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1.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6615685, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33816617

RESUMO

Ischemic stroke, accompanied with high mortality and morbidity, may produce heavy economic burden to societies and families. Therefore, it is of great significance to explore effective therapies. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) is a noninvasive, nondrug treatment method that has been proved able to save ischemic penumbra by improving hypoxia, microcirculation, and metabolism and applied in various ischemic diseases. Herewith, we fully evaluated the effect of HBO on ischemic stroke and investigated its potential mechanism in the rat ischemia/reperfusion(I/R) model. Sixty Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into three groups-sham group, MCAO group, and MCAO+HBO group. In the latter two groups, the middle cerebral artery occlusion was performed (MCAO) for 2 hours, and then the occlusion was removed in order to establish the ischemic/reperfusion model. Subsequently, HBO was performed immediately after I/R (2 hours per day for 3 days). 72 hours after MCAO, the brain was dissected for our experiment. Finally, the data from three groups were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and followed by a Bonferroni test. In this article, we reported that HBO effectively reduced the infarction and edema and improved neurological functions to a certain extent. As shown by western blot analysis, HBO significantly reduced autophagy by regulating autophagy-related proteins (mTOR, p-mTOR, Atg13, LC3B II and LC3B II) in the hippocampus 72 hours after I/R, which was accompanied by inhibiting the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in hippocampus. The results suggest that HBO may improve cerebral I/R injury, possibly via inhibiting HIF-1α, the upstream molecule of autophagy, and therefore, subsequently inhibiting autophagy in the rat model of ischemic stroke.

2.
Viruses ; 13(3)2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807534

RESUMO

The mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS, also known as VISA, IPS-1, or CARDIF) plays an essential role in the type I interferon (IFN) response and in retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) mediated antiviral innate immunity in mammals. In this study, the caprine MAVS gene (caMAVS, 1566 bp) was identified and cloned. The caMAVS shares the highest amino acid similarity (98.1%) with the predicted sheep MAVS. Confocal microscopy analysis of partial deletion mutants of caMAVS revealed that the transmembrane and the so-called Non-Characterized domains are indispensable for intracellular localization to mitochondria. Overexpression of caMAVS in caprine endometrial epithelial cells up-regulated the mRNA levels of caprine interferon-stimulated genes. We concluded that caprine MAVS mediates the activation of the type I IFN pathway. We further demonstrated that both the CARD-like domain and the transmembrane domain of caMAVS were essential for the activation of the IFN-ß promotor. The interaction between caMAVS and caprine RIG-I and the vital role of the CARD and NC domain in this interaction was demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation. Upon infection with the Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus (PPRV, genus Morbillivirus), the level of MAVS was greatly reduced. This reduction was prevented by the addition of the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Moreover, we found that viral protein V could interact and colocalize with MAVS. Together, we identified caMAVS as a RIG-I interactive protein involved in the activation of type I IFN pathways in caprine cells and as a target for PPRV immune evasion.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2102, 2021 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33833231

RESUMO

High myopia is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. Myopia progression may lead to pathological changes of lens and affect the outcome of lens surgery, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we find an increased lens size in highly myopic eyes associated with up-regulation of ß/γ-crystallin expressions. Similar findings are replicated in two independent mouse models of high myopia. Mechanistic studies show that the transcription factor MAF plays an essential role in up-regulating ß/γ-crystallins in high myopia, by direct activation of the crystallin gene promoters and by activation of TGF-ß1-Smad signaling. Our results establish lens morphological and molecular changes as a characteristic feature of high myopia, and point to the dysregulation of the MAF-TGF-ß1-crystallin axis as an underlying mechanism, providing an insight for therapeutic interventions.

