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1.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(1): 242-250, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372476

RESUMO

Connected rivers are a common engineering method to ensure the ecological health of urban water. However, for the lakes with serious cyanobacteria blooms, the algal particles are carried by the outflow of the lake and will have a significant impact on water quality. The location at which the Liangxi river meets Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu was selected to explore the influence of the eutrophic lake on the connected rivers, and high-frequency monitoring was conducted in summer for three consecutive years to analyze the changes in the flux of cyanobacterial bloom particles in rivers and their impact on river water quality. The results show that:① The improvement of the algal cyanobacteria bloom in Meiliang Bay and the operation of the pressure-controlled algae well at the entrance of the river significantly reduced the concentration of chlorophyll a and the flux of algae particles in the Liangxi River. The average value of the concentration of chlorophyll a and the flux of algae particles in the river in summer 2019 were 54.34 µg·L-1 and 84.7 t·d-1, respectively, and significantly lower than those of 2017; ② Water diversion had a significant effect on improving the water quality of the receiving water. Except for DTP, the nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations of the remaining forms of the Liangxi River showed a downward trend from 2017 to 2019, indicating that the water quality of the Liangxi river improved after water transfer; ③ A large amount of cyanobacterial blooms entering the channel significantly increased the particulate nitrogen and phosphorus content of the water. From 2017 to 2019, the nitrogen and phosphorus in the Liangxi River were mainly PN and PP, accounting for 62.5% and 70.8% of TN and TP, respectively; ④ The water quality of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal and other connected rivers has not been affected by the algal particles in Meiliang Bay. In August 2019, the chlorophyll a content in the canal water decreased by 65% compared with that of June, indicating that cyanobacterial bloom particles have not accumulated in the Grand Canal; ⑤ On the premise that the cyanobacteria bloom in the lake has not been effectively improved, the algae particles carried by the water diversion will have an impact on the water quality and landscape of the local reach connecting the river.


Assuntos
Lagos , Rios , Pequim , China , Clorofila A , Monitoramento Ambiental , Eutrofização , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Qualidade da Água
2.
Redox Biol ; 38: 101813, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279869

RESUMO

Diabetic kidney disease is known as a major cause of chronic kidney disease and end stage renal disease. Polysulfides, a class of chemical agents with a chain of sulfur atoms, are found to confer renal protective effects in acute kidney injury. However, whether a polysulfide donor, sodium tetrasulfide (Na2S4), confers protective effects against diabetic nephropathy remains unclear. Our results showed that Na2S4 treatment ameliorated renal dysfunctional and histological damage in diabetic kidneys through inhibiting the overproduction of inflammation cytokine and reactive oxygen species (ROS), as well as attenuating renal fibrosis and renal cell apoptosis. Additionally, the upregulated phosphorylation and acetylation levels of p65 nuclear factor κB (p65 NF-κB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in diabetic nephropathy were abrogated by Na2S4 in a sirtuin-1 (SIRT1)-dependent manner. In renal tubular epithelial cells, Na2S4 directly sulfhydrated SIRT1 at two conserved CXXC domains (Cys371/374; Cys395/398), then induced dephosphorylation and deacetylation of its targeted proteins including p65 NF-κB and STAT3, thereby reducing high glucose (HG)-caused oxidative stress, cell apoptosis, inflammation response and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) progression. Most importantly, inactivation of SIRT1 by a specific inhibitor EX-527, small interfering RNA (siRNA), a de-sulfhydration reagent dithiothreitol (DTT), or mutation of Cys371/374 and Cys395/398 sites at SIRT1 abolished the protective effects of Na2S4 on diabetic kidney insulting. These results reveal that polysulfides may attenuate diabetic renal lesions via inactivation of p65 NF-κB and STAT3 phosphorylation/acetylation through sulfhydrating SIRT1.

3.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(11): 4970-4980, 2020 Nov 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124240

