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1.
EBioMedicine ; 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease with worldwide high prevalence. Although AS is strongly associated with HLA-B27 MHC-I antigen presentation, the role played by αß T cells in AS remains elusive. METHODS: Utilizing TCRß repertoire sequencing and bioinformatics tools developed in house, we analyzed overall TCR repertoire structures and antigen-recognizing CDR3 motifs in AS patients with different disease activities. FINDINGS: We found that disease progression is associated with both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell oligo-clonal expansion, which suggests that αß T cell activation may mediate AS disease progression. By developing a bioinformatics platform to dissect antigen-specific responses, we discovered a cell population consisting of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressing identical TCRs, herein termed CD4/8 T cells. CD4/8 clonotypes were highly enriched in the spondyloarthritic joint fluid of patients, and their expansion correlated with the activity of disease. INTERPRETATION: These results provide evidence on the T cell clone side to reveal the potential role of CD4/8 T cells in the etiology of AS development.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475824

RESUMO

Here, kartogenin (KGN), an emerging stable nonprotein compound with the ability to promote bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) differentiation into chondrocytes, was grafted onto the surface of modified ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron-oxide (USPIO), and then integrated into cellulose nanocrystal/dextran (CNC/Dex) hydrogels. The hydrogels served as a carrier for the USPIO-KGN and a matrix for cartilage repair. We carried out in vitro and in vivo studies, the results of which demonstrated that KGN undergoes long-term stable sustained release, recruits endogenous host cells, and induces BMSCs to differentiate into chondrocytes, thus enabling in situ cartilage regeneration. Meanwhile, the USPIO-incorporated theranostics hydrogels exhibited distinct magnetic resonance (MR) contrast enhancement, and maintained a stable relaxation rate, with almost no loss, both in vivo and in vitro. According to noninvasive in vivo observation results and immunohistochemistry analyses, the regenerated cartilage tissue was very similar to natural hyaline cartilage. This innovative diagnosis and treatment system increase the convenience and effectiveness of chondrogenesis.

3.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 60(10): 3644-3651, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469404

RESUMO

Purpose: Previously we showed that AAV5-mediated expression of either human M- or L-opsin promoted regrowth of cone outer segments and rescued M-cone function in the treated M-opsin knockout (Opn1mw-/-) dorsal retina. In this study, we determined cone viability and window of treatability in aged Opn1mw-/- mice. Methods: Cone viability was assessed with antibody against cone arrestin and peanut agglutinin (PNA) staining. The rate of cone degeneration in Opn1mw-/- mice was quantified by PNA staining. AAV5 vector expressing human L-opsin was injected subretinally into one eye of Opn1mw-/- mice at 1, 7, and 15 months old, while the contralateral eyes served as controls. M-cone-mediated retinal function was analyzed 2 and 13 months postinjection by full-field ERG. L-opsin transgene expression and cone outer segment structure were examined by immunohistochemistry. Results: We showed that dorsal M-opsin dominant cones exhibit outer segment degeneration at an early age in Opn1mw-/- mice, whereas ventral S-opsin dominant cones were normal. The remaining M-opsin dominant cones remained viable for at least 15 months, albeit having shortened or no outer segments. We also showed that AAV5-mediated expression of human L-opsin was still able to rescue function and outer segment structure in the remaining M-opsin dominant cones when treatment was initiated at 15 months of age. Conclusions: Our results showing that the remaining M-opsin dominant cones in aged Opn1mw-/- mice can still be rescued by gene therapy is helpful for establishing the window of treatability in future blue cone monochromacy clinical trials.

