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1.
Eur Radiol ; 30(1): 471-481, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359126

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the value of strain elastography as an early predictor of long-term prognosis in patients with locally advanced cervical cancers treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). METHODS: Strain elastography examinations were performed on 45 patients with locally advanced cervical cancers at 3 time points: prior to CCRT, and at 1 and 2 weeks after the start of CCRT. The maximum tumor diameter (Dmax), strain ratio (SR), and their percentage changes (ΔDmax and ΔSR) were calculated to predict long-term prognosis. Based on the results of physical examinations, Papanicolaou test, and pelvic magnetic resonance imaging, we classified patients into two groups: responders (complete remission) and non-responders (sustained disease, recurrence, or death). RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 30 months (range, 12-36 months), 36 of 45 (80%) patients were disease free. The Dmax as well as ΔDmax at 2 weeks during CCRT was able to predict the responder outcomes, with an area-under-the-curve (AUC) of 0.733 and 0.731, respectively. Furthermore, significant differences in SR and ΔSR at 1 and 2 weeks during therapy were shown between the responder and non-responder groups (all p < 0.05), and ΔSR at 2 weeks during CCRT presented with the highest AUC (0.91), yielding 88.9% sensitivity and 88.9% specificity with a selected cutoff value. CONCLUSIONS: Strain elastography may be useful as an early predictor of long-term outcomes after CCRT for patients with cervical cancer. KEY POINTS: • The D maxas well as ΔD maxat 2 weeks during CCRT can predict the responder outcomes. • The elastography parameters (SR and ΔSR) exhibited predictive values of favorable response after therapy initiation. • ΔSR at 2 weeks during CCRT held the best predictive value for the responder outcomes.

2.
Eur J Pediatr ; 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31788740

RESUMO

This pre-post intervention study was conducted in Neonatal Intensive Care Units in two Chinese hospitals. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of intracavitary electrocardiogram (IC-ECG)-guided peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) placement and tip positioning in premature infants. A total of 161 premature infants who required a PICC were enrolled and divided into two groups: pre-intervention group (n = 83) from October 2017 to July 2018 and post-intervention IC-ECG group (n = 78) from August 2018 to March 2019. Nurses were trained from May 2018 to July 2018. The reposition rate in the IC-ECG group and pre-interventions group was 3.85% and 19.28%, respectively (OR 5.970; 95% CI 1.666-21.395; p = 0.002). More infants achieved optimal tip position at the first attempt in the IC-ECG group than the pre-intervention group (93.59% vs 73.49%; OR 0.190; 95%CI 0.068-0.531; p = 0.001). The overall catheter-related complications in the pre-intervention group were 14.46% compared to 3.84% in the IC-ECG group (OR 2.962; 95%CI 1.013-8.661; p = 0.040). However, no significant differences were observed between the individual complication leakage, phlebitis and catheter-related blood stream infection.Conclusions: IC-ECG-guided peripherally inserted central catheter placement and tip positioning technology might decrease reposition rates, achieve more accurate tip positioning at the first attempt and might reduce catheter-related complications in premature infants. Further robust RCTs are needed to confirm the effectiveness of IC-ECG-guided PICC placement and tip positioning in neonates.What is Known:• Chest radiography is the gold standard for tip position confirmation of peripherally inserted central catheter placement.• Studies in adult patients have shown that electrocardiogram guidance in the placement of central venous catheters can be beneficial, while evidence in neonates is limited.What is New:• Intracavitary electrocardiogram-guided peripherally inserted central catheter placement might be superior to chest radiography in preterm infants.• Decreasing the repositioning rates and correct tip position of peripherally inserted central catheters might reduce catheter-related complications.

