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1.
Clin Exp Immunol ; 207(3): 378-386, 2022 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35553640

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. NOD-like receptor pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is implicated in the pathogenesis of MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, the exact mechanism by which NLRP3 inflammasome is involved in the development of MS and EAE is not clear. NF-kappaB (NF-κB) is associated with the activity of NLRP3 inflammasomes, but the role of NF-κB is controversial. We sought to demonstrate that both NF-κB and NLRP3 contribute to development of MS and EAE, and NF-κB pathway is positively correlated with NLRP3 activation in EAE. The inhibitor of NF-κB and NLRP3, BAY11-7082, can prevent and treat EAE. BAY11-7082 (5 and 20 mg/kg/i.p.) was intraperitoneally administered to EAE mice at the time of second injection of pertussis toxin (BAY11-7082 prevention group) or at the onset of symptoms (BAY11-7082 treatment group). mRNA expressions of NLRP3 were determined by qPCR. Protein expressions of NLRP3, NF-κB p65, and phosphorylated p65 were determined by western blotting. Serum levels of inflammatory cytokines were measured by cytometric bead array. Mice treated with BAY11-7082 (both prevention and treatment groups) showed lower clinical scores and attenuated pathological changes. NLRP3 inflammasome and activity of NF-κB in spinal cord of EAE mice was higher than that in control group. However, the level of NLRP3 inflammasome decreased in BAY11-7082 prevention and treatment groups. BAY11-7082 is a promising therapeutic agent for MS. NLRP3 activation in EAE maybe related with NF-κB pathway.

2.
Mol Cancer ; 21(1): 114, 2022 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35545786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer (OC) is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy worldwide. One of the main challenges in the management of OC is the late clinical presentation of disease that results in poor survival. Conventional tissue biopsy methods and serological biomarkers such as CA-125 have limited clinical applications. Liquid biopsy is a novel sampling method that analyzes distinctive tumour components released into the peripheral circulation, including circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA), circulating tumour cells (CTCs), cell-free RNA (cfRNA), tumour-educated platelets (TEPs) and exosomes. Increasing evidence suggests that liquid biopsy could enhance the clinical management of OC by improving early diagnosis, predicting prognosis, detecting recurrence, and monitoring response to treatment. Capturing the unique tumour genetic landscape can also guide treatment decisions and the selection of appropriate targeted therapies. Key advantages of liquid biopsy include its non-invasive nature and feasibility, which allow for serial sampling and longitudinal monitoring of dynamic tumour changes over time. In this review, we outline the evidence for the clinical utility of each liquid biopsy component and review the advantages and current limitations of applying liquid biopsy in managing ovarian cancer. We also highlight future directions considering the current challenges and explore areas where more studies are warranted to elucidate its emerging clinical potential.

3.
Neurosci Bull ; 2022 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35570231

RESUMO

Increased neuronal apoptosis is an important pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The Bcl-2-interacting mediator of cell death (Bim) mediates amyloid-beta (Aß)-induced neuronal apoptosis. Naturally-occurring antibodies against Bim (NAbs-Bim) exist in human blood, with their levels and functions unknown in AD. In this study, we found that circulating NAbs-Bim were decreased in AD patients. Plasma levels of NAbs-Bim were negatively associated with brain amyloid burden and positively associated with cognitive functions. Furthermore, NAbs-Bim purified from intravenous immunoglobulin rescued the behavioral deficits and ameliorated Aß deposition, tau hyperphosphorylation, microgliosis, and neuronal apoptosis in APP/PS1 mice. In vitro investigations demonstrated that NAbs-Bim were neuroprotective against AD through neutralizing Bim-directed neuronal apoptosis and the amyloidogenic processing of amyloid precursor protein. These findings indicate that the decrease of NAbs-Bim might contribute to the pathogenesis of AD and immunotherapies targeting Bim hold promise for the treatment of AD.