4.
Mol Neurobiol ; 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392515

RESUMO

A local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) exists in the retina and plays a critical role in retinal neurovascular function. The protective axis of RAS comprising of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)/angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)]/Mas receptor attenuate the deleterious actions of increased levels of angiotensin II (Ang II), the main effector peptide of RAS. A new peptide, alamandine, and its receptor Mas-related G protein-coupled receptor D (MrgD) have been recently identified that share structural and functional similarity to Ang-(1-7) and its receptor, Mas, establishing another new protective axis of RAS. Here, we examined the expression and cellular localization of MrgD in the retina, the effect of MrgD deficiency on mouse retinal structure and function, as well as the biological function of alamandine in cultured retinal cells. We showed that MrgD is expressed in the retinal neurons, retinal vasculature, Müller glial and RPE cells, similar to Mas receptor expression. MrgD-deficient mice did not exhibit gross change in retinal morphology and thickness; however, these mice did show a progressive decrease in both scotopic and photopic a-wave and b-wave amplitudes, and increase in retinal capillary loss with age compared to age-matched wild-type mice. In vitro studies in human retinal cells showed that alamandine attenuated the Ang II and LPS-induced increases in inflammatory cytokine gene expression, NF-κB activation, Ang II and hydrogen peroxide-induced production of reactive oxygen species, comparable to that mediated by Ang-(1-7). These results support the notion that alamandine/MrgD may represent another new protective axis of RAS in the retina exerting anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386585

RESUMO

Background: Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) accounts for ∼10% of congenital heart disease cases. The blood vessel epicardial substance (BVES) gene has been reported to play a role in the function of adult hearts. However, whether allelic variants in BVES contribute to the risk of TOF and its possible mechanism remains unknown. Methods: The open reading frame of the BVES gene was sequenced using samples from 146 TOF patients and 100 unrelated healthy controls. qRT-PCR and western blot assays were used to confirm the expression of mutated BVES variants in the TOF samples. The online software Polyphen2 and SIFT were used to predict the deleterious effects of the observed allelic variants. The effects of these allelic variants on the transcriptional activities of genes were examined using dual-fluorescence reporter assays. Results: We genotyped four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the BVES gene from each of the 146 TOF patients. Among them, the minor allelic frequencies of c.385C>T (p.R129W) were 0.035% in TOF, but ∼0.025% in 100 controls and the Chinese Millionome Database. This allelic variant was predicted to be a potentially harmful alteration by the Polyphen2 and SIFT softwares. qRT-PCR and western blot analyses indicated that the expression of BVES in the six right ventricular outflow tract samples with the c.385C>T allelic variant was significantly downregulated. A dual-fluorescence reporter system showed that the c.385C>T allelic variant significantly decreased the transcriptional activity of the BVES gene and also decreased transcription from the GATA4 and NKX2.5 promoters. Conclusions: c.385C>T (p.R129W) is a functional SNP of the BVES gene that reduces the transcriptional activity of BVES in vitro and in vivo in TOF tissues. This subsequently affects the transcriptional activities of GATA4 and NKX2.5 related to TOF. These findings suggest that c.385C>T may be associated with the risk of TOF in the Han Chinese population.

6.
Clin Rheumatol ; 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414304

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Due to lack of comprehensive evaluation for various detection methods for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) in Chinese population, we evaluate the diagnostic performance of 12 established analysis methods in Chinese patients having granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) and microscopic polyangiitis (MPA). METHODS: Sera were collected from 209 patients with GPA or MPA and 243 diseases controls from 15 centers. Twelve different reagents were employed for C-ANCA, P-ANCA, myeloperoxidase (MPO)-ANCA, and proteinase 3(PR3)-ANCA detection. The accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of each method were analyzed. RESULTS: The accuracy of the two indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and two line immunoassay (LIA) was 0.838 and 0.874, 0.869, and 0.862, respectively. The accuracy of the eight quantitative antigen-specific immunoassays was varied from 0.867 to 0.967. The sensitivity of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) was 0.770 and 0.761 for the two IIF, 0.727 and 0.718 for the two LIAs, respectively. For the eight quantitative antigen-specific immunoassays, the sensitivity varied from 0.79 to 0.967. The specificity was 0.897 and 0.971 for the two IIF, 0.992 and 0.988 for the two LIAs, respectively. For the eight quantitative antigen-specific immunoassays, the specificity of AAV varied from 0.963 to 0.983. CONCLUSION: For Chinese patients suspected of having GPA and MPA, both the first-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and high-quality antigen-specific immunoassay can be used to detect MPO-ANCA and PR3-ANCA alone, without the combined detection with IIF to have good diagnostic performance. The chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) seems to be a method worth recommending. Key points • Quantitative antigen-specific immunoassays can be used to detect MPO-ANCA and PR3-ANCA without IIF in Chinese. • CLIA has the maximum AUC value and the minimum LR (-) value, which seems to be a method worth recommending.

