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1.
J Int Med Res ; 49(7): 300060520984595, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34309438

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This prospective study was performed to explore the change in sacrococcygeal pressure during an operation under general anesthesia in the supine position and identify the correlation between pressure injury and body mass index. METHODS: This study involved 99 patients who underwent general anesthesia. Sacrococcygeal pressure was measured and recorded at seven time points: before general anesthesia, 5 minutes after general anesthesia, and 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 hours after the beginning of the operation. The pressure change at each time point was compared, and the factors affecting the pressure were analyzed. RESULTS: The correlation analysis showed that the operation time was significantly and positively associated with the occurrence of pressure injury. CONCLUSION: Perioperative management should be strengthened to speed up the surgical process and shorten the operation time, which will help to reduce the occurrence of intraoperative pressure injury.

2.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav ; 208: 173225, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217783

RESUMO

AIM: To determine the effects of drug therapy on the physical growth of school-age children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD: The medical records of 86 participants (average age: 8.9 ± 2.2 years) with ADHD prescribed methylphenidate (MPH) or atomoxetine (ATX) for ≥24 weeks from the Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University were analysed. RESULTS: The Z-scores of height, weight and body mass index (BMI) of children with ADHD decreased significantly over the first six months of MPH treatment (P < 0.001). The slopes of the fitting lines after the first six months of MPH (-0.18, -0.58 and -0.69, respectively) returned over the entire treatment (the slopes changed to -0.027, -0.26 and -0.20, respectively). For ATX, the Z-scores of height of children decreased significantly over the first six months (P < 0.001), but the Z-scores of weight and BMI did not (P > 0.05). The slopes of the fitting lines after the first six months of ATX (-0.058, -0.032 and 0.0094, respectively) changed over the entire treatment (slopes were 0.16, 0.52 and 0.26, respectively). Children taking MPH were more likely to report decreased appetite (P < 0.05). The weight and BMI of the children receiving MPH were significantly correlated with decreased appetite (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The physical growth indexes (PGIs) of school-age children and adolescents with ADHD were negatively affected while taking MPH, and these effects were gradually mitigated with continued treatment. ATX hardly had negative effects on weight and BMI. Neither MPH nor ATX had a significant negative effect on the height of children in long-term ADHD treatment. It is necessary for clinicians to consider children's diet during treatment.

3.
Food Chem ; 363: 130298, 2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237557

RESUMO

Ferulic acid (FA) and tetramethyl pyrazine (TMP) are intrinsic bioactive compounds in baijiu, and kafirin is the major protein of sorghum, which is the raw material of baijiu. In this study, the interactions of kafirin-FA and kafirin-TMP were investigated by multiple spectroscopic and molecular modeling techniques. Fluorescence spectra showed that intrinsic fluorescence of kafirin drastically quenched because of the formations of kafirin-FA and kafirin-TMP complexes. The CD studies indicated that the combination with FA or TMP decreased the α-helix content of kafirin slightly. The shifts and intensity changes of UV-Vis, FTIR and fluorescence spectra confirmed the formations of complexes. Moreover, the molecular docking and molecular dynamics studies showed that hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds played major roles in the formations of kafirin-FA and kafirin-TMP complexes, and the formations of complexes made kafirin structures more compact. This work is of great importance for further quality improvement in baijiu and alcoholic beverages.

