of-function mutations in RDS1 released the silencing of the p35S::NPTII transgene in rdm1-1 mutant plants, without changing the DNA methylation state of the transgene. Protein interaction analyses suggest that RDS1 exists in a protein complex consisting of the methyl-DNA binding domain proteins MBD5 and MBD6, two other Hsp20 family proteins, RDS2 and IDM3, a Hsp40/DNAJ family protein, and a Hsp70 family protein. Like rds1 mutations, mutations in RDS2, MBD5, or MBD6 release the silencing of the transgene in the rdm1 mutant background. Our results suggest that Hsp20, Hsp40, and Hsp70 proteins may form a complex that is recruited to some genomic regions with DNA methylation by methyl-DNA binding proteins to regulate the state of silencing of these regions.

11.
New Phytol ; 232(2): 835-852, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289124

RESUMO

Despite a much higher proportion of intragenic heterochromatin-containing genes in crop genomes, the importance of intragenic heterochromatin in crop development remains unclear. Intragenic heterochromatin can be recognised by a protein complex, ASI1-AIPP1-EDM2 (AAE) complex, to regulate alternative polyadenylation. Here, we investigated the impact of rice ASI1 on global poly(A) site usage through poly(A) sequencing and ASI1-dependent regulation on rice development. We found that OsASI1 is essential for rice pollen development and flowering. OsASI1 dysfunction has an important impact on global poly(A) site usage, which is closely related to heterochromatin marks. Intriguingly, OsASI1 interacts with the intronic heterochromatin of OsXRNL, a nuclear XRN family exonuclease gene involved in the processing of an miRNA precursor, to promote the processing of full-length OsXRNL and regulate miRNA abundance. We found that OsASI1-mediated regulation of pollen development partially depends on OsXRNL. Finally, we characterised the rice AAE complex and its involvement in alternative polyadenylation and pollen development. Our findings help to elucidate an epigenetic mechanism governing miRNA abundance and rice development, and provide a valuable resource for studying the epigenetic mechanisms of many important processes in crops.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Oryza , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Heterocromatina/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Oryza/genética , Pólen/genética , Poliadenilação
12.
Plant J ; 108(2): 347-357, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314526

RESUMO

DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mark. In plants, de novo DNA methylation occurs mainly through the RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway. Researchers have previously inferred that a flowering regulator, MULTICOPY SUPPRESSOR OF IRA1 4 (MSI4)/FVE, is involved in non-CG methylation at several RdDM targets, suggesting a role of FVE in RdDM. However, whether and how FVE affects RdDM genome-wide is not known. Here, we report that FVE is required for DNA methylation at thousands of RdDM target regions. In addition, dysfunction of FVE significantly reduces 24-nucleotide siRNA accumulation that is dependent on factors downstream in the RdDM pathway. By using chromatin immunoprecipitation and sequencing (ChIP-seq), we show that FVE directly binds to FVE-dependent 24-nucleotide siRNA cluster regions. Our results also indicate that FVE may function in RdDM by physically interacting with RDM15, a downstream factor in the RdDM pathway. Our study has therefore revealed that FVE, by associating with RDM15, directly regulates DNA methylation and siRNA accumulation at a subset of RdDM targets.

13.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 635732, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34149743

RESUMO

The plant cytoskeleton forms a stereoscopic network that regulates cell morphogenesis. The cytoskeleton also provides tracks for trafficking of vesicles to the target membrane. Fusion of vesicles with the target membrane is promoted by SNARE proteins, etc. The vesicle-SNARE, Sec22, regulates membrane trafficking between the ER and Golgi in yeast and mammals. Arabidopsis AtSEC22 might also regulate early secretion and is essential for gametophyte development. However, the role of AtSEC22 in plant development is unclear. To clarify the role of AtSEC22 in the regulation of plant development, we isolated an AtSEC22 knock-down mutant, atsec22-4, and found that cell morphogenesis and development were seriously disturbed. atsec22-4 exhibited shorter primary roots (PRs), dwarf plants, and partial abortion. More interestingly, the atsec22-4 mutant had less trichomes with altered morphology, irregular stomata, and pavement cells, suggesting that cell morphogenesis was perturbed. Further analyses revealed that in atsec22-4, vesicle trafficking was blocked, resulting in the trapping of proteins in the ER and collapse of structures of the ER and Golgi apparatus. Furthermore, AtSEC22 defects resulted in impaired organization and stability of the cytoskeleton in atsec22-4. Our findings revealed essential roles of AtSEC22 in membrane trafficking and cytoskeleton dynamics during plant development.