RESUMO

To understand the quantitative effect of heavy rain on nitrogen and phosphorus pollution in river-net plain, daily observations of nutrient concentrations in two rivers, flowing into Lake Taihu, were conducted from 1st September, 2017 to 31st August, 2019. The daily rainfall was recorded by auto-recording meteorological stations located on the two rivers and the Taihu Laboratory for Lake Ecosystem Research. Intensive sampling in different sections of the two rivers during Super Typhoon Lekima was also conducted in August 2019. Using these datasets, the influence of heavy rainfall on various forms of nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in the rivers, and its environmental effects, were analyzed. The results showed that 16 heavy rainfall events (19 d) were observed in two years, 50% of which occurred in the summer season. In addition, heavy rainfall accounted for as much as 41.33% of the total rainfall over the entire year. After the period of heavy rainfall, the concentrations of various forms of nitrogen and phosphorus increased, and the particulate P generally exhibited the fastest response, usually peaking on the day of heavy rainfall. In contrast, the peaks of N were delayed for 2-5 days with the occurrence of heavy rain. In general, the duration of the increase in the concentration of nutrients in the study river caused by heavy rainfall was short (usually 1-2 days), and sometimes was lower than the concentration before the rains. The Dapu River exhibited a slower response to heavy rains than the Yincun River because it has a larger and longer catchment area than the Dapu River. In addition, the effect of heavy rain on N and P concentrations was also strongly influenced by the land-use situation around the river basin. The increase of nitrogen in the reach, affected by agricultural non-point sources, was dominated by granular nitrogen, and the increase of nitrogen in the reach affected by urban non-point sources was dominated by dissolved nitrogen. The increase of phosphorus was dominated by granular phosphorus in the entire process. The conclusions of this study are as follows:In the plain river network area, the fluctuations of nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in the river water body caused by heavy rainfall are small, and the response of various forms of nitrogen and phosphorus are significantly affected by the local environmental background. Therefore, the water quality generally exhibited limited variation. Due to the large proportion of water entering the lake during heavy rainfall events, a high level of the nutrient loading was also observed, and the occurrence of heavy rainfall was occasional. The short-term effect of heavy rainfall on the nitrogen and phosphorus loading entering the lake in the river channel in the plain river network area is therefore, also significant, and requires further investigation.


Assuntos
Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água
4.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(9): 4030-4041, 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124283

RESUMO

In spring and summer of 2018, 26 lakes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River were studied to determine the temporal and spatial characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus ratios (TN/TP) and their influencing factors. The differences in nitrogen and phosphorus ratios in different types of lakes (including water-psaaing lakes, deep reservoirs and eutrophic lakes) and in different seasons were analyzed in terms of the sources of the lakes, lake depth, suspended particulate matter concentrations, and phytoplankton levels. The average TN/TP was 21.52±14.28 in spring and 21.73±23.78 in summer. The TN/TP varied significantly in different types of lakes. The TN/TP ratios in water-passing lakes, deep reservoirs and eutrophic lakes were 20.41±9.25, 40.97±33.37, and 14.38±7.40 during spring, and were 22.62±6.48, 96.38±45.91, and 10.91±4.44 during summer, respectively. The TN/TP of the water-passing lakes and deep reservoirs increased significantly in summer, while that of the eutrophic lakes decreased significantly, which indicates that TN/TP changes and lake nutritional status are closely related. The source of nutrients in lakes and reservoirs affects the TN/TP. The TN/TP of lakes and reservoirs had a significant correlation with the lake depth in both spring and summer, indicating that lake depth is a key factor affecting the ratio of nitrogen and phosphorus. In addition, in eutrophic lakes with higher absolute nutrient concentrations, TN/TP has less effect on phytoplankton, while in deep-water lakes with lower absolute nutrient concentrations, TN/TP can determine the growth of phytoplankton limited by phosphorus. Therefore, the governance strategy of lakes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River should prioritize phosphorus control. Local digging, controlling non-point source pollution, sediment dredging, and changing fishery production methods can be applied to improve the ecological quality of the eutrophic lakes.


Assuntos
Lagos , Fósforo , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Eutrofização , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Rios
5.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(9): 4053-4061, 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124285

RESUMO

The decomposition of submerged macrophytes is generally associated with dramatic changes in the water environment, such as the large release of nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus) and organic carbon to the surrounding waters, which may result in significant changes in phytoplankton community structure. In this study, Potamogeton crispus, physicochemical variables, and phytoplankton samples were collected in 14 shallow lakes in the middle and lower Jianghuai Plain in spring (growing period of P. crispus) and summer (decomposition phase of P. crispus) of 2018. The effects of the decline of P. crispus on water quality and phytoplankton community structure were quantified. The results showed that water transparency increased significantly in spring because the growth of P. crispus inhibits sediment resuspension and macrophytes can transport the nutrients from the water column to the sediment. The values of dissolved oxygen and pH also increased significantly due the photosynthesis by macrophytes. In contrast, the decomposition of P. crispus during summer months caused a significant increase in water turbidity and organic matter. There were considerable differences in phytoplankton biomass and cyanobacterial biomass in the sites with or without P. crispus, and the corresponding ratios of cyanobacterial biomass to the total algal biomass were 18.96% and 34.05%, respectively. Higher values of cyanobacterial biomass were observed with the decomposition of P. crispus than its counterpart in summer because ① the decomposition of macrophytes provided sufficient organic matter and nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) resources for cyanobacterial growth; ② P. crispus decline in summer significantly increased water turbidity, which makes cyanobacteria occupy a better ecological niche and more efficiently utilize nitrogen and phosphorus.


