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1.
Breast Care (Basel) ; 16(4): 319-327, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602937

RESUMO

Background: Granulomatous mastitis (GM) is a rare chronic inflammatory disease of the breast. The current therapeutic effects of the antibiotic therapy and surgical or immunomodulatory (steroid) treatment are normally poor due to the unclear etiology. Method: This study aimed to identify the differentially expressed mRNAs in GM tissues using RNA sequencing and further explored the functions of differentially expressed mRNAs resulting in GM. Moreover, we revealed the relationship between GM and breast cancer by shared highly expressed genes in GM tissues and breast cancer tissues. Results: A total of 12,115 mRNAs were analyzed in the whole expression profile, and 207 mRNAs (136 upregulated and 71 downregulated mRNAs) were differently expressed between the GM tissues and normal tissues. The enrichment analysis showed that the differentially expressed mRNAs were enriched in the biological processes and played a significant role in the immune system. Besides, the genes expressed significantly highly in breast cancer tissues are found to be enriched with GM genes, which may explain the similar clinical features between breast cancer and GM. We also found that the HSD11B1 gene which was differentially expressed in GM was used as drug target of prednisone, which is a common treatment for GM. Conclusion: This study is the first to use sequencing technology to elucidate the genetic mechanisms of GM. The finding of this study may have potential value in GM diagnosis and also provides potential drug targets for GM treatment.

2.
Clin Respir J ; 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610651

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) is a rare disease with unknown etiology. Due to lack of specificity of CEP symptoms, clinicians are not experienced in establishing its diagnosis. OBJECTIVES: To summarize the clinical data of CEP patients to improve the understanding of CEP and reduce misdiagnosis. METHODS: Data of patients pathologically diagnosed with CEP in the PLA General Hospital between May 2013 and May 2019 were collected, and clinical manifestations, imaging characteristics, pathological features, and treatment were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Twenty patients, including 6 males and 14 females, were diagnosed with CEP. The average age was 47.0 ± 10.2 years. The main clinical manifestations were cough and dyspnea. The average duration of CEP was 15.5 ± 11.5 months. The average proportion of eosinophils in the peripheral blood was 18.9 ± 17.8%, and the average proportion of eosinophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was 41.5 ± 19.4%. The main imaging features were patchy shadows and consolidation shadows. The most common manifestations on bronchoscopic examination were congestion and edema of the bronchial mucosa. Two patients had granular protrusions of the endotracheal membrane. Histological examination indicated infiltration of numerous eosinophils. All patients improved after prednisone therapy. CONCLUSION: CEP onset is insidious, and clinical manifestations lack specificity. Typical imaging features are peripheral and subpleural distribution of lung infiltrates. Some patients have a normal proportion of eosinophils in the peripheral blood, but most have an increased number of eosinophils in the BALF, which contributes to CEP diagnosis. A biopsy is necessary when differential diagnosis is difficult. A systemic glucocorticoid is effective.

3.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 247, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We and others have confirmed activation of macrophages plays a critical role in liver injury and fibrogenesis during HBV infection. And we have also proved HBeAg can obviously induce the production of macrophage inflammatory cytokines compared with HBsAg and HBcAg. However, the receptor and functional domain of HBeAg in macrophage activation and its effects and mechanisms on hepatic fibrosis remain elusive. METHODS: The potentially direct binding receptors of HBeAg were screened and verified by Co-IP assay. Meanwhile, the function domain and accessible peptides of HBeAg for macrophage activation were analyzed by prediction of surface accessible peptide, construction, and synthesis of truncated fragments. Furthermore, effects and mechanisms of the activation of hepatic stellate cells induced by HBeAg-treated macrophages were investigated by Transwell, CCK-8, Gel contraction assay, Phospho Explorer antibody microarray, and Luminex assay. Finally, the effect of HBeAg in hepatic inflammation and fibrosis was evaluated in both human and murine tissues by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, ELISA, and detection of liver enzymes. RESULTS: Herein, we verified TLR-2 was the direct binding receptor of HBeAg. Meanwhile, C-terminal peptide (122-143 aa.) of core domain in HBeAg was critical for macrophage activation. But arginine-rich domain of HBcAg hided this function, although HBcAg and HBeAg shared the same core domain. Furthermore, HBeAg promoted the proliferation, motility, and contraction of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in a macrophage-dependent manner, but not alone. PI3K-AKT-mTOR and p38 MAPK signaling pathway were responsible for motility phenotype of HSCs, while the Smad-dependent TGF-ß signaling pathway for proliferation and contraction of them. Additionally, multiple chemokines and cytokines, such as CCL2, CCL5, CXCL10, and TNF-α, might be key mediators of HSC activation. Consistently, HBeAg induced transient inflammation response and promoted early fibrogenesis via TLR-2 in mice. Finally, clinical investigations suggested that the level of HBeAg is associated with inflammation and fibrosis degrees in patients infected with HBV. CONCLUSIONS: HBeAg activated macrophages via the TLR-2/NF-κB signal pathway and further exacerbated hepatic fibrosis by facilitating motility, proliferation, and contraction of HSCs with the help of macrophages.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; : 151084, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678364