4.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800313

RESUMO

Developing sustainable routes for the synthesis of zeolites is still a vital and challenging task in zeolite scientific community. One of the typical examples is sustainable synthesis of aluminosilicate EU-1 zeolite, which is not very efficient and environmental-unfriendly under hydrothermal condition due to the use of a large amount of water as solvent. Herein, we report a sustainable synthesis route for aluminosilicate EU-1 zeolite without the use of solvent for the first time. The physicochemical properties of the obtained EU-1 zeolite are characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), N2 sorption, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis, and solid nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), which show the product has high crystallinity, uniform morphology, large BET surface area, and four-coordinated aluminum species. Moreover, the impact of synthesis conditions is investigated in detail. The sustainable synthesis of aluminosilicate EU-1 zeolite under solvent-free.

5.
Heart ; 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33833070

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To inform a clinical practice guideline (BMJ Rapid Recommendations) considering sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists for treatment of adults with type 2 diabetes, we summarised the available evidence regarding the performance of validated risk models on cardiovascular and kidney outcomes in these patients. METHODS: We systematically searched bibliographic databases in January 2020 to identify observational studies evaluating risk models for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, heart failure (HF) hospitalisations, end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), myocardial infarction (MI) and ischaemic stroke in ambulatory adults with type 2 diabetes. Using a random effects model, we pooled discrimination measures for each model and outcome, separately, and descriptively summarised calibration plots, when available. We used the Prediction Model Risk of Bias Assessment Tool to assess risk of bias of each included study and the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach to evaluate our certainty in the evidence. RESULTS: Of 22 589 publications identified, 15 observational studies reporting on seven risk models proved eligible. Among the seven models with >1 validation cohort, the Risk Equations for Complications of Type 2 Diabetes (RECODe) had the best calibration in primary studies and the highest pooled discrimination measures for the following outcomes: all-cause mortality (C-statistics 0.75, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.80; high certainty), cardiovascular mortality (0.79, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.84; low certainty), ESKD (0.73, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.94; low certainty), MI (0.72, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.74; moderate certainty) and stroke (0.71, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.74; moderate certainty). This model does not, however, predict risk of HF hospitalisations. CONCLUSION: Of available risk models, RECODe proved to have satisfactory calibration in primary validation studies and acceptable discrimination superior to other models, though with high risk of bias in most primary studies. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020168351.

6.
Food Chem ; 355: 129661, 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848937

RESUMO

Corn starch (CS), octenyl succinic anhydride modified corn starch (OSCS) and shells (OSCs) microgels have been prepared using water-in-oil (W/O) inverse microemulsions for loading and releasing of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). The structural and morphological properties of CS, OSCS, and OSCs microgels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The strong hydrogen bonds between starch molecules in the W/O system and interplay between hydroxyl groups of EGCG and oxygen atoms of starch microgels were formed. OSCs microgel showed low average particle size and weak thermal stability with an irregular shape and a typical V-type crystalline structure. Encapsulation efficiency (EE) and clearance rate of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) for EGCG were ranged between 41.78 and 63.89% and 75.53-85.37%, respectively, when absorbed into OSCS and OSCs microgels, the values which were higher than that of CS microgel. Further, OS starch microgels (particularly OSCs) modulated the slow release of EGCG into simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions and therefore could be proposed as an encapsulating agent for loading polyphenols.

7.
JAMA Dermatol ; 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787818

RESUMO

Importance: Topical calcineurin inhibitors (TCIs) are commonly used as second-line treatment for atopic dermatitis. In 2006, the US Food and Drug Administration issued a black box warning against TCI use, citing data from case reports and animal studies indicating a potential risk of cancer. Objective: To evaluate the association between TCI use and risk of malignant neoplasms compared with nonactive and active comparator groups. Data Sources: Electronic searches were conducted in MEDLINE via Ovid, Embase via Ovid, and Web of Science from database inception to August 21, 2020. Study Selection: Observational studies investigating the association between treatment with TCIs (ie, tacrolimus and pimecrolimus) and the development of cancer with nonactive or active comparators were included. The population of interest was not limited to any specific disease state, age, or sex. All articles were assessed independently and in duplicate by 2 reviewers. Risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Of 2464 nonduplicate records retrieved from the search, 11 studies met the inclusion criteria. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Data extraction was conducted independently by 2 reviewers according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to derive pooled relative risk (RR) estimates. Data were analyzed from July 25 to October 25, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Risk of cancer overall and risk of specific cancer types (lymphoma, melanoma, and keratinocyte carcinoma). Results: Eight unique cohort studies (408 366 treated participants [55.1% female], 1 764 313 nonactive comparator controls, and 1 067 280 controls using topical corticosteroids) and 3 unique case-control studies (3898 cases [55.0% male] and 14 026 cancer-free controls [52.4% male]) were included. There was no association between TCI use and cancer overall compared with nonactive comparators (RR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.92-1.16). Lymphoma risk was elevated with TCI use with both nonactive (RR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.39-2.49) and topical corticosteroid comparators (RR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.13-1.61). No significant association was found between TCI use and increased skin cancer (melanoma and keratinocyte carcinoma). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this systematic review and meta-analysis suggest an association between TCI use and risk of lymphoma but not other cancers. Combined with the low absolute risk of lymphoma, the potential increased risk attributable to TCI use for any individual patient is likely very small.