4.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 97, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little attention has been paid to the comparison of COVID-19 pandemic responses and related factors in BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa) countries. We aimed at evaluating the association of daily new COVID-19 cases with socio-economic and demographic factors, health vulnerability, resources, and policy response in BRICS countries. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study using data on the COVID-19 pandemic and other indicators of BRICS countries from February 26, 2020 to April 30, 2021. We compared COVID-19 epidemic in BRICS countries and analyzed related factors by log-linear Generalized Additive Model (GAM) models. RESULTS: In BRICS countries, India had the highest totally of confirmed cases with 18.76 million, followed by Brazil (14.45 million), Russia (4.81 million), and South Africa (1.58 million), while China (0.10 million) had the lowest figure. South Africa had the lowest rate of administered vaccine doses (0.18 million) among BRICS countries as of April 30, 2021. In the GAM model, a 1 unit increase in population density and policy stringency index was associated with a 5.17% and 1.95% growth in daily new COVID-19 cases (P < 0.001), respectively. Exposure-response curves for the effects of policy stringency index on daily new cases showed that there was a rapid surge in number of daily new COVID-19 cases when the index ranged from 0 to 45. The number of infections climbed slowly when the index ranged from 46 to 80, and decreased when the index was above 80 (P < 0.001). In addition, daily new COVID-19 cases (all P < 0.001) were also correlated with life expectancy at birth (-1.61%), extreme poverty (8.95%), human development index (-0.05%), GDP per capita (-0.18%), diabetes prevalence (0.66%), proportion of population aged 60 and above (2.23%), hospital beds per thousand people (-0.08%), proportion of people with access to improved drinking water (-7.40%), prevalence of open defecation (0.69%), and annual tourist/visitor arrivals (0.003%), after controlling other confounders. Different lag structures showed similar results in the sensitivity analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Strong policy response is crucial to control the pandemic, such as effective containment and case management. Our findings also highlighted the importance of reducing socio-economic inequalities and strengthening the resilience of health systems to better respond to public health emergencies globally.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Recursos em Saúde , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Políticas , Pobreza , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Populações Vulneráveis
5.
J Chem Neuroanat ; 117: 102004, 2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280490

RESUMO

Type 1 astrocytes (A1), which are highly proinflammatory and neurotoxic, are prevalent in multiple sclerosis (MS). In addition, in MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), immune cells must cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and infiltrate into the parenchyma of the central nervous system (CNS) in order to induce neurological deficits. We have previously reported that treatment of EAE with matrine (MAT), a quinazine alkaloid derived from Sophorae Flavescens, effectively inhibited CNS inflammation and promoted neuroregeneration. However, the impact of MAT treatment on astrocyte phenotype is not known. In the present study, we showed that MAT treatment inhibited the generation of neurotoxic A1 astrocytes and promoted neuroprotective A2 astrocytes in the CNS of EAE, most likely by inhibiting production of the A1-inducing cytokine cocktail. MAT also downregulated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and upregulated tight junction proteins Claudin 5 and Occludin, thus protecting the BBB from CNS inflammation-induced damage. Moreover, MAT treatment promotes the formation of astrocyte tight junctions at glia limitans, thereby limiting parenchymal invasion of the CNS by immune cells. Taken together, the inhibition of A1 astrogliogenesis, and the dual effects on the BBB and astrocytic glia limitans, may be the mechanisms whereby MAT significantly improves EAE clinical scores and neuroprotection.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283016

RESUMO

Two halophilic archaeal strains, Gai3-2T and NJ-3-1T, were isolated from salt lake and saline soil samples, respectively, collected in PR China. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the two strains were 97.5% similar to each other. Strains Gai3-2T and NJ-3-1T had the highest sequence similarities to 'Halobonum tyrrellense' G22 (96.7 and 97.8%, respectively), and displayed similarities of 91.5-93.5% and 92.3-94.7%, respectively, to Halobaculum members. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the two strains formed different branches and clustered tightly with 'H. tyrrellense' G22 and Halobaculum members. The average nucleotide identity (ANI), in silico DNA-DNA hybridization (isDDH) and amino acid identity (AAI) values between the two strains were 83.1, 26.9 and 77.9%, respectively, much lower than the threshold values proposed as a species boundary. These values between the two strains and 'H. tyrrellense' G22 (ANI 77.9-78.2%, isDDH 22.5-22.6% and AAI 68.8-69.3%) and Halobaculum members (ANI 77.53-77.63%, isDDH 21.8-22.3% and AAI 68.4-69.4%) were almost identical, and much lower than the recommended threshold values for species delimitation. These results suggested that strains Gai3-2T and NJ-3-1T represent two novel species of Halobaculum. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties, strains Gai3-2T (=CGMCC 1.16080T=JCM 33550T) and NJ-3-1T (=CGMCC 1.16040T=JCM 33552T) represent two novel species of the genus Halobaculum, for which the name Halobaculum halophilum sp. nov. and Halobaculum salinum sp. nov. are proposed.