7.
Exp Eye Res ; 187: 107770, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449794

RESUMO

The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a vital role in cardiovascular physiology and body homeostasis. In addition to circulating RAS, a local RAS exists in the retina. Dysfunction of local RAS, resulting in increased levels of Angiotensin II (Ang II) and activation of AT1R-mediated signaling pathways, contributes to tissue pathophysiology and end-organ damage. Activation of AT2R on other hand is known to counteract the effects of AT1R activation and produce anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects. We examined the expression of angiotensin receptors in the retina by using transgenic dual reporter mice and by real-time RT-PCR. We further evaluated the effects of C21, a selective agonist of AT2R, in reducing Ang II, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in cultured human ARPE-19 cells. We showed that both AT1Ra and AT2R positive cells are detected in different cell types of the eye, including the RPE/choroid complex, ciliary body/iris, and neural retina. AT1Ra is more abundantly expressed than AT2R in mouse retina, consistent with previous reports. In the neural retina, AT1Ra are also detected in photoreceptors whereas AT2R are mostly expressed in the inner retinal neurons and RGCs. In cultured human RPE cells, activation of AT2R with C21 significantly blocked Ang II, LPS and hydrogen peroxide -induced NF-κB activation and inflammatory cytokine expression; Ang II and hydrogen peroxide-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and MG132-induced apoptosis, comparable to the effects of Angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)), another protective component of the RAS, although C21 is more potent in reducing some of the effects induced by Ang II, whereas Ang-(1-7) is more effective in reducing some of the LPS and hydrogen peroxide-induced effects. These results suggest that activation of AT2R may represent a new therapeutic approach for retinal diseases.

8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(31): e16649, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374037

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Anti-glomerular basement membrane disease (anti-GBM disease) is a rare small vessel vasculitis caused by autoantibodies directed against the glomerular and alveolar basement membranes. Anti-GBM disease is usually a monophasic illness and relapse is rare after effective treatment. This article reports a case of coexistence of recurrent anti-GBM disease and T-cell large granular lymphocytic (T-LGL) leukemia. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 37-year-old man presented with hematuria, edema, and acute kidney injury for 2 months. DIAGNOSIS: Anti-GBM disease was diagnosed by renal biopsy, in which crescentic glomerulonephritis was observed with light microscopy, strong linear immunofluorescent staining for immunoglobulin G on the GBM and positive serum anti-GBM antibody. Given this diagnosis, the patient was treated with plasmapheresis, steroids, and cyclophosphamide for 4 months. The anti-GBM antibody titer was maintained to negative level but the patient remained dialysis-dependent. One year later, the patient suffered with a relapse of anti-GBM disease, after an extensive examination, he was further diagnosed T-LGL leukemia by accident. INTERVENTIONS: The patient received cyclosporine A therapy for T-LGL leukemia. OUTCOMES: After treatment with cyclosporine A, serum anti-GBM antibody became undetectable. During the 16 months follow-up, anti-GBM titer remained normal and abnormal T-lymphocytes in the bone marrow and peripheral blood were also decreased. LESSONS: T-LGL leukemia is an indolent lymphoproliferative disorder that represents a monoclonal expansion of cytotoxic T cells, which has been reported to be accompanied by some autoimmune diseases. This is the first report of coincidence of T-LGL leukemia and anti-GBM disease, and suggests there are some relationships between these 2 diseases. Clinical physicians should exclude hematological tumors when faced with recurrent anti-GBM disease.


Assuntos
Doença Antimembrana Basal Glomerular/complicações , Leucemia Linfocítica Granular Grande/complicações , Adulto , Doença Antimembrana Basal Glomerular/terapia , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Plasmaferese , Diálise Renal
9.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 1056431, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31275959