Assuntos
Potamogetonaceae , Biomassa , Eutrofização , Lagos , Nitrogênio , Fósforo , Fitoplâncton
6.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747719

RESUMO

Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) is characterized by a heterogeneous group of extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphomas, in which monoclonal T lymphocytes infiltrate the skin. LW-213, a derivative of wogonin, was found to induce cell apoptosis in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). In this study, we investigated the effects of LW-213 on CTCL cells and the underlying mechanisms. We showed that LW-213 (1-25 µM) dose-dependently inhibited human CTCL cell lines (Hut-102, Hut-78, MyLa, and HH) with IC50 values of around 10 µM, meanwhile it potently inhibited primary leukemia cells derived from peripheral blood of T-cell lymphoma patients. We revealed that LW-213-induced apoptosis was accompanied by ROS formation and the release of calcium from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through IP3R-1channel. LW-213 selectively activated CHOP and induced apoptosis in Hut-102 cells via activating PERK-eIF2α-ATF4 pathway. Interestingly, the degree of apoptosis and expression of ER stress-related proteins were alleviated in the presence of either N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), an ROS scavenger, or 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate (2-APB), an IP3R-1 inhibitor, implicating ROS/calcium-dependent ER stress in LW-213-induced apoptosis. In NOD/SCID mice bearing Hut-102 cell line xenografts, administration of LW-213 (10 mg/kg, ip, every other day for 4 weeks) markedly inhibited the growth of Hut-102 derived xenografts and prolonged survival. In conclusion, our study provides a new insight into the mechanism of LW-213-induced apoptosis, suggesting the potential of LW-213 as a promising agent against CTCL.

7.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(2): 713-727, 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608730

RESUMO

The tail of the reservoir is the unstable zone regarding water quality and phytoplankton community. Therefore, it is the crucial zone in aquatic ecosystem transitions. To understand the transition characteristics and driving mechanisms of water environment dynamics, high-frequency monitoring of the water environment and phytoplankton community in the tail of a deep and large reservoir, the Xin'anjiang Reservoir in southeast of China, was conducted using a water quality monitoring buoy and three-day interval water sampling during 18 months. Results show clear seasonal thermal and oxygen stratification in the river mouth of the reservoir. The nutrient and chlorophyll-a concentrations also show stratifying phenomena during the thermal stratification period. Heavy rain and inflow quickly consume the stratification. Nutrient concentrations were highly dynamic in the river mouth. The total phosphorus ranges from 0.011 mg·L-1 to 0.188 mg·L-1, and total nitrogen ranges from 0.75 mg·L-1 to 2.76 mg·L-1. Dissolved phosphorus comprised 56% of total phosphorus, and dissolved nitrogen occupied 88% of total nitrogen, respectively. Nutrient concentrations were influenced strongly by rainfall intensity and inflow rate. Total phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations were significantly related to the three-day accumulated rainfall. Nutrient concentrations in the flood season (March to June) were significantly higher than in the non-flood season (P<0.001). Seasonal phytoplankton proliferation also significantly influenced by total phosphorus concentration. The phytoplankton community changes significantly with seasons and flood events. Bacillariophytea was generally dominant throughout the year, with the predominant genus of Fragilaria spp., Cyclotella spp., Synedra spp., and Melosira spp. Cyanophyta biomass peaked in July, August, and September, with the dominant genus of Aphanizomenon spp., Microcystis spp., and Oscillatoria spp. Apart from the high temperature, storm inflow events also triggered Cyanophyta proliferation. The proliferation of Chlorophyta was similar to Cyanophyta, with the predominant genus of Pediastrum spp. and Closterium spp.. While the Cryptophyta biomass peaked during March to May, with the predominant genus of Cryptomonas spp.. Redundancy analysis shows that the influence factors of phytoplankton community dynamics include the inflow rate, temperature, water level, water transparency, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and nitrogen to phosphorus ratio. The meteorological and hydrological factors were major factors for phytoplankton dynamics during later autumn and winter, while the nutrient will be the co-driving factors of phytoplankton community dynamics during summer and early autumn. The research confirmed the huge influence of the intensity rainfall event on the water environment in reservoirs and described the key environmental conditions for phytoplankton community dynamics. The research is useful for the design of the monitoring and forecasting system for water safety in drinking water source reservoirs.