3.
Cancer Commun (Lond) ; 39(1): 81, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-grade glioma (HGG) is a fatal human cancer. Bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, has been approved for the treatment of multiple myeloma but its use in glioma awaits further investigation. This study aimed to explore the chemotherapeutic effect and the underlying mechanism of bortezomib on gliomas. METHODS: U251 and U87 cell viability and proliferation were detected by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, tumor cell spheroid growth, and colony formation assay. Cell apoptosis and cell cycle were detected by flow cytometry. Temozolomide (TMZ)-insensitive cell lines were induced by long-term TMZ treatment, and cells with stem cell characteristics were enriched with stem cell culture medium. The mRNA levels of interested genes were measured via reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and protein levels were determined via Western blotting/immunofluorescent staining in cell lines and immunohistochemical staining in paraffin-embedded sections. Via inoculating U87 cells subcutaneously, glioma xenograft models in nude mice were established for drug experiments. Patient survival data were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: Bortezomib inhibited the viability and proliferation of U251 and U87 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Bortezomib also significantly inhibited the spheroid growth, colony formation, and stem-like cell proliferation of U251 and U87 cells. When administrated in combination, bortezomib showed synergistic effect with TMZ in vitro and sensitized glioma to TMZ treatment both in vitro and in vivo. Bortezomib reduced both the mRNA and protein levels of Forkhead Box M1 (FOXM1) and its target gene Survivin. The FOXM1-Survivin axis was markedly up-regulated in established TMZ-insensitive glioma cell lines and HGG patients. Expression levels of FOXM1 and Survivin were positively correlated with each other and both related to poor prognosis in glioma patients. CONCLUSIONS: Bortezomib was found to inhibit glioma growth and improved TMZ chemotherapy efficacy, probably via down-regulating the FOXM1-Survivin axis. Bortezomib might be a promising agent for treating malignant glioma, alone or in combination with TMZ.

4.
Cancer Res Treat ; 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801318

RESUMO

Purpose: Despite the rapid growing of cancer survivors, prior cancer history is a commonly adopted exclusion criterion. Whether prior cancer will impact the survival of patients with advanced breast cancer (ABC) remains uncertain. Materials and Methods: Patients with ABC diagnosed between 2004 and 2010 were identified using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End. Results: (SEER) database. Timing, stage, and type were used to characterize prior cancer. Multivariable analyses using propensity score-adjusted Cox regression and competing risk regression were conducted to evaluate the prognostic effect of prior cancer on overall survival (OS) and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS). Results: A total of 14,176 ABC patients were identified, of whom 10.5% carried a prior cancer history. The most common type of prior cancer was female genital cancer (32.4%); more than half (51.7%) were diagnosed at localized stage; most were diagnosed more than 5 years (42.9%) or less than 1 year (28.3%) prior to the index cancer. In multivariate analyses, patients with prior cancer presented a slightly worse OS (hazard ratio, 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07 to 1.30; p=0.001) but a better BCSS (subdistribution hazard ratio, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.74; p < 0.001). In subset analyses, no survival detriment was observed in patients with prior malignancy from head and neck or endocrine system, at in situ or localized stage, or diagnosed more than 4 years. Conclusion: Prior cancer provides an inferior OS but a superior BCSS for patients with ABC. It does not affect the survival adversely in some subgroups and these patients should not be excluded from clinical trials.

5.
Mol Plant ; 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698047

RESUMO

Plant plasmodesmata (PDs) are specialized channels that enable communication between neighboring cells. The intercellular permeability of PDs affecting plant development, defense and responses to stimulus must be tightly regulated. Analysis of specific PD membrane lipid composition and their impact on PD permeability will provide new insights into PD regulatory mechanism. Herein, we report that the Arabidopsis sld1 sld2 double mutant, lacking sphingolipid long-chain base 8 desaturases 1 and 2, displayed decreased PD permeability due to a significant increase in callose accumulation. Plasmodesmata-located protein 5 (PDLP5) was significantly enriched in the leaf epidermal cells of sld1 sld2 and showed specific binding affinity to phytosphinganine (t18:0), suggesting that the enrichment of t18:0-based sphingolipids in sld1 sld2 PDs might facilitate the recruitment of more PDLP5. The double mutants showed enhanced resistance to the fungal-wilt pathogen Verticillium dahlia or the bacterium Peudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000. This phenotype was fully restored in sld1 sld2 pdlp5. Thus, we proposed that phytosphinganine might regulate PDs functions and cell-to-cell communication by modifying the level of PDLP5 in PD membranes.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692241

RESUMO

New nanostructure means new nanotechnology and nanoscience. The need of complex nanostructure-based advanced functional nanomaterials has promoted the appearance of several kinds of multifluid electrospinning processes, such as tri-axial electrospinning, quad-fluid coaxial electrospinning, tri-fluid side-by-side electrospinning, and coaxial electrospinning with a side-by-side core. These multifluid processes can greatly expand the capability of electrospinning in generating new types of nanostructures with different organization manner of the inner parts, and from both spinnable and unspinnable working fluids. The key elements for conducting a multifluid electrospinning lie in a well-designed spinneret, compatibility of the working fluids, and special operational parameters. The complex nanostructures can be created through direct electrospinning of multiple fluids, through after-treatment of the electrospun products, and through ingenious design of the components, compositions and their spatial distributions as well. This article provides a simple review on the most recent publications about the multifluid electrospinning processes and the corresponding complex nanostructures. This article is characterized under: Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Emerging Technologies Implantable Materials and Surgical Technologies > Nanomaterials and Implants.