RESUMO

The global massive consumption of disposable face masks driven by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has emerged as a blooming disaster to both the land and marine environment that might last for generations. Growing public concerns have been raised over the management and control of this new form of plastic pollution, and one of the proposed sustainable solution is to use renewable and/or biodegradable resources to develop mask materials in order to minimize their environmental impacts. As a representative biodegradable polymer, polylactic acid (PLA) has been proposed as a promising candidate to produce non-woven face masks instead of those fossil-based polymers. To further explore the feasibility of this alternative mask material, the present work aims to study both the hydrolytic and bio-degradation behaviors of pure PLA-derived 3-ply disposable face masks at ambient temperature. Hydrolytic degradability was investigated at different pH conditions of 2, 7 and 13 with the whole piece of face mask soaked for regular timed intervals up to 8 weeks. Weight loss study showed neutral and acidic conditions had minimal effect on PLA masks, but rapid degradation occurred under basic conditions in the first week with a sharp 25% decrease in weight that slowly tapered off, coupled with solution pH dropping from 13 to 9.6. This trend was supported by mechanical property, bacterial filtration efficiency (BFE) and particulate filtration efficiency (PFE) studies. Masks soaked in basic conditions had their modulus and tensile strength dropped by more than 50% after 8 weeks where the middle layer reached 68% and 90% respectively just after 48 h, and BFE and PFE decreased by 14% and 43% respectively after 4 weeks, which was much more significant than those in neutral and acidic conditions. Base degradation was also supported by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and fourier transform infrared (FTIR), which disclosed that only the middle layer undergo major degradation with random chain scission and cleavage of enol or enolate chain ends, while outer and inner layers were much less affected. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) attributed this observation to thinner PLA fibers for the middle layer of 3-7 µm diameter, which on average is 3 times smaller. This degradation was further supported by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) which saw an increase in lower molecular weight fragment Mw ~ 800 Da with soaking duration. The biodegradation behavior was studied under OECD 301F specification in sewage sludge environment. Similarly, degradation to the middle meltblown layer was more extensive, where the average weight loss and carbon loss was 25.8% and 25.7% respectively, double that of outer/inner spunbond layer. The results showed that the face masks did not completely disintegrate after 8 weeks, but small solubilized fragments of PLA formed in the biodegradation process can be completely mineralized into carbon dioxide without generation of secondary microplastic pollution in the environment. PLA masks are therefore a slightly greener option to consider in times of a pandemic that the world was caught unprepared; however future research on masks could be geared towards a higher degradability material that fully breaks down into non-harmful components while maintaining durability, filtration and protection properties for users.

5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6124, 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34675210

RESUMO

A variety of organic cages with different geometries have been developed during the last decade, most of them exhibiting a single cavity. In contrast, the number of organic cages featuring a pair of cavities remains scarce. These structures may pave the way towards novel porous materials with emergent properties and functions.We herein report on rational design of a three-dimensional hexaformyl precursor 1, which exhibits two types of conformers, i.e. Conformer-1 and -2, with different cleft positions and sizes. Aided by molecular dynamics simulations, we select two triamino conformation capturers (denoted CC). Small-sized CC-1 selectively capture Conformer-1 by matching its cleft size, while the large-sized CC-2 is able to match and capture both conformers. This strategy allows the formation of three compounds with twin cavities, which we coin diphane. The self-assembly of diphane units results in superstructures with tunable proton conductivity, which reaches up to 1.37×10-5 S cm-1.