Assuntos
Fitoplâncton/classificação , Rios , Qualidade da Água , China , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Estações do Ano
8.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(6): 2671-2678, 2020 Jun 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608782

RESUMO

Lake sediments not only act as a reservoir of nutrients, but are also a source of secondary pollution of nutrients for overlying water, which can buffer the variations in nutrients in overlying water and affect nutrient bioavailability and algal growth. In the current study, a simulation experiment was conducted using sediment cores collected in Meiliang Bay. Our aim was to elucidate the effect of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) pulse input on variations in the water nutrient level and algal growth. We also clarified the migration and redistribution process of N and P between the sediment overlying water and algae. The results showed that the concentration of N in overlying water of the treatment group (with sediment) was much lower than that in controls (no sediment) when N was input at a pulse rate of 0.30 mg·(L·d)-1. The loss rate of N in the overlying water of the treatment group ranged from 0.144 mg·(L·d)-1 to 0.156 mg·(L·d)-1 and that in the control ranged from 0.021 mg·(L·d)-1to 0.039 mg·(L·d)-1. On the contrary, the denitrification rate of overlying water in the treatment group ranged from 40.793 mg·(m2·d)-1 to 44.193 mg·(m2·d)-1, accounting to 48%-52% of the external N loading. In contrast, the denitrification rate of overlying water in controls was from 0.021 mg·(L·d)-1to 0.039 mg·(L·d)-1, only accounting for 7%-13% of the external N loading. These results indicated that the sediment-water interface is the main site of denitrification in shallow lakes and plays an essential role in reducing N pollution in lakes. With respect to the pulse input of P at a rate of 0.015 mg·(L·d)-1, the majority of P (about 52%-58%) was imported into the sediment at a rate from 2.210 mg·(m2·d)-1to 2.422 mg·(m2·d)-1, and only a small proportion, approximately 23%-26%, was utilized by algae. The remaining P existed in overlying water in a dissolved state. These results implied that the sediment can buffer the external P input as an obvious "sink" effect of nutrients. Our results also showed that the sediment acts as a "source" of P when no external P was added. The release rate of P from the sediment to overlying water was from 0.310 mg·(m2·d)-1 to 0.468 mg·(m2·d)-1. In situ high-resolution analysis of ZrO-Chelex DGT showed that the DGT-P concentration in the interstitial water was much higher than that in the overlying water, and the concentration of DGT-P was significantly correlated with the concentration of DGT-Fe in interstitial water. These results indicate that changes in the redox potential may cause considerable release of internal phosphorus. In summary, our study showed that internal P in sediments can be released into the overlying water and support the growth of algae when the external nutrients are controlled. As a result, a delayed response was observed in the nutrient concentration in overlying water to external P reduction. Therefore, the dual control of N and P may have a better practical application to mitigate cyanobacteria blooms in shallow lakes.

9.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(5): 2137-2148, 2020 May 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608831

RESUMO

To analyze the spatial-temporal distribution and sedimentation characteristics of suspended solids in reservoirs, high-frequency monitoring of a sediment trap and buoy, combined with three-dimensional water sampling, was conducted and analyzed in Xin'anjiang Reservoir for a year. The results showed that the turbidity data of the buoy has significant correlation with rainfall, inflow, and suspended solids (SS), particularly for SS (P<0.01, R2=0.86). There is an obvious spatial difference in SS between spring and summer, when the rainfall season occurs (river area > transition area > lake area). However, there is little difference in SS concentration between autumn and winter. There is a spatial trend of river area > transition area > lake area (with rates of 27.82, 4.34, and 0.26 g·(m2·d)-1, respectively), and a temporal trend of spring and summer > autumn and winter. The sedimentation flux of the whole lake is 2.57×106 t·a-1 combined with the investigation of the four-season SS at 60 points across the whole lake, and the settlement flux in spring and summer is higher than that in autumn and winter. The contents of particulate nitrogen (PN) in JK, XJS, and DB were 6812, 15886, and 21986 mg·kg-1, and the particulate phosphorus (PP) contents were 2545, 3269, and 3077 mg·kg-1, respectively. Statistical analysis shows that there is a good exponential relationship between moderate rainfall and turbidity growth rate in the river area of the reservoir (R2=0.81). Moreover, the continuous heavy rainfall affects turbidity in river area, but has little effect on the transition area. The concentration of SS has a good exponential decay with distance from the river to the dam (R2=0.84), especially in spring and summer. Research shows that the average annual deposition rate in Xin'anjiang Reservoir is 0.07%, lower than other large reservoirs in the country; however, there are certain risks in front of the dam because the nutrient sediments are high. The results suggest that reservoir managers should pay attention to water and soil conservation in the watershed to reduce the impact of rainfall on reservoir water quality. Meanwhile, the potential nutrient internal release risk in the downstream area before the dam should be considered.