4.
J Pharm Anal ; 12(1): 1-14, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35573879

RESUMO

Interference with quorum sensing (QS) represents an antivirulence strategy with a significant promise for the treatment of bacterial infections and a new approach to restoring antibiotic tolerance. Over the past two decades, a novel series of studies have reported that quorum quenching approaches and the discovery of quorum sensing inhibitors (QSIs) have a strong impact on the discovery of anti-infective drugs against various types of bacteria. The discovery of QSI was demonstrated to be an appropriate strategy to expand the anti-infective therapeutic approaches to complement classical antibiotics and antimicrobial agents. For the discovery of QSIs, diverse approaches exist and develop in-step with the scale of screening as well as specific QS systems. This review highlights the latest findings in strategies and methodologies for QSI screening, involving activity-based screening with bioassays, chemical methods to seek bacterial QS pathways for QSI discovery, virtual screening for QSI screening, and other potential tools for interpreting QS signaling, which are innovative routes for future efforts to discover additional QSIs to combat bacterial infections.

5.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 170, 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mammalian genome encodes millions of proteins. Although many proteins have been discovered and identified, a large part of proteins encoded by genes are yet to be discovered or fully characterized. In the present study, we successfully identified a host protein C11orf96 that was significantly upregulated after viral infection. RESULTS: First, we successfully cloned the coding sequence (CDS) region of the cat, human, and mouse C11orf96 gene. The CDS region of the C11orf96 gene is 372 bp long, encodes 124 amino acids, and is relatively conserved in different mammals. From bioinformatics analysis, we found that C11orf96 is rich in Ser and has multiple predicted phosphorylation sites. Moreover, protein interaction prediction analysis revealed that the protein is associated with several transmembrane family proteins and zinc finger proteins. Subsequently, we found that C11orf96 is strictly distributed in the cytoplasm. According to the tissue distribution characteristics, C11orf96 is distributed in all tissues and organs, with the highest expression levels in the kidney. These results indicate that C11orf96 may play a specific biological role in the kidney. CONCLUSIONS: Summarizing, these data lay the foundation for studying the biological functions of C11orf96 and for exploring its role in viral replication.


Assuntos
Mamíferos , Proteínas , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Clonagem Molecular , DNA Complementar/genética , Mamíferos/genética , Camundongos
6.
Dalton Trans ; 2022 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35607823

RESUMO

Carbon dots (CDs), emerging as promising materials for optoelectronic and biomedical applications, are widely investigated due to their distinct merits of facile preparation, biocompatibility, and environment-friendliness. Here, a unique strategy based on surface engineering is proposed to modulate the photoluminescence (PL) of CDs in both aqueous solution and the solid state with good thermal cycling stability. For the typical blue emissive CD solution derived from citric acid and ethylenediamine, an intense green emission can be induced by adding Bi3+ due to the strong coordination ability of Bi3+ ions with carboxyl groups on the surface of CDs. A super facile synthesis approach (ultrafast at room-temperature) has been developed to fabricate the CDs@NaBiF4 nanocomposite, whose chemical structure and composition have been investigated in detail. For the solid nanocomposite, it not only preserves the strong blue emission from the intrinsic core state of CDs, but exhibits a new green emission from the surface state. The solid-state CDs@NaBiF4 nanocomposite exhibits good thermal stability and high resistance to thermal degradation under blue light excitation. The strategy via metal ion-mediated PL of CDs represents a new approach to control the optical properties of CDs, and provides more opportunities in solid-state lighting and biomedical applications.