Assuntos
DNA Arqueal/isolamento & purificação , Halobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Lagos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Solo/química , DNA Arqueal/genética , Halobacteriaceae/genética , Filogenia , Extratos Vegetais/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
7.
Lupus ; : 9612033211034555, 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304630

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Little is known about the relationship between exposure levels of mycophenolic acid (MPA), the active metabolite of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), and comorbidities of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in children. This study aims to explore this association. METHODS: Longitudinal data from SLE children, who were taking MMF for immunosuppression and under therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), were retrospectively collected. Area under the concentration-time curve of mycophenolic acid (MPA) over 24 hours (AUC0-24h) was estimated with Bayesian methods. Logistic regression and random forest models were used to explore the association between comorbidities and MPA exposure levels. RESULTS: This study included 107 children with 358 times of follow-up (median age 169.02 months). The incidence of diabetes, acute kidney injury (AKI), or pneumonia was significantly associated with AUC0-24h (odds ratio [OR] 0.991, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.982-0.999), SLE duration (OR 1.012, 95% CI 1.002-1.022), lymphocyte percentage (OR 0.959, 95% CI 0.925-0.991), plasma albumin levels (OR 0.891, 95% CI 0.843-0.940), use of aspirin (OR 0.292, 95% CI 0.126-0.633) and hydroxychloroquine (OR 0.407, 95% CI 0.184-0.906). The random forest model showed that albumin and AUC0-24h were two important predictors. The case group (with the three comorbidities) had a mean AUC0-24h of 73.63 mg · h/L, while the control group had a mean AUC0-24h of 100.39 mg · h/L. CONCLUSIONS: Increased levels of MPA exposure are associated with decreased incidence odds of diabetes, AKI or pneumonia in SLE children. An AUC0-24h of 100.39 mg · h/L or an AUC0-12h of 50.20 mg · h/L could be used as the targeted exposure level for clinical practice.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293838

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is systemic metabolic disease that results from insulin resistance or obesity. Numerous meta-analyses have investigated the effect of exercise on different populations, but none were aimed at the effect of aerobic exercise alone on obese children. This review systematically assessed and performed a meta-analysis on the effect of aerobic exercise on obese children with MetS. CONTENT: MEDLINE via PubMed, Embase, SPORTDiscus, and the Cochrane library were searched and screened from inception to 20 October 2020 for randomized controlled trials. The inclusion criteria were obese children who met the criteria for MetS and aged 5-19 years old in an aerobic exercise group. The meta-analysis included eight trials with a total of 197 participants. Aerobic exercise significantly improved the waist circumference (mean difference [MD]=-3.97; 95% confidence interval [CI]=-6.12 to -1.83; p<0.01), body mass index (standardized MD [SMD]=-0.5; 95% CI=-0.70 to -0.29; p<0.01), triglyceride (SMD=-24.6; 95% CI=-33.85 to -15.35; p<0.01), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (SMD=2.36; 95% CI=0.44 to 4.27; p<0.01), and systolic blood pressure (SMD=-6.90; 95% CI=-10.46 to -3.35; p<0.01). SUMMARY: Based on the results of this meta-analysis, during the intervention period of the included studies, aerobic exercise alone mainly affected the lipoprotein, blood pressure, and body dimensions but cannot completely cure the MetS of obese children. OUTLOOK: The effects of different types of aerobic exercise on obese children with MetS and exercise dose to cure the MetS of obese children needs to be further studied.

9.
Se Pu ; 39(3): 205-210, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227302

RESUMO

Protein glycosylation is a ubiquitous and important biological process involved in various molecular functions and biological pathways. It also yields important biomarkers for clinical diagnoses. However, glycopeptide analysis is challenging due to low abundance, low ionization efficiency, and glycan heterogeneity. In the present study, a method based on hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) was developed for the selective enrichment of glycopeptides using a novel metal-organic framework (MOF) nanocomposite (AuGC/ZIF-8). Dual functionalization with glutathione and cysteine has resulted in an ultra-hydrophilic MOF, with synergistic effects and lower steric hindrance, providing more affinity sites for the glycopeptide enrichment. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was used as a model glycoprotein, and AuGC/ZIF-8 was used to enrich glycopeptides prior to analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). AuGC/ZIF-8 displayed outstanding performance at enriching HRP glycopeptides, with high enrichment capacity (250 µg/mg), high selectivity in mixtures containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) (HRP-BSA (1∶200, mass ratio)), and high sensitivity at very low content (0.3 ng/µL). Thus this MOF holds promise for in-depth, comprehensive glycoproteomic and related analysis.