RESUMO

Background: Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is a heterogeneous disease, which has been recently classified into four molecular subtypes, of which the mesenchymal subtype exhibited the worst prognosis. We aimed to identify a microRNA- (miRNA-) based signature by incorporating the molecular modalities involved in the mesenchymal subtype for risk stratification, which would allow the identification of patients who might benefit from more rigorous treatments. Method: We characterized the regulatory mechanisms underlying the mesenchymal subtype using network analyses integrating gene and miRNA expression profiles from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort to identify a miRNA signature for prognosis prediction. Results: We identified four miRNAs as the master regulators of the mesenchymal subtype and developed a risk score model. The 4-miRNA signature significantly predicted overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in discovery (p=0.004 and p=0.04) and two independent public datasets (GSE73582: OS, HR: 2.26 (1.26-4.05), p=0.005, PFS, HR: 2.03 (1.34-3.09), p<0.001; GSE25204: OS, HR: 3.07 (1.73-5.46), p<0.001, PFS, HR: 2.59 (1.72-3.88), p<0.001). Moreover, in multivariate analyses, the miRNA signature maintained as an independent prognostic predictor and achieved superior efficiency compared to the currently used clinical factors. Conclusions: In conclusion, our network analysis identified a 4-miRNA signature which has prognostic value superior to currently reported clinical covariates. This signature warrants further testing and validation for use in clinical practice.

10.
Curr Gene Ther ; 19(2): 117-124, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ferroptosis is a newly discovered form of iron-dependent oxidative cell death characterized by lethal accumulation of lipid-based reactive oxygen species (ROS). It is distinct from other forms of cell death including apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy in terms of morphology, biochemistry and genetics. DISCUSSION: Ferroptosis can be induced by system xc- inhibitors or glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4) inhibitors, as well as drugs such as sorafenib, sulfasalazine (SAS), and artesunate (ART). Ferroptosis has been recently shown to be critical in regulating growth of tumors, such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), renal cell carcinoma (RCC), non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), ovarian cancer, pancreatic carcinoma, and diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Ferroptosis is also associated with resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs and the anti-tumor efficacy of immunotherapy. CONCLUSION: This review summarizes the mechanism of ferroptosis and its relationship with different types of tumors, to advance our understanding of cell death and to find a novel approach for clinical cancer management.

11.
Biopreserv Biobank ; 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343263

RESUMO

Background: The PAXgene Blood RNA tube is used to protect RNA of whole blood, and the stability of RNA in this tube has already been reported. However, there are few reports on the quality of RNA from long-term preservation of these tubes. Materials and Methods: Our biobank conducted quality control of RNA extracted from the tubes after varying storage periods. A total of 300 blood samples of renal disease patients were randomly selected at each time point (from 1 month to 7 years). Results: Median RNA yields were 3.46 (2.65-4.87) µg, 4.34 (3.20-5.87) µg, 4.77 (2.88-6.29) µg, 4.19 (2.65-6.26) µg, 3.85 (2.43-6.13) µg, and 3.21 (1.85-6.61) µg at 1 month, 1, 2, 3, 6, and 7 years, respectively. There were no significant differences in RNA yields among all the storage periods. A260/280 ratios were 2.02 ± 0.04, 2.05 ± 0.04, 2.05 ± 0.04, 2.08 ± 0.03, 2.12 ± 0.10, and 2.11 ± 0.05, all of which were ≥1.8. However, A260/280 of the samples stored for 6 and 7 years had a rising trend, compared with the other time points (p < 0.05). Median RNA integrity number (RIN) values were 8.4 (7.6-9.1), 8.3 (7.7-8.9), 8.3 (7.8-8.8), 8.5 (8.3-8.9), 7.6 (7.1-8.1), and 7.9 (7.2-8.3) at each time point. Lower RIN values were found at 6 and 7 years compared with the other storage periods (p < 0.05). The rates of RIN values ≥7.0 were 92%, 84%, 96%, 92%, 86%, and 84%, which exhibited no differences across all the storage periods. In addition, the yields and RIN values of RNA from samples with blood clots were significantly lower than those without (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The quantity and quality of RNA extracted from PAXgene Blood RNA tubes are stable throughout cryopreservation for 7 years.