10.
Theranostics ; 10(14): 6149-6166, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483445

RESUMO

Reduced hepatic Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) activity and NKAα1 expression are engaged in the pathologies of metabolism diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the potential roles of NKAα1 in hepatic gluconeogenesis and glycogenesis in both hepatocytes and obese diabetic mice. Methods: Insulin resistance was mimicked by glucosamine (GlcN) in either human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells or primary mouse primary hepatocytes. Obese diabetic mice were induced by high-fat diet (HFD) feeding for 12 weeks. Results: We found that both NKA activity and NKAα1 protein level were downregulated in GlcN-treated hepatocytes and in the livers of obese diabetic mice. Pharmacological inhibition of NKA with ouabain worsened, while activation of NKAα1 with an antibody against an extracellular DR region of NKAα1 subunit (DR-Ab) prevented GlcN-induced increase in gluconeogenesis and decrease in glycogenesis. Likewise, the above results were also corroborated by the opposite effects of genetic knockout/overexpression of NKAα1 on both gluconeogenesis and glycogenesis. In obese diabetic mice, hepatic activation or overexpression of NKAα1 stimulated the PI3K/Akt pathway to suppress hyperglycemia and improve insulin resistance. More importantly, loss of NKA activities in NKAα1+/- mice was associated with more susceptibility to insulin resistance following HFD feeding. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that NKAα1 is a physiological regulator of glucose homoeostasis and its DR-region is a novel target to treat hepatic insulin resistance.

11.
Pharmacol Res ; 159: 104961, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474086

RESUMO

Cardiovascular diseases are recognized to be a major cause of people morbidity and mortality. A host of stress signals contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disorders. Deficiency of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or nitric oxide (NO) coordinately plays essential roles in the development of cardiovascular diseases. Recent studies have shown that interaction between the two gaseostransmitters, H2S and NO, may give rise to nitroxyl (HNO), one-electron-reduced product of NO. HNO is found to exhibit a variety of biological and pharmacological properties including positive inotropy and cardiovascular protective effects, etc. In this review, recent progresses regarding HNO generation, detection, biochemical and pharmacological functions are discussed.

12.
Redox Biol ; 32: 101493, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182574

RESUMO

Nitroxyl (HNO), one-electron reduced and protonated sibling of nitric oxide (NO), is a potential regulator of cardiovascular functions. It produces positive inotropic, lusitropic, myocardial anti-hypertrophic and vasodilator properties. Despite of these favorable actions, the significance and the possible mechanisms of HNO in diabetic hearts have yet to be fully elucidated. H9c2 cells or primary neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes were incubated with normal glucose (NG) or high glucose (HG). Male C57BL/6 mice received intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) to induce diabetes. Here, we demonstrated that the baseline fluorescence signals of HNO in H9c2 cells were reinforced by both HNO donor Angeli's salt (AS), and the mixture of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donor sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS) and NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP), but decreased by HG. Pretreatment with AS significantly reduced HG-induced cell vitality injury, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and hypertrophy in H9c2 cells. This effect was mediated by induction of caveolin-3 (Cav-3)/endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) complex. Disruption of Cav-3/eNOS by pharmacological manipulation or small interfering RNA (siRNA) abolished the protective effects of AS in HG-incubated H9c2 cells. In STZ-induced diabetic mice, administration of AS ameliorated the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy, as evidenced by improved cardiac function and reduced cardiac hypertrophy, apoptosis, oxidative stress and myocardial fibrosis without affecting hyperglycemia. This study shed light on how interaction of NO and H2S regulates cardiac pathology and provide new route to treat diabetic cardiomyopathy with HNO.

13.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 41(2): 249-259, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316178