7.
J Biol Chem ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712308

RESUMO

Striated muscle is activated by myosin- and actin-linked processes, with the latter being regulated through changes in the position of tropomyosin relative to the actin surface. The C-terminal region of cardiac troponin T (TnT), a tropomyosin-associated protein, is required for full TnT inactivation at low Ca2+ and for limiting its activation at saturating Ca2+ Here, we investigated whether basic residues in this TnT region are involved in these activities, whether the TnT C terminus undergoes Ca2+-dependent conformational changes, and whether these residues affect cardiac muscle contraction. We generated a human cardiac TnT variant in which we replaced seven C-terminal Lys and Arg residues with Ala and added a Cys residue at either position 289 or 275 to affix a fluorescent probe. At pCa 3.7, actin filaments containing high-alanine TnT had an elevated ATPase rate like that obtained when the last TnT 14 residues were deleted. Acrylodan-tropomyosin fluorescence changes and S1-actin binding kinetics revealed that at pCa 8, the high-alanine TnT-containing filaments did not enter the first inactive state. Förster Resonance Energy Transfer analyses indicated that the C-terminal TnT region approached Cys-190 of tropomyosin as actin filaments transitioned to the inactive B state; that transition was abolished with high-alanine TnT. High-alanine TnT-containing cardiac muscle preparations had increased Ca2+ sensitivity of both steady-state isometric force and sinusoidal stiffness as well as  increased maximum steady-state isometric force and sinusoidal stiffness. We conclude that C-terminal basic residues in cardiac TnT are critical for the regulation of cardiac muscle contraction.

8.
Curr Eye Res ; 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744338

RESUMO

Background: This study aims to evaluate the risk factors of retinal re-detachment and visual outcome after silicone oil removal (SOR) in silicone oil-filled eyes.Methods: A total of 57 patients who underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) and silicone oil injection for retinal detachment (RD), and subsequently underwent a silicone oil removal procedure. Pre-operative examinations were performed to determine the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) using the Snellen chart, while Icare was used to determine the intraocular pressure (IOP). In addition, slit lamp examination of the anterior segment and lens, fundus pre-set lens examination for the posterior segment, color fundus photography, anterior segment photography and type B-ultrasonic scans were performed.Results: In five of 57 patients (8.77%), the retina re-detached following the removal of silicone oil. The factors for re-detachment were proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) (two cases), the formation of new retinal breaks (two cases), and incomplete membrane peeling (one case). The rate of retinal re-detachment (reRD) was statistically independent of the duration of silicone oil endotamponade (P=0.810). BCVA significantly improved following the removal of silicone oil (P=0.001). The duration of the silicone oil tamponade was significant in the development of cataract (27 eyes, 47.3%; P=0.0008), emulsified oil in the anterior chamber (13 eyes, 22.8%; P=0.009), and glaucoma (seven eyes, 12.2%).Conclusion: The improvement of visual acuity was discovered following the removal of the intraocular silicone oil. Although the duration of the intraocular silicone oil endotamponade had no effect on the rate of retinal attachment, a longer duration of silicone oil endotamponade can lead to the development of complications, such as cataract, emulsified oil in the anterior chamber and glaucoma, suggesting that the earlier removal of oil should be performed.

9.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 185: 110585, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683203