8.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0055522, 2022 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35546572

RESUMO

KPC-24, different from KPC-2 by a single amino acid alteration at codon 6 (R6P), was initially discovered in Klebsiella pneumoniae in Chile. Here, we reported KPC-24-producing Aeromonas veronii isolates from hospital sewage in China. The blaKPC-24 was cloned and the MICs were tested against ß-lactams antimicrobial agents. KPC-24 exhibited a ß-lactam susceptibility profile similar to that of KPC-2. Whole-genome sequencing and analysis revealed that blaKPC-24 was located within a Tn6296-related region on an IncP-6 plasmid. IMPORTANCE Our study described a variant of K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC), KPC-24, from two A. veronii strains isolated from hospital sewage, in which antibiotics, biocides, pharmaceuticals, and heavy metals may supply an appropriate condition for the evolution of carbapenemases. Some variants exhibited stronger hydrolysis activity to antibiotics and gave rise to a major public health concern. More seriously, Aeromonas species are prevalent in aquatic environments and, thus, may act as a suitable vector for antibiotics-resistance genes and foster the transmission of resistance. We should attach importance to surveying the evolution and transmission of antibiotics-resistance genes.

9.
Pulm Circ ; 12(2): e12039, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35514776

RESUMO

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease characterized by sustained elevations of pulmonary artery pressure. To date, we lack circulating, diagnostic, and prognostic markers that correlate to clinical and functional parameters. In this study, we performed mass spectrometry-based proteomics analysis to identify circulating biomarkers of PAH. Plasma samples from patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH, N = 9) and matched normal controls (N = 9) were digested with trypsin and analyzed using data-dependent acquisition on an Orbitrap mass spectrometer. A total of 826 (false discovery rate [FDR] 0.047) and 461 (FDR 0.087) proteins were identified across all plasma samples obtained from IPAH and control subjects, respectively. Of these, 153 proteins showed >2 folds change (p < 0.05) between groups. Circulating levels of carbonic anhydrase 2 (CA2), plasma kallikrein (KLKB1), and the insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBP1-7) were quantified by immunoassay in an independent verification cohort (N = 36 PAH and N = 35 controls). CA2 and KLKB1 were significantly different in PAH versus control but were not associated with any functional or hemodynamic measurements. Whereas, IGFBP1 and 2 were associated with higher pulmonary vascular resistance, IGFBP2, 4, and 7 with decreased 6-min walk distance (6MWD), and IGFBP1, 2, 4, and 7 with worse survival. This plasma proteomic discovery analysis suggests the IGF axis may serve as important new biomarkers for PAH and play an important role in PAH pathogenesis.

10.
Eur J Radiol ; 152: 110340, 2022 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35580445

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the diagnostic performance of preoperative MR elastography (MRE) in predicting early recurrence (ER) and late recurrence (LR) of HCC after hepatectomy. METHOD: In total, 180 patients (median age, 52 years; interquartile range, 41-50 years; 161 men) who underwent conventional MRI and MRE before hepatectomy between December 2014 and April 2020 were retrospectively recruited. A preoperative clinic-radiologic model and a combined postoperative clinic-pathologic and radiologic model were built using quantitatively MRE-derived stiffnesses, and image features to predict tumor ER and LR after hepatectomy. The Cox proportional hazards model and ROC analyses were used to identify the value of parameters to predict ER and LR. RESULTS: Seventy-three (40.5%) and 16 (8.9%) developed ER and LR after hepatectomy, respectively. For prediction of ER, the preoperative model integrated higher tumor stiffness (TS) (hazard ratio [HR],1.142; p < 0.001) with AFP ≥ 400 ng/mL (HR,1.761; p = 0.022), multifocal tumors (HR,3.229; p < 0.001) and lower ADC (HR,0.998; p = 0.017) variables; and the postoperative model incorporated higher TS, microvascular invasion, multifocal tumors, Child-Pugh class and ADC predictors. The two models provided comparable predictive performance (pre- 0.812 vs. post- 0.834, p = 0.283). Moreover, TS alone had a high sensitivity (90.4%) for predicting ER. Liver stiffness (LS) (HR, 1.757; p < 0.001) was the only independent predictor for LR in multivariate analysis in both the pre- and postoperative models with high specificity (90.0%), and its AUC with an optimal cut-off of 3.62 kPa was 0.860. CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative MRE-based stiffness is a useful biomarker for preoperative prediction of ER and LR of HCC.