8.
Org Lett ; 23(6): 2386-2391, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33688733

RESUMO

Diverse C-P cross-couplings of arylthianthrenium salts with diarylphosphines producing various triarylphosphines via highly selective C-S bond cleavage are reported. In the absence of catalyst, the reaction of arylthianthrenium salts with diarylphosphines undergoes phosphinative ring opening exclusively via the cleavage of an endocyclic C-S bond of a thianthrene skeleton. The use of a palladacycle catalyst under otherwise the same conditions enables the phosphination via the cleavage of an exocyclic C-S bond with significantly higher speed.

9.
Cancer Imaging ; 21(1): 30, 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33726862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To probe the feasibility and reproducibility of diffusion kurtosis tensor imaging (DKTI) in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and to apply DKTI in distinguishing the subtypes of RCC and the grades of clear cell RCC (CCRCC). METHODS: Thirty-eight patients with pathologically confirmed RCCs [CCRCC for 30 tumors, papillary RCC (PRCC) for 5 tumors and chromophobic RCC (CRCC) for 3 tumors] were involved in the study. Diffusion kurtosis tensor MR imaging were performed with 3 b-values (0, 500, 1000s/mm2) and 30 diffusion directions. The mean kurtosis (MK), axial kurtosis (Ka), radial kurtosis (Kr) values and mean diffusity (MD) for RCC and contralateral normal parenchyma were acquired. The inter-observer agreements of all DKTI metrics of contralateral renal cortex and medulla were evaluated using Bland-Altman plots. Statistical comparisons with DKTI metrics of 3 RCC subtypes and between low-grade (Furman grade I ~ II, 22 cases) and high-grade (Furman grade III ~ IV, 8 cases) CCRCC were performed with ANOVA test and Student t test separately. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were used to compare the diagnostic efficacy of DKTI metrics for predicting nuclear grades of CCRCC. Correlations between DKTI metrics and nuclear grades were also evaluated with Spearman correlation analysis. RESULTS: Inter-observer measurements for each metric showed great reproducibility with excellent ICCs ranging from 0.81 to 0.87. There were significant differences between the DKTI metrics of RCCs and contralateral renal parenchyma, also among the subtypes of RCC. MK and Ka values of CRCC were significantly higher than those of CCRCC and PRCC. Statistical difference of the MK, Ka, Kr and MD values were also obtained between CCRCC with high- and low-grades. MK values were more effective for distinguishing between low- and high- grade CCRCC (area under the ROC curve: 0.949). A threshold value of 0.851 permitted distinction with high sensitivity (90.9%) and specificity (87.5%). CONCLUSION: Our preliminary results suggest a possible role of DKTI in differentiating CRCC from CCRCC and PRCC. MK, the principle DKTI metric might be a surrogate biomarker to predict nuclear grades of CCRCC. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTC, ChiCTR-DOD-17010833, Registered 10 March, 2017, retrospectively registered, http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=17559 .