RESUMO

Synergistic tumor treatment has recently attracted more and more attention due to its remarkable therapeutic effect. Herein, a multifunctional drug delivery system based on hyaluronic acid (HA) targeted dual stimulation responsive MoS2 nanosheets (HA-PEI-LA-MoS2-PEG, HPMP) for active interaction with CD44 receptor positive MCF-7 cells is reported. Melanin (Mel), a new type of photothermal agent and doxorubicin (DOX) are both loaded onto the HPMP nanocomposite and can be released by mild acid or hyperthermia. The prepared HPMP nanocomposite has a uniform hydrodynamic diameter (104 nm), a high drug loading (944.3 mg.g-1 HPMP), a remarkable photothermal effect (photothermal conversion efficiency: 55.3%) and excellent biocompatibility. The DOX release from HPMP@(DOX/Mel) can be precisely controlled by the dual stimuli of utilizing the acidic environment in the tumor cells and external laser irradiation. Meanwhile, loading of Mel onto the surface can enhance the photothermal effect of the MoS2 nanosheets. In vitro experiments showed that the HPMP@(DOX/Mel) nanoplatform could efficiently deliver DOX into MCF-7 cells and demonstrated enhanced cytotoxicity compared to that of the non-targeted nanoplatform. In vivo experiments in a breast cancer model of nude mice further confirmed that the HPMP@(DOX/Mel) significantly inhibited tumor growth under near infrared (NIR) laser irradiation, which is superior to any single therapy. In summary, this flexible nanoplatform, based on multi-faceted loaded MoS2 nanosheets, exhibits considerable potential for efficient pH/NIR-responsive targeted drug delivery and chemo-photothermal synergistic tumor therapy.

10.
J Org Chem ; 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779304

RESUMO

A novel copper-catalyzed [3 + 2] cycloaddition reaction of alkynes with nitrile oxides generated in situ from the coupling reaction of copper carbene and nitroso radical has been developed. The three-component reaction provides a simple and efficient method for the constructions of isoxazoles in a highly regioselective manner in a single step. On the basis of the experimental results and DFT calculations, a catalytic cycle (CuI-CuII-Cu0-CuI) for this cascade cyclization reaction is proposed.

11.
ACS Synth Biol ; 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774653

RESUMO

The 4-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside of DMEP ((-)-4-desmethylepipodophyllotoxin) (GDMEP), a natural product from Podophyllum hexandrum, is the direct precursor to the topoisomerase inhibitor etoposide, used in dozens of chemotherapy regimens for various malignancies. The biosynthesis pathway for DMEP has been completed, while the enzyme for biosynthesizing GDMEP is still unclear. Here, we report the enzymatic O-glycosylation of DMEP with 53% conversion by exploring the substrate promiscuity and entrances of glycosyltransferases. Notably, we found 6 essential amino acid residues surrounding the putative substrate entrances exposed to the protein surface in UGT78D2, CsUGT78D2 and CsUGT78D2-like, and these residues may determine substrate specificity and high O-glycosylation activity towards DMEP. Our results provide an effective route for one-step synthesis of GDMEP. Identification of the key residues and entrances of glycosyltransferases will promote precise identification of glycosyltransferase biocatalysts for novel substrates and provide a rational basis for glycosyltransferase engineering.

12.
BMC Surg ; 19(1): 161, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wound-related complications are an inevitable issue faced by spinal surgeons. Negative pressure drainage remains the most commonly used method to prevent postoperative hematoma and related complications. This prospective, randomized, controlled study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of compression therapy following posterior lumbar interbody fusion, with emphasis on pain, anemia, and inflammation. METHODS: Sixty consecutive patients who have undergone posterior lumbar interbody fusion in the age range 43-78 years, with an average age of 59 years, were selected and randomly assigned into two groups. Factors, such as drainage volume, visual analog scale (VAS) pain score for back pain, white blood cell (WBC) count, red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin (Hb) levels, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels assessed on the 1st, 3rd, and 10th days postoperatively, were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: The average follow-up was 6 months, ranging from 3 to 11 months. Drainage volume, VAS score, and CRP levels on the 10th day after the surgery were found to be significantly lower in the treatment group than in the control group. RBC count and Hb levels on the 3rd and 10th postoperative days were observed to be significantly higher in the treatment group than in the control group (P < 0.05). During discharge, the wounds of the patients of the both groups had healed and neither showed any symptoms of infection, hematoma, or necrosis. CONCLUSION: Compression therapy relieves pain, alleviates anemia, and the inflammatory response following posterior lumbar interbody fusion. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR1800015825 on chictr.org.cn, April 23, 2018, the trial registry is Chinese Clinical Trial Registry.

13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5207, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729387

RESUMO

The indica and japonica rice (Oryza sativa) subspecies differ in nitrate (NO3-) assimilation capacity and nitrogen (N) use efficiency (NUE). Here, we show that a major component of this difference is conferred by allelic variation at OsNR2, a gene encoding a NADH/NADPH-dependent NO3- reductase (NR). Selection-driven allelic divergence has resulted in variant indica and japonica OsNR2 alleles encoding structurally distinct OsNR2 proteins, with indica OsNR2 exhibiting greater NR activity. Indica OsNR2 also promotes NO3- uptake via feed-forward interaction with OsNRT1.1B, a gene encoding a NO3- uptake transporter. These properties enable indica OsNR2 to confer increased effective tiller number, grain yield and NUE on japonica rice, effects enhanced by interaction with an additionally introgressed indica OsNRT1.1B allele. In consequence, indica OsNR2 provides an important breeding resource for the sustainable increases in japonica rice yields necessary for future global food security.