6.
Bioinspir Biomim ; 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34654001

RESUMO

An axisymmetric fluid-structure interaction model based on the immersed-boundary approach is developed to study the self-propelled locomotion of a squid-inspired swimmer in relatively low Reynolds numbers (O(1-10^6)). Through cyclic deformation, the swimmer generates intermittent jet flow, which, together with the added-mass effect associated with the body deformation, provides thrust. Through a control volume analysis we are able to determine the jet-related thrust. By adding it to the added-mass-related thrust we separate the net thrust on the body from the drag effect due to forward motion, so that the propulsion efficiency in free swimming is found. This numerical algorithm and thrust-drag decomposition method are used to study the dynamics of the bio-inspired locomotion system in different conditions, whereby the performance is characterized by the aforementioned propulsion efficiency as well as the conventionally defined cost of transport.

7.
Pol J Microbiol ; 70(3): 321-326, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34584526

RESUMO

Few pieces of research have focused on Micrococcus luteus bloodstream infection (BSI) because of its low incidence; hence data is needed to illustrate this uncommon infection. This study aimed to explore the clinical characteristics of patients with M. luteus BSI. From January 2010 to December 2019, inpatients that met the criteria for M. luteus BSI were included in this study. Data was collected by reviewing electronic records. Ninety-seven patients were enrolled in this study. Sixty-three percent of the patients have a higher neutrophil percentage (NEUT%). The average blood C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration was 5.5 ± 6.4 mg/dl. 48.5% of the patients had malignancy, and 40.2% underwent invasive surgeries. Linezolid was found to have the largest average diameter of the inhibition zone (36 mm), while erythromycin was found to have the smallest average zone diameter (15 mm). However, some M. luteus strains had a potentially broad antimicrobial resistance spectrum. Cephalosporins (59.2%) and quinolones (21.4%) were the most commonly used antibiotics for empirical therapies. In conclusion, M. luteus BSI mainly happens in immunocompromised patients or those with former invasive surgeries or indwelling catheters. M. luteus strains are less responsive to erythromycin. Cephalosporins and quinolones are effective empirical antibiotics for M. luteus BSI; however, vancomycin and teicoplanin should be considered for potentially broadly drug-resistant M. luteus strains.

8.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 6390-6402, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533106

RESUMO

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. Autophagy was reported to be related to the pathogenesis of DN. This research investigated the function of the Nucleoporin 160 (Nup160) gene in regulating autophagy in DN. A mouse model of DN was established through an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Normal rat kidney tubular epithelial cells (NRK-52E) were treated with high glucose to induce DN in vitro. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), western blot, immunofluorescence assays were conducted to measure the expression of NUP160, autophagy-associated proteins, and inflammatory cytokines in vitro and in vivo. Pathological changes of kidney and liver tissues were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Masson and periodic acid-silver (PAS) staining. The body weight, blood glucose, renal and lipid profiles of DN mice were examined. In this study, DN mice showed serious pathological injury. NUP160 expression was upregulated, autophagy was inhibited, and inflammatory response was increased in DN mice. Depletion of NUP160 restored autophagy and inhibited inflammation and fibrosis in high glucose (HG)-treated NRK-52E cells and STZ-induced DN mice by downregulating the expression of p62 and Collagen IV (Col-Ⅳ), increasing the ratio of LC3II/LC3I, and inactivating nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling. Moreover, NUP160 knockdown could ameliorate pathological damage and glucose tolerance in DN mice. Overall, this study is the first to demonstrate the key role of NUP160 silencing in promoting autophagy against diabetic injury in DN.