11.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 623: 617-626, 2022 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35598488

RESUMO

Constructing heterostructure is an efficient method to provide more active sites and optimize electronic structure for improving the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and urea oxidation reaction (UOR) performance. Herein, the 3D FeOOH@Co3O4 heterostructure was constructed using FeOOH layer (10-20 nm) coated on the surface of Co3O4 nanoneedles through the strong hydrolysis of Fe3+. The FeOOH@Co3O4 heterostructure not only retains the nanoneedle structure with open frameworks, but also improves the specific surface area and expedites the charge transfer. The FeOOH@Co3O4-240 heterostructure affords a remarkable OER performance with low overpotential of 228 mV at 10 mA·cm-2 in 1 M KOH solution. The symmetrical urea electrolyzer using FeOOH@Co3O4-240 as both anode and cathode delivers 10 mA/cm2 at 1.43 V. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations unveil that the FeOOH@Co3O4-240 heterostructure could adjust the electronic structure and strengthen the conductivity. This work offered a facile strategy for designing heterojunction catalysts in an economic way.

12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(18): 5658-5667, 2022 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35499968

RESUMO

The efficacy of trehalose on the lesion diameter of apples (cv. Golden Delicious) inoculated with Penicillium expansum was evaluated to screen the optimal concentration. The changes in gene expression and activity of the enzyme in starch, sorbitol, and energy metabolism were also investigated in apples after trehalose treatment. The results revealed that trehalose dipping reduced the lesion diameter of apples inoculated with P. expansum. Trehalose suppressed the activities and gene expressions of ß-amylase, NAD-sorbitol dehydrogenase, and NADP-sorbitol dehydrogenase, whereas it decreased the sorbitol 6-phosphate dehydrogenase gene expression and amylose, amylopectin, total starch, and reducing sugar contents. Additionally, trehalose improved the gene expressions and activities of α-amylase, starch-branching enzymes, total amylase, H+-ATPase, and Ca2+-ATPase, as well as soluble sugar, adenosine triphosphate, and adenosine diphosphate contents and energy charge in apples. These findings imply that trehalose could induce tolerance to the blue mold of apple fruit by regulating starch, sorbitol, and energy metabolism.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae , Malus , Penicillium , Metabolismo Energético , Frutas/metabolismo , L-Iditol 2-Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Malus/metabolismo , Penicillium/metabolismo , Sorbitol , Amido/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo , Trealose/metabolismo , Trealose/farmacologia
14.
Ann Biomed Eng ; 2022 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35525871

RESUMO

The reconstruction of large skeletal defects is still a tricky challenge in orthopedics. The newly formed bone tissue migrates sluggishly from the periphery to the center of the scaffold due to the restrictions of exchange of oxygen and nutrition impotent cells osteogenic differentiation. Angiogenesis plays an important role in bone reconstruction and more and more studies on angiogenesis in bone tissue engineering had been published. Promising advances of angiogenesis in bone tissue engineering by scaffold designs, angiogenic factor delivery, in vivo prevascularization and in vitro prevascularization are discussed in detail. Among all the angiogenesis mode, angiogenic factor delivery is the common methods of angiogenesis in bone tissue engineering and possible research directions in the future.