14.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17264, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754170

RESUMO

This study contrasted the impact of Tai Chi Chuan and general aerobic exercise on brain plasticity in terms of an increased grey matter volume and functional connectivity during structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), explored the advantages of Tai Chi Chuan in improving brain structure and function. Thirty-six college students were grouped into Tai Chi Chuan (Bafa Wubu of Tai Chi), general aerobic exercise (brisk walking) and control groups. Individuals were assessed with a sMRI and rs-fMRI scan before and after an 8-week training period. The VBM toolbox was used to conduct grey matter volume analyses. The CONN toolbox was used to conduct several seed-to-voxel functional connectivity analyses. We can conclude that compared with general aerobic exercise, eight weeks of Tai Chi Chuan exercise has a stronger effect on brain plasticity, which is embodied in the increase of grey matter volume in left middle occipital gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus and right middle temporal gyrus and the enhancement of functional connectivity between the left middle frontal gyrus and left superior parietal lobule. These findings demonstrate the potential and advantages of Tai Chi Chuan exercises in eliciting brain plasticity.

15.
Prep Biochem Biotechnol ; : 1-14, 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755817

RESUMO

When ingested as a dietary supplement, Ganoderma lucidum spore powders (GLSP) provide various health benefits such as enhanced immunity, liver protection and anti-cancer effects. In this study, triterpenoid extraction from GLSP was achieved using an ultrasound-assisted process which was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was also compared to the most conventional chemical extraction method. For UAE, optimum extraction conditions were found to be ethanol concentration = 95% v/v; solvent to solid ratio = 50:1 mL/g; ultrasound time = 5.4 min; ultrasound power = 564.7 w, and ultrasound probe distance = 8.2 cm. At optimal UAE conditions, no significant differences were found between experimental (0.97 ± 0.04 %) and predicted values (99%); which indicates appreciable correlation at the 97% confidence interval. The findings show the application of Box-Behnken design (BBD) to predict and optimize triterpenoid yield for UAE of triterpenoid from GLSP. Furthermore, glucose consumption was 2.68 times that of control samples when tested with insulin-resistant HepG2 cell, showing potential use in type 2 diabetes. In addition, triterpenoid extracts show good biocompatibility and inhibition of antioxidant activity.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714055

RESUMO

The sluggish kinetics and large overpotential of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) severely limit the widespread production and application of metal-air batteries. Herein, a conductive three-dimensional (3D) porous spiral-like polyhedron structure composed of nitrogen-doped carbon nanosheets (L/D-SPNC) was utilized as catalysts with combination of 3D hierarchical porous properties and distinguishing intrinsic properties of two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets for ORR. The chiral template, l/d-tartaric acid, induces the self-assembly of the supramolecule and the formation of an orderly array of carbon with spiral-like surface feature on a molecular scale. The resulting L/D-SPNC exhibits a small wall thickness (2.5 nm), large specific surface area (2034.2 m2/g), and high conductivity (155.76 S/m), which indicates that the properties of 2D nanosheets building blocks are kept in 3D mode. As catalysts for ORR, the optimized L-SPNC-950-1 exhibits a more positive onset potential of 1.03 V compared with those of Pt/C (1.00 V) and a half-wave potential of 0.87 V is also comparable to those of Pt/C (0.87 V). Al-air battery discharge data demonstrate that the spiral-like structure facilitates the diffusion of the electrolyte and oxygen on a three-phase interface, causing weak polarization. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations prove that the twisted surface aggravates the differential charge distribution between C-C/C-N bonds.