Assuntos
Glicopeptídeos/química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Nanocompostos , Cromatografia Líquida , Peroxidase do Rábano Silvestre , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Soroalbumina Bovina , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
10.
Genomics ; 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302946

RESUMO

We aim to identify a panel of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) for predicting survival outcomes for patients with CRC from the TCGA (n = 393). Four DMRs (MUC12, TBX20, CHN2, and B3GNT7) were selected as candidate prognostic markers for CRC. The prediction potential of selected DMRs was validated by the targeted bisulfite sequencing method in an independent cohort with 251 Chinese CRC patients. DMR methylation scores (DMSs) were constructed to evaluate the prognosis of CRC. Results of the validation cohort confirmed that higher DMSs were associated with poor overall survival (OS) of CRC, with hazard ratio (HR) value ranged from 1.445 to 2.698 in multivariable Cox models. Patients in the high prognostic index (high-PI) group showed a markedly unfavorable prognosis compared to the low-PI group in both TCGA discovery cohort (HR = 3.508, 95%CI: 2.196-5.604, P < 0.001) and independent validation cohort (HR = 1.912, 95%CI: 1.258-2.907, P = 0.002).

11.
Mol Vis ; 27: 438-456, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34295142

RESUMO

Purpose: To examine the neuroprotective effect of minocycline on retinal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in rats and investigate its possible mechanism of action. Methods: Retinal IR injury was established by increasing the intraocular pressure in rats up to 110 mmHg for 60 min. The animals with retinal IR injury were intraperitoneally injected with 22.5 mg/kg minocycline twice a day for 14 days. The control group received the same amount of saline. Subsequently, funduscopic examination, retinal thickness measurement, retinal microvascular morphology, full-field electroretinography (ERG), retinal apoptotic cell count, and remaining retinal ganglion cell (RGC) count were performed. The expression of iNOS, Bax, Bcl2, IL-1α, IL-6, TNF-α, caspase-3, GFAP, Iba-1, Hif-1α, and Nrf2 was examined with real-time PCR and western blotting. Results: Minocycline treatment prevented IR-induced rat retinal edema and retinal cells apoptosis at the early stage and alleviated retina atrophy, blood vessel tortuosity, functional photoreceptor damage, and RGC degeneration at the late stage of the IR injury. At the molecular level, minocycline affected retinal gene and protein expression induced by IR. Conclusions: The results suggested that minocycline has a neuroprotective effect on rat retinal IR injury, possibly through anti-inflammation, antiapoptosis, antioxidation, and inhibition of microglial activation.

12.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 206: 111952, 2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273810

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common inflammatory rheumatic disease, affecting almost 1% of the world population. It is a long-lasting autoimmune disease, which mainly affects the joints causing inflammation and swelling of the synovial joint. RA has a significant impact on the ability to perform daily activities including simple work and household chores. Nonetheless, due to the long periods of pain and the continuous use of anti-inflammatory drugs, RA can debilitate the quality of life and increases mortality. Current therapeutic approaches to treat RA aim to achieve prolonged activity and early and persistent remission of the disease, with the gradual adoption of different drugs available. In this study, we developed a novel hydroxychloroquine and methotrexate co-loaded Pluronic® F-127 nanomicelle and evaluated its therapeutic effects against RA. Our results showed that drug-loaded nanomicelles were capable of modulating the inflammatory process of RA and reducing osteoclastogenesis, edema, and cell migration to the joint. Overall, compared to the free drugs, the drug-loaded nanomicelles showed a 2-fold higher therapeutic effect.

13.
Environ Pollut ; 288: 117696, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243081

RESUMO

Evidence about the adverse effects of methamphetamine (METH) on invertebrates is scarce. Hence, C. elegans, a representative invertebrate model, was exposed to METH at environmental levels to estimate chronic and transgenerational toxicity. The results of chronic exposure were integrated into an underlying toxicity framework of METH in invertebrates (e.g., benthos) at environmentally relevant concentrations. The induction of cellular oxidative damage-induced apoptosis and fluctuation of ecologically important traits (i.e., feeding and locomotion) might be attributed by the activation of the longevity regulating pathway regulated by DAF-16/FOXO, and detoxification by CYP family enzymes. The adverse effects to the organism level included impaired viability and decreased fecundity. The results from transgenerational exposure elucidated the cumulative METH-induced damage in invertebrates. Finally, a new risk assessment method named toxicity indicator sensitivity distribution (TISD) analysis was proposed by combining multiple toxicity indicator test data (ECx) to derive the hazardous concentration for 10% indicators (C10) of one species. The risk quotient (RQ) values calculated by measured environmental concentrations and C10 in southern China, southeastern Australia, and the western US crossed the alarm line (RQ = 5), suggesting a need for long-term monitoring.