RESUMO

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal hematopoietic stem cell neoplasm characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of moderately and well differentiated cells of the granulocytic lineage. LW-213, a newly synthesized flavonoid compound, was found to exert antitumor effects against breast cancer through inducing G2/M phase arrest. We investigated whether LW-213 exerted anti-CML effects and the underlying mechanisms. We showed that LW-213 inhibited the growth of human CML cell lines K562 and imatinid-resistant K562 (K562r) in dose- and time-dependent manners with IC50 values at the low µmol/L levels. LW-213 (5, 10, 15 µM) caused G2/M phase arrest of K562 and K562r cells via reducing the activity of G2/M phase transition-related proteins Cyclin B1/CDC2 complex. LW-213 treatment induced apoptosis of K562 and K562r cells via inhibiting the expression of CDK9 through lysosome degradation, thus leading to the suppression of RNAPII phosphorylation, down-regulation of a short-lived anti-apoptic protein MCL-1. The lysosome inhibitor, NH4Cl, could reverse the anti-CML effects of LW-213 including CDK9 degradation and apoptosis. LW-213 treatment also degraded the downstream proteins of BCR-ABL1, such as oncoproteins AKT, STAT3/5 in CML cells, which was blocked by NH4Cl. In primary CML cells and CD34+ stem cells, LW-213 maintained its pro-apoptotic activity. In a K562 cells-bearing mice model, administration of LW-213 (2.5, 5.0 mg/kg, ip, every other day for 4 weeks) dose-dependently prolonged the survival duration, and significantly suppressed huCD45+ cell infiltration and expression of MCL-1 in spleens. Taken together, our results demonstrate that LW-213 may be an efficient agent for CML treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Flavonoides/administração & dosagem , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G2 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib/farmacologia , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Células K562 , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/patologia , Pontos de Checagem da Fase M do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos Nus , Camundongos SCID , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(11): 4924-4931, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854558

RESUMO

To reveal the law of external pollution in the plain river network of the Taihu catchment, we investigated nitrogen, phosphorus, and dissolved organic carbon daily, as well as automatic recording data for flow rate and rainfall in Dapu River from 1st March, 2017 to 28th February, 2018. Dapu River, a typical inflowing river of Lake Taihu, usually has a reciprocating flow. A reciprocating flow is a common condition in the plain river network located in the Yangtze Delta. The response flow rate in the river was relatively slow to different intensities of rainfall. Flow rate significantly increased only when the rainfall intensity reached heavy rain (>25 mm·d-1). The concentrations were statistically non-significant under different rainfall intensities, and the concentrations of total nitrogen averaged 3.00±0.58, 3.34±0.93, 3.55±1.05, and 3.37±1.14 mg·L-1 under heavy rain (>25 mm·d-1), medium rain (10 mm·d-1-25 mm·d-1), light rain (<10 mm·d-1), and no rain. The concentrations of total phosphorus averaged 0.228±0.068, 0.258±0.121, 0.219±0.083, and 0.225±0.121 mg·L-1, respectively. The concentration of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen in the Dapu River changed little during the 3 typical rainfall processes, but the concentration of phosphorus increased significantly after heavy rain when the duration was 2 days. The concentration of total phosphorus and particulate phosphorus increased significantly after medium rain when the duration was 1 day. The concentration of phosphorus did not show an obvious change after light rain. The concentration of total nitrogen was the highest under light rain, and the concentration of total phosphorus was the highest under medium rain. The daily loadings of total nitrogen from the Dapu River to Lake Taihu were 7.64, 3.19, 3.21, and 2.62 t·d-1 under conditions of heavy rain, medium rain, light rain, and no rain, respectively. The daily loadings of total phosphorus were 0.59, 0.26, 0.22, and 0.20 t·d-1 under conditions of heavy rain, medium rain, light rain, and no rain, respectively. Although the daily loading of nutrients under heavy rain conditions was the highest, the contribution of annual nutrient loading was small during heavy rain days. The reason was that the percentage of heavy rain during the entire year was small. The total nitrogen loading in heavy rain days was 61.11 tons in the observatory year, which was only 5.6% of annual loading. The total phosphorus loading in heavy rain days was 4.72 tons, which was only 5.8% of the annual loading. These low percentages of nutrient loading under heavy rainfall are quite different from situations in mountain catchments. This research showed that the transport processes of nutrients in the plain river network was complicated and its influence on nutrient concentrations and loadings in connected rivers was slow and indirect. The amount of inflow water was an important source of external nutrient loading in the plain river network. These conclusions have reference value for estimating the external loading and deciding non-point control policy of lakes in plain river network of the Taihu catchment.

15.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(8): 3519-3529, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854757