10.
Biomark Med ; 15(5): 359-371, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666515

RESUMO

Aim: We aimed to identify novel exosomal circular RNAs for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosis. Materials & methods: Exosomes were extracted and characterized. The expression level of exosomal circRNAs were verified via quantitative real-time PCR. The diagnostic value of candidate circRNAs was evaluated according to the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results: The exosomal circ_0070396 significantly elevated in HCC patients than other control groups and it performed better in distinguishing HCC patients from healthy donors than that of α-fetoprotein. Combination of two above markers exerted greater diagnostic performance. Exosomal circ_0070396 could discriminate HCC individuals from patients with chronic hepatitis B and liver cirrhosis. Intriguingly, exosomal circ_0070396 was positively correlated with HCC progression. Conclusion: Exosomal circ_0070396 may be a potential biomarker for HCC detection and management.

11.
Mol Plant Pathol ; 22(5): 508-521, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33694285

RESUMO

During plant infection, fungi secrete effector proteins in coordination with distinct infection stages. Thus, the success of plant infection is determined by precise control of effector gene expression. We analysed the PWL2 effector gene of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae to understand how effector genes are activated specifically during the early biotrophic stages of rice infection. Here, we used confocal live-cell imaging of M. oryzae transformants with various PWL2 promoter fragments fused to sensitive green fluorescent protein reporter genes to determine the expression patterns of PWL2 at the cellular level, together with quantitative reverse transcription PCR analyses at the tissue level. We found PWL2 expression was coupled with sequential biotrophic invasion of rice cells. PWL2 expression was induced in the appressorium upon penetration into a living rice cell but greatly declined in the highly branched hyphae when the first-invaded rice cell was dead. PWL2 expression then increased again as the hyphae penetrate into living adjacent cells. The expression of PWL2 required fungal penetration into living plant cells of either host rice or nonhost onion. Deletion and mutagenesis experiments further revealed that the tandem repeats in the PWL2 promoter contain 12-base pair sequences required for expression. We conclude that PWL2 expression is (a) activated by an unknown signal commonly present in living plant cells, (b) specific to biotrophic stages of fungal infection, and (c) requires 12-base pair cis-regulatory sequences in the promoter.

12.
Food Chem ; 353: 129448, 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711702

RESUMO

Vanillin is a natural phenolic compound mainly used as flavors in food industry. In this work, a new functionality of vanillin as the α-glucosidase inhibitor was studied based on the inhibition kinetic mechanism. The inhibitory effect (IC50) of vanillin against α-glucosidase was 28.34 ± 0.89 mg/mL, which belongs to mixed inhibition mechanism and its process was spontaneous. Vanillin could bind to α-glucosidase by hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds with -8.42 kcal/mol intermolecular energy to form the steric hindrance. The average binding distances was calculated as 2.20 nm according to energy transfer theory. In addition, the protein secondary structure and denaturation temperature (decreasing about 10 °C) were changed significantly after vanillin binding to α-glucosidase, resulting in an inhibitory effect. The findings of this research provide insights for the development of vanillin as potential inhibitor for α-glucosidase in special dietary foods.

13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670062

RESUMO

Colon cancer is a common and leading cause of death and malignancy worldwide. N6-methylation of adenosine (m6A) is the most common reversible mRNA modification in eukaryotes, and it plays a crucial role in various biological functions in vivo. Dysregulated expression and genetic changes of m6A regulators have been correlated with tumorigenesis, cancer cell proliferation, tumor microenvironment, and prognosis in cancers. This study used RNA-seq and colon cancer clinical data to explore the relationship between N6-methylation and colon cancer. Based on the seven m6A regulators related to prognosis, three molecular subgroups of colon cancer were identified. Surprisingly, we found that each subgroup had unique survival characteristics. We then identified three subtypes of tumors based on 299 m6A phenotype-related genes, and one subtype was characterized as an immunosuppressive tumor and patients in this subtype may be more suitable for immunotherapy than other subtypes. Finally, using m6A-related genes and clinical information from The Cancer Genome Atlas cohort, we constructed a prognosis model, and this model could be used to predict the prognosis of patients in clinics.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , RNA Neoplásico/metabolismo , Adenosina/metabolismo , Idoso , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias do Colo/imunologia , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Metilação , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco
14.
Immunity ; 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667383