9.
Mol Neurodegener ; 16(1): 61, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488813

RESUMO

Mutations in FUS, an RNA-binding protein involved in multiple steps of RNA metabolism, are associated with the most severe forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Accumulation of cytoplasmic FUS is likely to be a major culprit in the toxicity of FUS mutations. Thus, preventing cytoplasmic mislocalization of the FUS protein may represent a valuable therapeutic strategy. FUS binds to its own pre-mRNA creating an autoregulatory loop efficiently buffering FUS excess through multiple proposed mechanisms including retention of introns 6 and/or 7. Here, we introduced a wild-type FUS gene allele, retaining all intronic sequences, in mice whose heterozygous or homozygous expression of a cytoplasmically retained FUS protein (Fus∆NLS) was previously shown to provoke ALS-like disease or postnatal lethality, respectively. Wild-type FUS completely rescued the early lethality caused by the two Fus∆NLS alleles, and improved the age-dependent motor deficits and reduced lifespan caused by heterozygous expression of mutant FUS∆NLS. Mechanistically, wild-type FUS decreased the load of cytoplasmic FUS, increased retention of introns 6 and 7 in the endogenous mouse Fus mRNA, and decreased expression of the mutant mRNA. Thus, the wild-type FUS allele activates the homeostatic autoregulatory loop, maintaining constant FUS levels and decreasing the mutant protein in the cytoplasm. These results provide proof of concept that an autoregulatory competent wild-type FUS expression could protect against this devastating, currently intractable, neurodegenerative disease.

10.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(19): e023491, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569277

RESUMO

Background Therapy with mesenchymal stem cells remains a promising but challenging approach to critical limb ischemia in diabetes because of the dismal cell survival. Methods and Results Critical limb ischemia in type 2 diabetes mouse model was used to explore the impact of diabetic limb ischemia on the survival of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (bMSCs). Inhibition of intracellular reactive oxygen species was achieved with concomitant overexpression of superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1 and glutathione peroxidase-1 in the transplanted bMSCs, and extracellular reactive oxygen species was attenuated using SOD-3 overexpression and N-acetylcysteine treatment. In vivo optical fluorescence imaging and laser Doppler perfusion imaging were used to track cell retention and determine blood flow in diabetic ischemic limb, respectively. Survival of the transplanted bMSCs was significantly decreased in diabetic ischemic limb compared with the control. In vitro study indicated that advanced glycation end products, not high glucose, significantly decreased the proliferation of bMSCs and increased their apoptosis associated with increased reactive oxygen species production and selective reduction of SOD-1 and SOD-3. In vivo study demonstrated that concomitant overexpression of SOD-1, SOD-3, and glutathione peroxidase-1, or host treatment with N-acetylcysteine, significantly enhanced in vivo survival of transplanted bMSCs, and improved critical limb ischemia in diabetic mice. Combination of triple antioxidant enzyme overexpression in bMSCs with host N-acetylcysteine treatment further improved bMSC survival with enhanced circulatory and functional recovery from diabetic critical limb ischemia. Conclusions Simultaneous suppression of reactive oxygen species from transplanted bMSCs and host tissue could additively enhance bMSC survival in diabetic ischemic limb with increased therapeutic efficacy in diabetes.

11.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(18): 22444-22458, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559682

RESUMO

Suppressor of variegation 3-9 homolog 2 (SUV39H2/KMT1B), a member of the SUV39 subfamily of lysine methyltransferases (KMTs), functions as an oncogene in various types of cancers. Here, we demonstrate a novel function of SUV39H2 that drives the cardiomyocyte aging process through BTG2. In our study, cardiomyocyte aging was induced by H2O2 and aging cells exhibited increases in SUV39H2. Knockdown of SUV39H2 accelerated cardiomyocyte senescence, while overexpression of SUV39H2 inhibited the cardiomyocyte senescence phenotype. These effects of SUV39H2 on cardiomyocytes were independent of DNA damage and mitochondrial dysfunction. Interestingly, RNA sequencing and bioinformatics analyses identified a strong correlation between SUV39H2 and BTG2. In addition to this, BTG2 protein levels were significantly increased in SUV39H2-deficient cardiomyocytes, and BTG2 knockdown virtually rescued the cardiomyocyte senescence phenotype induced by SUV39H2 knockdown. Taken together, these results indicate that SUV39H2 protects cardiomyocytes from H2O2 exposure-induced oxidative stress, DNA damage, and mitochondrial dysfunction by regulating the p53-BTG2 pathway. Our findings provide evidence that the activation of SUV39H2 has therapeutic or preventive potential against cardiac aging.