17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 8732023, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31781648

RESUMO

The biological function of human ovaries declines along with aging. To identify the underlying molecular changes during ovarian aging, pigs were used as model animals. Genome-wide DNA methylation and transcriptome-wide RNA expression analyses were performed via high-throughput sequencing of ovaries from young pigs (180 days, puberty stage of first ovulation) and old pigs (eight years, reproductive exhaustion stage). The results identified 422 different methylation regions between old and young pigs; furthermore, a total of 2,243 mRNAs, 95 microRNAs, 248 long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), and 116 circular RNAs (circRNAs) were differentially expressed during both developmental stages. Gene ontology analysis showed that these genes related to different methylation and expression are involved in the ovarian aging cycle. Specifically, these are involved in cell apoptosis, death effector domain binding, embryonic development, reproduction and fertilization process, ovarian cumulus expansion, and the ovulation cycle. Multigroup cooperative control relationships were also assessed, and competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) networks were constructed in the ovarian aging cycle. These data will help to clarify ovary age-associated potential molecular changes in DNA methylation and transcriptional patterns over time.

18.
Water Res ; 169: 115180, 2019 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669905

RESUMO

Highly efficient and economic treatment of wastewater sludges and wastewaters in one way is a challenging issue in the water treatment field. Herein we present a waste-to-resource strategy for rational fabrication of low-cost ceramic membranes, which simultaneously addresses the treatment of heavy metal-laden sludges and the separation of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions. A thermal conversion mechanism is proposed for complicated reactions between simulated nickel-laden wastewater sludge and bauxite mineral. In addition to full stabilization and recycling of heavy metal wastewater sludges, rational tailoring of ceramic membrane structures can also be realized to achieve high water flux and favorable mechanical and surface properties. With rational structure design, the tailored spinel-based ceramic membranes exhibited high rejection and high flux (7473 LMH·bar-1) simultaneously for separation of oily wastewater, outperforming other reported state-of-the-art ceramic membranes. The membrane fouling mechanism revealed the dominance of cake layer formation at low cross flow velocities, while a combined model of cake layer formation and pore blocking dominated membrane fouling at high cross-flow velocities. The proposed strategy can be potentially extended toward design of functional ceramic membranes derived from other heavy metal wastewater sludges and for other water treatment applications.

19.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(48): 44933-44940, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675212

RESUMO

High-throughput screening and fast identification of single bacterial cells are crucial for clinical diagnosis, bioengineering, and fermentation engineering. Although single-cell technologies have been developed extensively in recent years, the single-cell technologies for bacteria still need further exploration. In this study, we demonstrate an identification and screening technology for single bacterial cells based on a large-scale nanobowl array, which is well-ordered and size-adjustable for use with different kinds of bacteria. When the culture medium with monodispersed bacteria was placed on the nanobowl array, it successfully enabled loading of single bacterium into a single nanobowl. Because of the limitative size and depth of the nanobowls, mixture of different bacteria species could be screened according to their sizes. In addition, with the help of a low electrical current, the bacteria can be further screened according to their intrinsic surface charges. If combined with micromanipulation technology, high-throughput single bacterial selection can be achieved in future.

20.
Pharmacotherapy ; 39(12): 1126-1136, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692005

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness of different taxane-containing regimens and to identify the best strategy for the treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative metastatic breast cancer (MBC). DESIGN: Network meta-analysis of 20 randomized controlled trials (RCTs). PATIENTS: A total of 6577 patients with HER2-negative MBC who received treatment (20 different regimens) with taxanes (paclitaxel [4267 patients] or docetaxel [2310 patients]). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched (through March 2019) for RCTs that evaluated any taxane-containing regimens for the treatment of HER2-negative MBC. A network meta-analysis in a Bayesian framework was performed using the random-effects model. We compared the surface under the cumulative ranking (SUCRA) curve for each regimen. Overall, paclitaxel-based combinations were superior to paclitaxel alone in objective response rate (ORR) (odds ratio 1.60, 95% credible interval [CrI] 1.15-2.16) and overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio 1.08, 95% CrI 1.01-1.15). Docetaxel-based combinations were also superior to paclitaxel alone in ORR. Among the paclitaxel-based regimens, based on the results of SUCRA, paclitaxel + bevacizumab + capecitabine was likely to be the most efficacious in improving ORR, OS, and progression-free survival (PFS), whereas paclitaxel + gemcitabine was likely to be the most efficacious in 1-year OS rate. Among the docetaxel-based regimens, based on the results of SUCRA, docetaxel + gemcitabine was likely to be the most efficacious in improving PFS and OS. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrated that paclitaxel-based combinations can provide significant improvement in ORR and OS compared with paclitaxel alone. The regimens of paclitaxel + bevacizumab + capecitabine, docetaxel + gemcitabine, and paclitaxel + gemcitabine may be superior to other regimens for the treatment of HER2-negative MBC.

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