12.
Theranostics ; 9(15): 4421-4436, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285770

RESUMO

Rationale: Tumor metastasis is the main cause for cancer-related death. However, the driving molecules of metastasis remain largely unknown. Here, we aim to identify long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) critical for human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasis. Methods: Microarrays were used to screen a comprehensive set of lncRNAs with differential expression profiles in sulfatide-treated cells. Mass spectrometry, protein arrays, and RNA pull-down experiments were used to identify proteins that interacted with lncRNA. Epigenetic analysis was used to study lncRNA-mediated regulation mechanisms. Results: We identified lncRNA AY927503 (AY) as a metastasis-associated molecule that was highly expressed in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and correlated with metastatic events and poor prognosis in patients with HCC. AY promoted HCC cell migration, stemness, 5-fluorouracil resistance, and metastasis in mice. However, knockdown of integrin αV (ITGAV) abolished AY-stimulated migration, cell viability in HCC cells or tube formation. AY strongly promoted ITGAV transcription and αVß3 expression by interacting with the ITGAV promoter specifically and stimulating its activity. AY was identified to interact with histone 1FX (H1FX), but deletion of the central domain of AY (AY∆371-522) abolished H1FX binding and ITGAV promoter stimulation. AY significantly enriched H3K4Me3 and acH3K9/14 but reduced H3K27Me3 and H1FX occupancy on the ITGAV promoter, which remodeled chromatin structures for RNA polymerase II recruitment. Knockdown of H1FX abrogated ITGAV transcription stimulated by AY. Conclusions: Our findings suggested that lncRNA AY promoted HCC metastasis via induction of chromatin modification for ITGAV transcription as a pioneer factor and was a potential molecular signature for metastasis or poor prognosis in patients with HCC.

13.
Vaccine ; 37(31): 4325-4335, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230882

RESUMO

Lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a major component of the cell wall of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), is not generally considered as an ideal vaccine candidate since it is a thymus-independent antigen. In this study, we screened a 12-mer phage peptide library and identified a series of peptide sequences that can mimic the epitope of LTA. A tetra-branched multiple antigenic peptide, named MAP2-3, comprising one of the positive peptide sequences (GHKEDRQWCQHS), was synthesized. Immunization with MAP2-3 induced LTA-specific IgG antibodies, prolonged the survival time, and decreased the bacterial burden in organs of mice infected with S. aureus. Moreover, passive immunization with polyclonal anti-MAP2-3 sera reduced bacterial load in organs of mice with bacteremia, alleviated acute lung injury in mice with pneumonia, and decreased the size of lesions in mice with skin infection. The number of LTA-specific antibody-secreting cells in the spleen of MAP2-3 immunized mice were significantly higher than that in the control mice. In summary, as a surrogate of LTA, vaccination with MAP2-3 elicited humoral immune response and protected mice from S. aureus infection. This study provides a new option to design vaccines against S. aureus.

14.
Cell Rep ; 27(12): 3473-3485.e5, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216469

RESUMO

Reprogramming somatic cells to pluripotency by Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and Myc represent a paradigm for cell fate determination. Here, we report a combination of Jdp2, Jhdm1b, Mkk6, Glis1, Nanog, Essrb, and Sall4 (7F) that reprogram mouse embryonic fibroblasts or MEFs to chimera competent induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) efficiently. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and ATAC-seq reveal distinct mechanisms for 7F induction of pluripotency. Dropout experiments further reveal a highly cooperative process among 7F to dynamically close and open chromatin loci that encode a network of transcription factors to mediate reprogramming. These results establish an alternative paradigm for reprogramming that may be useful for analyzing cell fate control.

16.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 117: 109106, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200253

RESUMO

Carvedilol, a third generation beta blocker, is in clinical use for heart failure patients. However, besides adrenergic receptor blockade, the pharmacological effects of carvedilol on cardiomyocytes remain unknown. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an emerging target recognized for heart failure treatment. The mechanical properties and intracellular Ca2+ properties were measured in isolated cardiomyocyte contractile functions in response to ischemic stress. Treatment of cardiomyocytes with carvedilol augmented phosphorylation of AMPK and downstream acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC), and ameliorated hypoxia-induced impairment in maximal velocity of shortening (+dL/dt) and relengthening (-dL/dt), and the impaired peak height and peak shortening (PS) amplitude caused by hypoxia. Carvedilol treatment improved calcium homeostasis with rescuing the peak Ca2+ signal, the maximum rate of Ca2+ change during contraction (+dF/dt) and the maximum rate of Ca2+ change during relaxation (-dF/dt) under hypoxia conditions. In mouse hearts perfused ex vivo with carvedilol, the function of post-ischemia left ventricle was improved and an augmentation in myocardial glucose uptake and glucose oxidation, and inhibition of fatty acid oxidation during ischemia and reperfusion. The protective effect of carvedilol was further supported in an in vivo regional ischemia model by ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), mice treated with carvedilol followed by LAD occlusion and reperfusion showed significant size reduction in infarcted myocardium and improved cardiac functions. Therefore, Carvedilol as a clinical drug can modulate cardiac AMPK signaling pathway to reduce ischemic insults by ischemia and reperfusion.