15.
Macromol Rapid Commun ; : e2200246, 2022 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35526256

RESUMO

Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries with high sulfur utilization, long-cycle life and dendrite free feature hold great promise for development of next-generation energy storage devices of high energy density. Considerable efforts have beencommitted to solving the polysulfide shuttle problem toward highly stable Li-S batteries. Here, a unique polymer network containing dually anchored ionic liquids (DA-PIL) has been devolped to improve the cycling performance and coulombic efficiency of Li-S batteries. This DA-PIL electrolyte incorporates the amphiphilicity of both polysulfides anion and lithium cation, creating an ionic function layer on PP separator. Noteworthily, the DA-PIL network is "clean" regarding that no free ionic specifies are introduced to the electrolyte system. The DA-PIL layer not only enable strong supression against polysulfide shuttling but simultaneously allows fast lithium transportation owing to cooperate electrostatic interaction among anchored cations and anions. The DA-PIL layer functionalized on PP separator can boost excellent stability of Li-S battery with >1600 h cycling test at 0.25 mA cm-2 . The Li-S cell with DA-PIL layer delivered a higher discharge capacity of 827.4 mAh g-1 at 1C. A discharge capacity of 630.6 mAh g-1 was retained after 1000 cycles. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

16.
J Pediatr ; 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35460699

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To measure plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and several cytokine pathway genes (IL-6 IL-8, IL-10) during the first week of life to examine the relationship between protein expression and likelihood of developing respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD METHODS: Levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and VEGF were measured from plasma obtained from preterm subjects during the first week of life. Newborns were recruited from a single center between April 2009 and April 2019. Criteria for the study included being inborn, birth weight <1500 grams, and gestational age <32 weeks at birth. RESULTS: The development of RDS in preterm newborns was associated with lower levels of VEGF during the first week of life. Higher plasma levels of IL-6 and IL-8 plasma were associated with an increased likelihood and increased severity of BPD at 36 weeks post-menstrual age. In contrast plasma levels of VEGF, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 obtained during the first week of life were not associated with respiratory symptoms and acute care usage in young children with BPD in the outpatient setting. CONCLUSION: During the first week of life, lower plasma levels of VEGF was associated with the diagnosis of RDS in preterm infants. Preterm infants with higher levels of IL-6 and IL-8 during the first week of life were also more likely to be diagnosed with BPD. These biomarkers may help predict respiratory morbidities in preterm newborns during their initial hospitalization.

17.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 869912, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35479943

RESUMO

Aims: To assess whether MTHFR rs1801131 and rs1801133 SNPs are associated with concomitant psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and investigate the efficacy and hepatotoxicity of MTX in patients with psoriasis in the Han Chinese population. Methods: This prospective, single-arm, interventional study recruited a total of 309 patients with psoriasis, 163 with psoriatic arthritis and 146 without psoriatic arthritis, who completed a 12-week MTX treatment and 1,031 healthy controls. Patients' characteristics including age, gender, disease duration, height, weight, smoking status, alcohol consumption, medical history, disease severity and liver function test results were accessed and recorded. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping of rs1801131 and rs1801133 in the MTHFR gene was performed. Results: The rs1801133 CC genotype was more frequent in patients with PsA than those with PsO and healthy controls (42.3% vs. 28.8% vs. 33.1%, p < 0.05). The 90% reduction from baseline PASI score (PASI 90) response rates to MTX were significantly higher in patients with the rs1801133 TT genotype than those with the CT and CC genotype (33.96% vs. 19.31% vs. 14.41%, OR = 2.76, p = 0.006). The rs1801133 CT+TT genotype was more frequent in PsA patients with abnormal liver function than in those with normal liver function (p < 0.05). In addition, patients with the rs1801131 CT genotype had lower PASI 75 response rates to MTX (OR = 0.49, p = 0.01), and lower risk of ALT elevation (OR = 0.46, p = 0.04). Conclusions: This study provided some evidence for MTHFR polymorphism association with the risk of PsA and the efficacy and hepatotoxicity of the low-dose MTX in the Chinese population. Given the relatively small sample size and potentially missed diagnosis of PsA, the results from this study warrant further investigation.