RESUMO

Loss of lymphocytes, particularly T cell apoptosis, is a central pathological event after severe tissue injury that is associated with increased susceptibility for life-threatening infections. The precise immunological mechanisms leading to T cell death after acute injury are largely unknown. Here, we identified a monocyte-T cell interaction driving bystander cell death of T cells in ischemic stroke and burn injury. Specifically, we found that stroke induced a FasL-expressing monocyte population, which led to extrinsic T cell apoptosis. This phenomenon was driven by AIM2 inflammasome-dependent interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) secretion after sensing cell-free DNA. Pharmacological inhibition of this pathway improved T cell survival and reduced post-stroke bacterial infections. As such, this study describes inflammasome-dependent monocyte activation as a previously unstudied cause of T cell death after injury and challenges the current paradigms of post-injury lymphopenia.

15.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(4)2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669880

RESUMO

A superhydrophobic material was prepared by a simple and easily accessed sol-gel method using epoxy resin (E-51) and γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (KH-550) as the precursors, aqueous ammonia (NH4OH) as the catalyst and hydrogenated silicone oil (PMHS) as the hydrophobic modifier, and then pelleting the final product. The morphologies, surface chemical properties and thermal stability of the superhydrophobic bulk materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier infrared spectrometry and thermal analyzer. The hydrophobic properties and repairability of the as-prepared materials were also studied. The results showed that the prepared epoxy resin-hydrogenated silicone oil bulk materials were composed of tightly bound nanoparticles with a size of 50-100 nm in diameter. The material showed excellent superhydrophobic properties with a surface contact angle of 152°. The material also had good thermal resistance with a heat-resistant temperature of 300 °C and showed good repairability. The epoxy resin-hydrogenated silicone oil bulk superhydrophobic material exhibited excellent performance and showed wide application prospects.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723747

RESUMO

Increasing evidence has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) participate in cardiac fibrosis. We aimed to elucidate the effect of miRNA miR-25-3p on cardiac fibrosis. MiRNA microarray was used to profile miRNAs in the myocardium of angiotensin-II (Ang-II)-infused mice. Effect of miR-25-3p on expression of fibrosis-related genes, including Col1a1, Col3a1, and Acta2, was investigated both in vitro and in vivo. MiR-25-3p was shown increased in the myocardium of Ang-II-infused mice and patients with heart failure. MiR-25-3p enhanced fibrosis-related gene expression in mouse cardiac fibroblasts (mCFs) and in the myocardium of Ang-II-infused mice. Dickkopf 3 (Dkk3) was identified as a target gene of miR-25-3p, and Dkk3 could ameliorate Smad3 activation and fibrosis-related gene expression via enhancing Smad7 expression in mCFs. Additionally, NF-κB signal was proven to mediate upregulation of miR-25-3p in cardiac fibrosis. Our findings suggest that miR-25-3p enhances cardiac fibrosis by suppressing Dkk3 to activate Smad3 and fibrosis-related gene expression.

17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5357, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686087

RESUMO

Phosphorus (P) is an important element in terrestrial ecosystems and plays a critical role in soil quality and ecosystem productivity. Soil total P distributions have undergone large spatial changes as a result of centuries of climate change. It is necessary to study the characteristics of the horizontal and vertical distributions of soil total P and its influencing factors. In particular, the influence of climatic factors on the spatial distribution of soil total P in China's forest ecosystems remain relatively unknown. Here, we conducted an intensive field investigation in different forest ecosystems in China to assess the effect of climatic factors on soil total P concentration and distribution. The results showed that soil total P concentration significantly decreased with increasing soil depth. The spatial distribution of soil total P increased with increasing latitude and elevation gradient but decreased with increasing longitude gradient. Random forest models and linear regression analyses showed that the explanation rate of bioclimatic factors and their relationship with soil total P concentration gradually decreased with increasing soil depths. Variance partitioning analysis demonstrated that the most important factor affecting soil total P distribution was the combined effect of temperature and precipitation factor, and the single effect of temperature factors had a higher explanation rate compare with the single effect of precipitation factors. This work provides a new farmework for the geographic distribution pattern of soil total P and the impact of climate variability on P distribution in forest ecosystems.