14.
Cancer Lett ; 518: 127-139, 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271102

RESUMO

Radiotherapy is a standard and conventional treatment strategy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC); however, radioresistance remains refractory to clinical outcomes. Understanding the molecular mechanism of radioresistance is crucial for advancing the efficacy of radiotherapy and improving the prognosis of NPC. In this study, ß-lactamase-like-protein 2 (LACTB2) was identified as a potential biomarker for radioresistance using tandem mass tag proteomic analysis of NPC cells, gene chip analysis of NPC tissues, and differential gene analysis between NPC and normal nasopharyngeal tissues from the Gene Expression Omnibus database GSE68799. Meanwhile, LACTB2 levels were elevated in the serum of patients with NPC after radiotherapy. Inhibiting LACTB2 levels and mitophagy can sensitize NPC cells to ionizing radiation. In NPC cells, LACTB2 was augmented at the transcription and protein levels after radiation rather than nucleus-cytoplasm-mitochondria transposition to activate PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) and mitophagy. In addition, LACTB2 was first authenticated to co-locate with PINK1 by interacting with its N-terminal domain. Together, our findings indicate that overexpressed LACTB2 provoked PINK1-dependent mitophagy to promote radioresistance and thus might serve as a prognostic biomarker for NPC radiotherapy.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273641

RESUMO

The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta is a cosmopolitan pest of orchard, which causes serious economic losses to the fruit production. Neuropeptides and their specific receptors (primarily G protein-coupled receptors, GPCRs) regulate multiple biological functions in insects and represent promising next-generation pest management strategy. Here, we generated a transcriptome of the central nervous system (CNS) of G. molesta. Overall, 57 neuropeptide precursor genes were identified and 128 various mature peptides were predicted from these precursors. Using peptidomic analysis of CNS of G. molesta, we identified total of 28 mature peptides and precursor-related peptides from 16 precursors. A total of 41 neuropeptide GPCR genes belonging to three classes were also identified. These GPCRs and their probable ligands were predicted. Additionally, expression patterns of these 98 genes in various larval tissues were evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR. Taken together, these results will benefit further investigations to determine physiological functions and pharmacological characterization of neuropeptides and their GPCRs in G. molesta; and to develop specific neuropeptide-based agents for this tortricid fruit pest control.

16.
ISA Trans ; 2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238519

RESUMO

This paper describes an adaptive nonsingular fixed-time sliding mode control (ANFSMC) scheme under actuator saturation that can track the trajectory of a robotic manipulator under external disturbances and inertia uncertainties. First, a novel NFSMC that offers rapid convergence and avoids singularities is proposed for ensuring robotic manipulators global approximate fixed-time convergence. An ANFSMC is then developed for which the bound of the coupling uncertainty is not necessary to know in advance. The controller exhibits small absolute tracking errors and consumes little energy. An actuator saturation compensator is designed and shown to minimize the chattering of the system while accelerating the trajectory tracking. The proposed schemes are analyzed using Lyapunov stability theory, and their effectiveness and superiority are demonstrated through numerical simulations.

17.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1208: 3-16, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260018