18.
ACS Omega ; 7(15): 13083-13094, 2022 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35474819

RESUMO

It is of great significance to evaluate and predict coalbed methane (CBM) production for the exploitation and exploration of CBM. The flow characteristics of gas and water are very complicated and important in the process of CBM exploitation. In recent years, machine learning has been introduced to analyze CBM well production and its influence based on the historical production data. However, there are some problems with the determination of hyperparameters in machine learning algorithms. Some previous random forests (RF) models of CBM production prediction were suitable for individual CBM wells, but for different types of CBM wells, a large amount of time is needed to adjust the hyperparameters. Therefore, a genetic algorithm (GA) was applied to optimize RF, and a hybrid GA-RF algorithm was presented to solve this problem, which can automatically adjust two important hyperparameters, n tree and m try, and adapt different types of CBM wells. Meanwhile, the Pearson method and RF were carried out in this work to analyze the data of CBM well production to avoid multicollinearity caused by the improper selection of the model's independent variables. The importance and correlation analysis of drainage control parameters, including casing pressure (P c), bottom-hole pressure (P b), stroke frequency (f s), liquid column depth (D L), daily decline of bottom-hole pressure (P bd), and daily decline of casing pressure (P cd) were obtained. It was found that the casing pressure, bottom-hole pressure, and stroke frequency had more effects on the gas production of CBM wells than other drainage control parameters. Furthermore, the correlation and importance order of the influencing factors were: P c > P b > f s > P bd > P cd > D L and P c > P b > f s > D L > P bd > P cd, respectively. A CBM production model based on the GA-RF algorithm was constructed to study and predict the gas production of CBM wells in Qinshui Basin, China. Compared with the production model based on RF, this model can automatically optimize its hyperparameters to adapt to different types of CBM wells, and the mean-square-error of the GA-RF algorithm can be reduced by 40-60% than that of RF. 93% of the training errors were less than 5%, and 89% of the prediction errors were less than 10%. The GA-RF model can spot promptly the main influencing factors of CBM production and has high accuracy for the production prediction of CBM wells.

19.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 93(4): 043904, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35489893

RESUMO

The thickness of the metal-transducer nano-film is an essential parameter for high-pressure time-domain-thermoreflectance (TDTR) measurements. In this article, an accurate method was proposed to determine the transducer thickness in high-pressure conditions using the pressure-volume equation of state combined with an image processing method. Both the elastic and plastic deformation of the sample squeezed in diamond anvil cells were considered in this method. High-pressure TDTR measurements on thermal conductivity of MgO and mica were further taken for comparing the influence from different thickness-characterization methods up to ∼18 GPa, and the proposed method accurately captured the effect of plastic deformation on thermal conductivity for the first time. This work can not only help achieve more accurate TDTR measurements under high-pressure but also provide valuable guidance for the diamond anvil cell application in nanoscale research.

20.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 817494, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35464966

RESUMO

Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKP) is an evolving infectious pathogen associated with high mortality. The convergence of hypervirulence and multidrug resistance further challenges the clinical treatment options for K. pneumoniae infections. The QseBC two-component system (TCS) is a component of quorum-sensing regulatory cascade and functions as a global regulator of biofilm growth, bacterial motility, and virulence in Escherichia coli. However, the functional mechanisms of QseBC in hvKP have not been reported, and we aim to examine the role of QseBC in regulating virulence in hvKP strain ATCC43816. The CRISPR-Cas9 system was used to construct qseB, qseC, and qseBC knockout in ATCC43816. No significant alterations in the growth and antibiotic susceptibility were detected between wild-type and mutants. The deletion of qseC led to an increase of biofilm formation, resistance to serum killing, and high mortality in the G. mellonella model. RNAseq differential gene expression analysis exhibited that gene-associated biofilm formation (glgC, glgP, glgA, gcvA, bcsA, ydaM, paaF, ptsG), bacterial type VI secretion system (virB4, virB6, virB10, vgrG, hcp), and biosynthesis of siderophore (entC, entD, entE) were significantly upregulated in comparison with the wild-type control. In addition, qseB, ygiW (encode OB-family protein), and AraC family transcriptional regulator IT767_23090 genes showed highest expressions in the absence of QseC, which might be related to increased virulence. The study provided new insights into the functional importance of QseBC in regulating the virulence of hvKP.

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