RESUMO

Wind field is a very important physical factor controlling the formation of cyanobacteria blooms. A surface particle tracking drift experiment was carried out to study the influence of wind field on the surface current in Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu during the algal bloom season. For this, chlorophyll-a, nitrogen, phosphorus, the permanganate index, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and dissolved oxygen (DO) were measured in surface, middle, and bottom waters of the Meiliang Bay during the cyanobacteria bloom period to test how wind field affects the temporal and spatial distribution of cyanobacterial blooms and biomass stock in the water column. The results showed that the average drift velocities of surface particles were 3.0 cm·s-1 and 5.0 cm·s-1 when wind speed averaged 1.9 m·s-1 and 2.3 m·s-1, respectively. The wind field determined the spatial distribution of cyanobacterial blooms in surface waters and led to a high spatial heterogeneity of cyanobacterial blooms. The spatial redistribution of cyanobacterial blooms exerted an important influence on water quality indexes such as particulate nitrogen, phosphorus, organic matter, and dissolved oxygen. The concentrations of particulate nitrogen, phosphorus, the permanganate index, and chlorophyll-a showed a similar vertical distribution pattern. Cyanobacterial blooms were less influenced by the distribution of dissolved nitrogen and dissolved organic carbon from external pollution, while long-term legacy loading played a more important role. This meant that the spatial distributions of dissolved nitrogen and dissolved organic carbon were different from that of chlorophyll-a. Because the redistribution of cyanobacterial blooms, as affected by wind fields, has a complex effect on the dissolved oxygen in the water column, the dissolved oxygen concentration decreased with depth, which may affect the release of soluble nutrients from the sediment. The cyanobacterial biomass stock in the surface water was estimated according to the survey of high-density sites. The dry matter of cyanobacteria in the surface 20 cm of Meiliang Bay was approximately 396 tons on the day of sampling. The results from the present study indicated that the factors influencing cyanobacterial blooms should be considered in sampling methods and the analysis of lake water quality due to the significant influence of wind fields on bloom drift. The collection of cyanobacteria has limited effect on the removal of the algal bloom biomass in whole lake, only being effective at prevention of the event of black spots in lake shore.

16.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(9): 4000-4008, 2019 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854862

RESUMO

In order to recognize the risk of odorous compounds and its driving mechanisms in water source reservoirs, the water quality, plankton, and odorous compounds of 17 provincial water source reservoirs in Jiangsu Province were investigated during a high-risk period of odorous compounds. A high eutrophication status, such as high algal biomass and low transparency, were widely observed in our study reservoirs. In addition, 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) exceeded the standard in some water layers of one-third of the reservoirs, of which the average concentration was (13.7±20.7) ng·L-1. Geosmin (GSM) was also detected in several reservoirs, although the maximum concentration of 4.6 ng·L-1 did not exceed the drinking water quality standard. With respect to the relationships between odorous compounds and environmental conditions, significant correlation (P<0.05) was noted between the MIB concentration and eutrophication indicators, including chlorophyll-a, Secchi depth, suspended solids, and comprehensive nutrition state index (TLI), particularly for chlorophyll-a and TLI (P<0.01). These results indicate that the risk of odorous compounds in water source reservoirs depend largely on the eutrophic status. Therefore, nutrient reduction, improvement in vegetation coverage of the reservoir basin, reasonable fishing practices are considered as effective strategies to avoid the risk of the odorous compounds in reservoirs.

17.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(9): 4023-4032, 2019 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854865

RESUMO

Twelve lakes and reservoirs with different water depths and different water residence times were studied to identify the applicability of bioavailable phosphorus of sediments in indicating trophic levels. Water and sediment samples were collected in these 12 lakes and reservoirs to analyze the relationship of nutrient levels between the sediment and the water column. Sodium hydroxide extracted phosphorus (NaOH-P) determined using the SMT classification method is defined as the bioavailable phosphorus of sediment. The results showed that total phosphorus levels in sediments in different lakes and reservoirs ranged from 225 to 760 mg·kg-1 (mean value 502 mg·kg-1); the NaOH-P levels in sediments ranged from 86 to 584 mg·kg-1 (mean value 263 mg·kg-1); the total phosphorus concentrations in the water was 0.02-0.35 mg·L-1 (mean value 0.11 mg·L-1), and the chlorophyll a concentrations in the water were 3-349 µg·L-1 (mean value 51 µg·L-1). It was found that NaOH-P was more effective than total phosphorus in indicating the trophic status of the lakes and reservoirs. However, the NaOH-P levels were significantly related to the phosphorus concentrations in the water column only in shallow water with a long residence time. It was revealed that water residence time and water depth are two key factors that affect the relationship of the phosphorus content between the sediment and the water column. In deep waters or waters with short residence time, the NaOH-P content in the sediment hardly influenced the phosphorus concentration in the water columns, even at high levels. However, in shallow waters with long residence time, the sediment acted as both sources and sinks and frequently exchanged nutrients with the overlying water, especially during bloom periods in summer. Thus NaOH-P could be a potential risk of eutrophication in such waters.