14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3367, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099688

RESUMO

In plants, RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) is a well-known de novo DNA methylation pathway that involves two plant-specific RNA polymerases, Pol IV and Pol V. In this study, we discovered and characterized an RdDM factor, RDM15. Through DNA methylome and genome-wide siRNA analyses, we show that RDM15 is required for RdDM-dependent DNA methylation and siRNA accumulation at a subset of RdDM target loci. We show that RDM15 contributes to Pol V-dependent downstream siRNA accumulation and interacts with NRPE3B, a subunit specific to Pol V. We also show that the C-terminal tudor domain of RDM15 specifically recognizes the histone 3 lysine 4 monomethylation (H3K4me1) mark. Structure analysis of RDM15 in complex with the H3K4me1 peptide showed that the RDM15 tudor domain specifically recognizes the monomethyllysine through an aromatic cage and a specific hydrogen bonding network; this chemical feature-based recognition mechanism differs from all previously reported monomethyllysine recognition mechanisms. RDM15 and H3K4me1 have similar genome-wide distribution patterns at RDM15-dependent RdDM target loci, establishing a link between H3K4me1 and RDM15-mediated RdDM in vivo. In summary, we have identified and characterized a histone H3K4me1-specific binding protein as an RdDM component, and structural analysis of RDM15 revealed a chemical feature-based lower methyllysine recognition mechanism.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Metilação de DNA , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/química , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lisina/metabolismo , Metilação , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
15.
J Integr Plant Biol ; 63(8): 1462-1474, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33960113

RESUMO

In eukaryotes, histone acetylation is a major modification on histone N-terminal tails that is tightly connected to transcriptional activation. HDA6 is a histone deacetylase involved in the transcriptional regulation of genes and transposable elements (TEs) in Arabidopsis thaliana. HDA6 has been shown to participate in several complexes in plants, including a conserved SIN3 complex. Here, we uncover a novel protein complex containing HDA6, several Harbinger transposon-derived proteins (HHP1, SANT1, SANT2, SANT3, and SANT4), and MBD domain-containing proteins (MBD1, MBD2, and MBD4). We show that mutations of all four SANT genes in the sant-null mutant cause increased expression of the flowering repressors FLC, MAF4, and MAF5, resulting in a late flowering phenotype. Transcriptome deep sequencing reveals that while the SANT proteins and HDA6 regulate the expression of largely overlapping sets of genes, TE silencing is unaffected in sant-null mutants. Our global histone H3 acetylation profiling shows that SANT proteins and HDA6 modulate gene expression through deacetylation. Collectively, our findings suggest that Harbinger transposon-derived SANT domain-containing proteins are required for histone deacetylation and flowering time control in plants.

16.
J Integr Plant Biol ; 63(9): 1664-1670, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934500

RESUMO

Aroma is an important quality parameter for breeding in rice (Oryza sativa). For example, the aromatic rice varieties basmati and jasmine rice, with a popcorn-like scent, are popular worldwide and routinely command a price premium. 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) is a key flavor compound among over 200 volatiles identified in fragrant rice. A naturally fragrant germplasm exists in multiple plant species besides rice, which all exhibit lower activity of BETAINE ALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASE 2 (BADH2). However, no equivalent aromatic germplasm has been described in maize (Zea mays). Here, we characterized the two maize BADH2 homologs, ZmBADH2a and ZmBADH2b. We generated zmbadh2a and zmbadh2b single mutants and the zmbadh2a-zmbadh2b double mutant by CRISPR/Cas in four inbred lines. A popcorn-like scent was only noticeable in seeds from the double mutant, but not from either single mutant or in wild type. In agreement, we only detected 2AP in fresh kernels and dried mature seeds from the double mutant, which accumulated between 0.028 and 0.723 mg/kg 2AP. These results suggest that ZmBADH2a and ZmBADH2b redundantly participate in 2AP biosynthesis in maize, and represent the creation of the world's first aromatic maize by simultaneous genome editing of the two BADH2 genes.