18.
Opt Express ; 27(12): 16812-16822, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252901

RESUMO

A novel chromatic aberration pre-compensation scheme for ultrashort petawatt laser systems was proposed. The pre-compensation scheme consists of a convex lens, group of concave lenses, and a spherical reflector combined with a conventional vacuum chamber. It provides a versatile method to accurately compensate the chromatic aberration of an entire laser system via controlling the amount of propagation time delay (PTD) induced by the compensator without changing the input and output beam size. A compensator, tailored based on the proposed scheme, was designed and experimentally evaluated for the Shen-Guang-II 5PW (SG-II 5PW) laser system at Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics (SIOM). The experimental results verified that chromatic aberration in the laser system was almost fully compensated: the size of laser beam focused by an f/2.42 off-axis parabolic mirror (OAP) was reduced tremendously from 32×18µm2to about 4×4µm2at full width at half maximum (FWHM). The proposed scheme provides the flexibility to accurately correct chromatic aberration in high-power laser systems within a wide dynamic range.

19.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 133: 199-208, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228518

RESUMO

Adult zebrafish is an emerging vertebrate model for studying genetic basis of cardiomyopathies; but whether the simple fish heart can model essential features of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) remained unknown. Here, we report a comprehensive phenotyping of a lamp2 knockout (KO) mutant. LAMP2 encodes a lysosomal protein and is a causative gene of Danon disease that is characterized by HCM and massive autophagic vacuoles accumulation in the tissues. There is no effective therapy yet to treat this most lethal cardiomyopathy in the young. First, we did find the autophagic vacuoles accumulation in cardiac tissues from lamp2 KO. Next, through employing a set of emerging phenotyping tools, we revealed heart failure phenotypes in the lamp2 KO mutants, including decreased ventricular ejection fraction, reduced physical exercise capacity, blunted ß-adrenergic contractile response, and enlarged atrium. We also noted changes of the following indices suggesting cardiac hypertrophic remodeling in lamp2 KO: a rounded heart shape, increased end-systolic ventricular volume and density of ventricular myocardium, elevated actomyosin activation kinetics together with increased maximal isometric tension at the level of cardiac myofibrils. Lastly, we assessed the function of lysosomal-localized mTOR on the lamp2-associated Danon disease. We found that haploinsufficiency of mtor was able to normalize some characteristics of the lamp2 KO, including ejection fraction, ß-adrenergic response, and the actomyosin activation kinetics. In summary, we demonstrate the feasibility of modeling the inherited HCM in the adult zebrafish, which can be used to develop potential therapies.

20.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 115: 108934, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082773

RESUMO

Ginsenoside Re (GS-Re), which is a major monomeric member of the ginseng trialcohol saponin family, is one of the main active components of ginseng and plays an important role in protecting the cardiovascular system. Here, we report a novel function by which GS-Re regulates the eNOS/NO/cGMP pathway, which affects the platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)-induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). GS-Re inhibited PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner without cytotoxicity, and the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) antagonized the antiproliferative effect of GS-Re. The flow cytometry analysis suggested that GS-Re regulates VSMC proliferation by influencing the cell cycle transition from G0/G1 to S phase and decreasing the expression of G0/G1-specific regulatory proteins, including proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cyclin D1, and CDK4, in PDGF-BB-treated VSMCs, consequently upregulating the protein expression of p21. After GS-Re treatment, the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and the phos-eNOS Ser1177/eNOS protein ratio were obviously increased. In addition, treatment with L-NAME blocked the eNOS/NO/cGMP signaling pathway, and the protein levels of PCNA, cyclin D1, and CDK4 were markedly increased in GS-Re-treated VSMCs, while p21 expression was decreased in PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs. Overall, these findings reveal that GS-Re can inhibit the proliferation of VSMCs through G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, which is closely related to eNOS/NO/cGMP pathway activation. The present results provide basic pharmacological evidence of the potential prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases by GS-Re.

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