Assuntos
Eutrofização , Lagos , Fósforo , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Clorofila A , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos
18.
Molecules ; 24(15)2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390847

RESUMO

Diabetic kidney disease develops in approximately 40% of diabetic patients and is a major cause of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) and end stage kidney disease (ESKD) worldwide. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), the third gasotransmitter after nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), is synthesized in nearly all organs, including the kidney. Though studies on H2S regulation of renal physiology and pathophysiology are still in its infancy, emerging evidence shows that H2S production by renal cells is reduced under disease states and H2S donors ameliorate kidney injury. Specifically, aberrant H2S level is implicated in various renal pathological conditions including diabetic nephropathy. This review presents the roles of H2S in diabetic renal disease and the underlying mechanisms for the protective effects of H2S against diabetic renal damage. H2S may serve as fundamental strategies to treat diabetic kidney disease. These H2S treatment modalities include precursors for H2S synthesis, H2S donors, and natural plant-derived compounds. Despite accumulating evidence from experimental studies suggests the potential role of the H2S signaling pathway in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy, these results need further clinical translation. Expanding understanding of H2S in the kidney may be vital to translate H2S to be a novel therapy for diabetic renal disease.


Assuntos
Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Animais , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Nefropatias Diabéticas/patologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Fibrose , Humanos , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/química , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/uso terapêutico , Glomérulos Renais/efeitos dos fármacos , Glomérulos Renais/metabolismo , Glomérulos Renais/patologia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Podócitos/metabolismo , Podócitos/patologia , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina
19.
Cancer Manag Res ; 11: 4577-4595, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31191019

RESUMO

Background/aims: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a highly common type of malignant and heterogeneous non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Tumor-associated macrophages, specially the M2-type, promote tumor progression and drug resistance. The clinical outcome of patients with high neuron-specific enolase (NSE) expression is worse than that with low NSE expression. The tumor-promoting mechanism of NSE, however, remains unclear. This study explored the role of NSE in macrophage polarization associated with the immune microenvironment of DLBCL. Results: Our results showed that NSE protein expression was higher in lymphoma cell lines than in the B lymphocytes. Functional studies demonstrated that upregulation of NSE in lymphoma cells could promote M2 polarization and migration ability of macrophage, thereby consequently promoting the progression of lymphoma in vitro and in vivo. Further mechanism studies revealed that lymphoma-derived exosomes could mediate NSE into macrophages, NSE enhanced nuclear p50 translocation with subsequent defective classical nuclear factor-κB activity in macrophages. Conclusions: These results indicate that NSE may be a potential target for lymphoma therapy and a prognosis marker for lymphoma.

20.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(2): 603-613, 2019 Feb 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30628322

RESUMO

The location at which the Liangxi River meets Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu was selected to explore the influence and controlling factors of algal blooms on the connected rivers. The cyanobacterial particulates and water quality parameters including nitrogen, phosphorus, and dissolved oxygen were monitored daily during the summer bloom season. The spatial variation in water quality parameters along the river were also surveyed, and data from hydrological and meteorological factors such as discharge, temperature, and wind field characteristics over the same period were collected to help investigate the effects of cyanobacterial blooms on the water quality of connected rivers. The results showed that the total fresh biomass of algal blooms entering Liangxi River for three months during the summer cyanobacterial bloom period in Meiliang Bay was 9733 t, which was similar to the amount harvested from the entire lake throughout the year. The flux of water bloom particles to the river varied widely, ranging from 75-496 t·d-1, with an average of 105 t·d-1. The flux was primarily controlled by hydrological and meteorological conditions. Water volume, temperature, and wind direction were the most important influencing factors. Lake water with a large amount of cyanobacterial particles entering the river can significantly improve the dissolved oxygen, ammonia-nitrogen, and other qualities of the river water in the city. It also significantly increased the concentrations of nutrients such as particulate nitrogen and phosphorus in the river, while it had a relatively weak effect on dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus. Spatially, the chlorophyll a concentration rapidly decreased with increasing distance from the lake, and the concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus exist as particulate cyanobacteria also declined. Upon being discharged into the canal 7 km away, the cyanobacterial particles were largely decomposed, and chlorophyll a content from the phytoplankton collected from the river by a 67 µm net decreased from 152.93 µg·L-1 to 1.99 µg·L-1. The results indicated that lakes plagued with cyanobacterial blooms have a great impact on the water quality of surrounding rivers. Although the connection between rivers and lakes can effectively relieve black spots and solve the black and odorous phenomenon in urban rivers, it had a great impact on nutrients concentration in the rivers. Depending on the different protection targets of rivers and lakes, lake water blooms and hydro-meteorological factors should be considered during water transfer management to optimize the water ecological services of lakes and rivers.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Eutrofização , Lagos/química , Rios , Qualidade da Água , China , Clorofila A , Monitoramento Ambiental , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise
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