17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2456, 2021 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33911084

RESUMO

The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is crucial for plant responses to environmental challenges. The SNF1-regulated protein kinase 2s (SnRK2s) are key components in ABA-receptor coupled core signaling, and are rapidly phosphorylated and activated by ABA. Recent studies have suggested that Raf-like protein kinases (RAFs) participate in ABA-triggered SnRK2 activation. In vitro kinase assays also suggest the existence of autophosphorylation of SnRK2s. Thus, how SnRK2 kinases are quickly activated during ABA signaling still needs to be clarified. Here, we show that both B2 and B3 RAFs directly phosphorylate SnRK2.6 in the kinase activation loop. This transphosphorylation by RAFs is essential for SnRK2 activation. The activated SnRK2s then intermolecularly trans-phosphorylate other SnRK2s that are not yet activated to amplify the response. High-order Arabidopsis mutants lacking multiple B2 and B3 RAFs show ABA hyposensitivity. Our findings reveal a unique initiation and amplification mechanism of SnRK2 activation in ABA signaling in higher plants.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Fosforilação , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética
18.
J Integr Plant Biol ; 63(9): 1632-1638, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33847449

RESUMO

Amylose content (AC), which is regulated by the Waxy (Wx) gene, is a major indicator of eating and cooking quality (ECQ) in rice (Oryza sativa). Thus far, only a limited number of mutations in the N-terminal domain of Wx were found to have a major impact on the AC of rice grains and no mutations with such effects were reported for other regions of the Wx protein. Here, nucleotide substitutions in the middle region of Wx were generated by adenine and cytosine base editors. The nucleotide substitutions led to changes in 15 amino acid residues of Wx, and a series of novel Wx alleles with ACs of 0.3%-29.43% (wild type with AC of 19.87%) were obtained. Importantly, the waxyabe2 allele showed a "soft rice" AC, improved ECQ, favorable appearance, and no undesirable agronomic traits. The transgenes were removed from the waxyabe2 progeny, generating a promising breeding material for improving rice grain quality.

19.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 630311, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33868334

RESUMO

We have previously demonstrated that General Control Non-derepressible 1 (AtGCN1) is essential for translation inhibition under cold stress through interacting with GCN2 to phosphorylate eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2). Here, we report that the flower time of the atgcn1 mutant is later than that of the wild type (WT), and some siliques of atgcn1 cannot develop and produce seeds. Total and polysomal RNA of atgcn1-1 and wild type (WT) after cold treatments were sequenced. The sequencing results show that the mutation of atgcn1 selectively alters the expression of genes at both transcriptional and translational levels. The classification of AtGCN1 target genes reveals that AtGCN1 regulated gens are involved in flower development, seed dormancy and seed development, response to osmotic stress, amino acid biosynthesis, photosynthesis, cell wall organization, protein transport and localization, lipid biosynthesis, transcription, macroautophagy, proteolysis and cell death. Further analysis of AtGCN1 regulated genes at translational levels shows that the Kozak sequence and uORFs (upstream open reading frame) of transcripts affect translation selection. These results show that AtGCN1 is required for the expression of selective genes in Arabidopsis.

20.
Cell ; 184(5): 1133-1134, 2021 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667365

RESUMO

The de novo domestication has the potential to rapidly capitalize on desirable traits of wild plants. In this issue of Cell, Yu et al. report a route of de novo domestication of an allotetraploid rice, heralding the creation of a novel staple food crop to support global food security.


Assuntos
Domesticação , Oryza , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Edição de Genes , Oryza/genética
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