18.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33738671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neonates are at risk of gastrointestinal emergencies including necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP). Identifying biomarkers to aid in diagnosis is imperative. We hypothesized that circulating intestinal-specific protein concentrations would distinguish infants with intestinal injury from controls. AIMS: To identify serum concentrations of intestinal-specific protein(s) in infants with intestinal injury and controls. METHODS: We used an in silico approach to identify intestinal-specific proteins. We collected serum from control infants and infants with NEC or SIP and measured protein concentrations using ELISA. If baseline concentrations were near the detection limit in initial control assays, we proceeded to assess concentrations in a larger cohort of controls and infants with injury. Control infants were frequency matched to infants with injury and compared with nonparametric and mixed-effects models analysis. RESULTS: We evaluated four proteins with high intestinal expression: Galectin-4 (Gal-4), S100G, Trefoil Factor-3, and alanyl aminopeptidase. Only Gal-4 demonstrated consistent results near the lower limit of quantification in controls and was studied in the larger cohorts. Gal-4 concentration was low in 111 control infants (median 0.012 ng/ml). By contrast, Gal-4 was significantly increased at diagnosis in infants with surgical NEC and SIP (n = 14, p ≤ 0.001 and n = 8, p = 0.031) compared to matched controls, but not in infants with medical NEC (n = 32, p = 0.10). CONCLUSIONS: Of the intestinal-specific proteins evaluated, circulating Gal-4 concentrations were at the assay detection limit in control infants. Gal-4 concentrations were significantly elevated in infants with surgical NEC or SIP, suggesting that Gal-4 may serve as a biomarker for neonatal intestinal injury.

19.
Nanotechnology ; 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657546

RESUMO

Systematic analysis of the surface morphology, crystalline phase, chemical composition and elemental distribution along depth for nitrogen-doped niobium was carried out through different ways of characterization, including SEM, AFM, GIXRD, RBS and layer-by-layer XPS analysis. The results showed that, after nitrogen doping, the surface was covered by densely distributed trigonal precipitates with average crystallite size of 32 ± 8 nm, in line with the calculation result (29.9 nm) of nitrogen-enriched ß-Nb2N from GIXRD, demonstrating the phase composion of trigonal precipitates. The depth analysis through RBS and XPS indicated that ß-Nb2N was dominant in the topmost 9.7 nm and extended to depth of 575 nm with gradually decreased content. In addition, the successive change of naturally oxidized states of niobium after nitrogen doping along depth was revealed along depth. It was interesting to find that oxygen diffusion depth could be moderately enhanced by nitridation process. These results established the near-surface phase composition of nitrided niobium, which was of great significance for evaluating the effect of nitrogen doping and further understanding the Q improvement of the SRF cavities.

20.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660687

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Poststroke depression (PSD) is the most frequent and important neuropsychiatric problem afflicting these patients. Anemia is common in many of these individuals presenting with acute stroke. This study determined whether there is a relationship between anemia on hospital admission and PSD. Two hundred eighty-four acute stroke patients were included in the study. Among them, there were 88 PSD patients, whereas another 196 were non-PSD patients. Clinical depression symptoms were diagnosed according to DSM-4 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition) criteria and a HAMD-17 (the 17-item Hamilton Depression Scale) score ≥8 at 1 month after stroke. In the PSD patients, 27.3% of them presented with anemia, whereas only 12.8% of the non-PSD patients had this condition. There was a negative correlation between hemoglobin level and HAMD-17 score in all patients. A binary logistic regression analysis revealed that anemia was independently associated with PSD after adjustment for sex, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores, mRS (modified Rankin Scale) scores, BI (Barthel Index) scores, RBC (red blood cell), and hematocrit. In conclusion, anemia at admission is associated with PSD seen in these patients 1 month later. Therefore, anemia is a possible predictor of PSD.

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