RESUMO

Autophagy is a general term for the process of the lysosomal degradation of intracellular components, a process occurring exclusively in eukaryotic cells. Based on the way that intracellular substrates are transported to lysosomes, autophagy in mammalian cells can be divided into three main types: macroautophagy, microautophagy, and chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). Each type has its unique molecular machinery and is tightly regulated by various cellular signals, helping cells adapt to a changing environment. Autophagy can also be divided into two categories based on cargo selectivity: selective autophagy and nonselective autophagy. Nonselective autophagy refers to the bulk transport of organelles or other cytoplasmic components to lysosomes, while selective autophagy refers to the degradation of a specific substrate. Autophagy plays an essential role in maintaining cellular homeostasis, and dysregulation of it may participate in the pathological process of many human diseases.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Lisossomos , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Homeostase , Humanos , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
18.
Seizure ; 91: 346-359, 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diverse neuronal antibodies are related to autoimmune encephalitis (AE) and AE-related epilepsy. However, the epidemiological characteristics of AE, AE-associated antibodies, and AE-related seizures are still unclear. AIMS: This research evaluated the relationship between AE, AE-related seizures, and neuronal antibodies, as well as the morbidity of AE with early incidence. METHODS: The PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, and Web of Science databases were searched. Pooled estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effects model. RESULTS: Of the 4,869 citations identified, 100 articles were reviewed in full, and 42 subgroups were analyzed. The overall incidence of AE patients with seizures was 42% (95% CI: 0.40-0.44), and among them, the incidence of epilepsy in anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis patients was 73% (95% CI: 0.70-0.77). Subsequently, we found that the prevalence of AE as the cause of epilepsy within the pooled period was 1% (95% CI: 0.01-0.02), while the overall positive rate of neuronal antibodies in epilepsy patients was 4% (95% CI: 0.03-0.05). Additionally, the detection rates of different antibodies among epilepsy patients were as follows: anti-NMDAR, 1%; anti-leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1), 1%; anti-contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2), 2%. CONCLUSION: Based on our findings, neuronal antibodies may serve as a bridge to study AE and immune-related epilepsy. To further understand the differences in outcomes following different treatment measures, and to provide more information for public health policy and prevention, more research is needed to improve the accuracy of estimations.

19.
Transl Neurodegener ; 10(1): 25, 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood-based test for predicting disease progression and early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is an unmet need in the clinic. The profiles of microRNAs (miRNAs) are regarded as potential diagnostic biomarkers for human diseases, whereas miRNAs in the periphery are susceptible to the influence of various components. MiRNAs enriched in serum extracellular vesicles (EVs) have demonstrated disease-specific advantages in diagnosis due to their high abundance, stability and resistance to degradation. This study was aimed to screen differentially expressed EV-derived miRNAs between healthy controls and PD patients to aid in diagnosis of PD. METHODS: A total of 31 healthy controls and 72 patients with a diagnosis of PD at different Hoehn and Yahr stages in Tangdu Hospital were included. In total, 185 differentially expressed miRNAs were obtained through RNA sequencing of serum EVs as well as edgeR and t-test analyses. Subsequently, the weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was utilized to identify the commonly expressed miRNAs in all stages of PD by constructing connections between modules, and specifically expressed miRNAs in each stage of PD by functional enrichment analysis. After aligning these miRNAs with PD-related miRNAs in Human miRNA Disease Database, the screened miRNAs were further validated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) using peripheral blood EVs from 40 more participants. RESULTS: WGCNA showed that 4 miRNAs were commonly associated with all stages of PD and 13 miRNAs were specifically associated with different stages of PD. Of the 17 obtained miRNAs, 7 were validated by ROC curve analysis and 7 were verified in 40 more participants by qRT-PCR. Six miRNAs were verified by both methods, which included 2 miRNAs that were commonly expressed in all stages of PD and 4 miRNAs that were specifically expressed in different stages of PD. CONCLUSIONS: The 6 serum EV-derived miRNAs, hsa-miR-374a-5p, hsa-miR-374b-5p, hsa-miR-199a-3p, hsa-miR-28-5p, hsa-miR-22-5p and hsa-miR-151a-5p, may potentially be used as biomarkers for PD progression and for early diagnosis of PD in populations.

20.
Sci Total Environ ; 794: 148693, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214804

RESUMO

Swimming pools are crowd-gathering places that are associated with numerous outbreaks of water-borne diseases. Herein, we investigated the distribution of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and bacterial communities in swimming pools and determined the influencing factors and potential human exposure. Sixteen swimming pools with different bather loads (0.01-0.16 person/m2·h) were investigated. Water samples were collected, before opening and after closing of the facilities, from six swimming pools, and skin samples were collected from volunteers. Comprehensive approaches, high-throughput qPCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, were used. The results showed that swimming pools contained a higher relative abundance (0.62 gene copies/16S rRNA) and absolute abundance (6.57×108 gene copies/L) of ARGs on average. Bather loads contributed to the increase of core ARGs, and the absolute abundance of ARGs significantly increased by 1.47-1.94 orders of magnitude when the bather load was more than 0.1 person/m2·h. Dermal contact was estimated as the main exposure route of ARGs. Eighteen ARGs that were not detected before swimming were found on human skin and remained after showering. Furthermore, the event intake burden of ARGs via dermal contact was higher than that via ingestion when swimming. This study provides an assessment of ARGs and antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) in swimming pools and helps to define the health risks to swimmers.

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