13.
Front Nutr ; 8: 700132, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490322

RESUMO

Objective: At present, the association of body mass index (BMI) with the prognosis of liver cirrhosis is controversial. Our retrospective study aimed to evaluate the impact of BMI on the outcome of liver cirrhosis. Methods: In the first part, long-term death was evaluated in 436 patients with cirrhosis and without malignancy from our prospectively established single-center database. In the second part, in-hospital death was evaluated in 379 patients with cirrhosis and with acute gastrointestinal bleeding (AGIB) from our retrospective multicenter study. BMI was calculated and categorized as underweight (BMI <18.5 kg/m2), normal weight (18.5 ≤ BMI < 23.0 kg/m2), and overweight/obese (BMI ≥ 23.0 kg/m2). Results: In the first part, Kaplan-Meier curve analyses demonstrated a significantly higher cumulative survival rate in the overweight/obese group than the normal weight group (p = 0.047). Cox regression analyses demonstrated that overweight/obesity was significantly associated with decreased long-term mortality compared with the normal weight group [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.635; 95% CI: 0.405-0.998; p = 0.049] but not an independent predictor after adjusting for age, gender, and Child-Pugh score (HR = 0.758; 95%CI: 0.479-1.199; p = 0.236). In the second part, Kaplan-Meier curve analyses demonstrated no significant difference in the cumulative survival rate between the overweight/obese and the normal weight groups (p = 0.094). Cox regression analyses also demonstrated that overweight/obesity was not significantly associated with in-hospital mortality compared with normal weight group (HR = 0.349; 95%CI: 0.096-1.269; p = 0.110). In both of the two parts, the Kaplan-Meier curve analyses demonstrated no significant difference in the cumulative survival rate between underweight and normal weight groups. Conclusion: Overweight/obesity is modestly associated with long-term survival in patients with cirrhosis but not an independent prognostic predictor. There is little effect of overweight/obesity on the short-term survival of patients with cirrhosis and with AGIB.

14.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 125906, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492841

RESUMO

Because of their ultra-high surface area, large porosity and excellent structural tailorability, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are considered as outstanding candidates among sensing materials for hazardous gas detection. However, most of MOFs-based sensing films show weak film adhesion and low conductivity due to the poor formation ability of MOFs films by traditional sensor fabrication methods as well as the intrinsic insulating character of these MOFs. In this work, we propose a novel strategy to directly grow robust gas-sensing films based on pristine MOFs arrays (ZIF-67 nanosheets) in-situ on the surface of ceramic substrates. To improve the conductivity of MOFs arrays, anion-exchange method is applied to couple Prussian blue analogue (PBA) on the surface of ZIF-67 arrays. Structural characterization revealed that this permutation reaction can significantly improve the conductivity of the MOF films while their sheet-like structures can be mainly remained. Benefiting from the robust structure and improved conductivity, the as-designed ZIF-67/PBA films exhibited superior sensing performances such as good reproducibility, high response value (Rg/Ra=11.7), and fast response/recovery speed (5/182 s) towards triethylamine. This work provides a new strategy to fabricate MOFs gas sensors and paves a new way to modulate the conductivity of MOF films.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590401

RESUMO

O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAcylation) is a ubiquitous post-translational modification of proteins that is essential for cell function. Perturbation of O-GlcNAcylation leads to altered cell-cycle progression and DNA damage response. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we develop a highly sensitive one-step enzymatic strategy for capture and profiling O-GlcNAcylated proteins in cells. Using this strategy, we discover that flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1), an essential enzyme in DNA synthesis, is a novel substrate for O-GlcNAcylation. FEN1 O-GlcNAcylation is dynamically regulated during the cell cycle. O-GlcNAcylation at the serine 352 of FEN1 disrupts its interaction with Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) at the replication foci, and leads to altered cell cycle, defects in DNA replication, accumulation of DNA damage, and enhanced sensitivity to DNA damage agents. Thus, our study provides a sensitive method for profiling O-GlcNAcylated proteins, and reveals an unknown mechanism of O-GlcNAcylation in regulating cell cycle progression and DNA damage response.

16.
Anesth Pain Med ; 11(3): e115873, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34540643

RESUMO

Background: The cisterna Intrathecal Drug Delivery system (IDDS) with morphine has proven to be effective in treating refractory cancer pain above the middle thoracic vertebrae level in some countries. However, it has not been fully investigated in others. We designed the current project to investigate the efficacy and safety of cisterna IDDS for pain relief in refractory pain above the middle thoracic vertebrae level in advanced cancer patients. Methods: This study protocol allows for eligible cancer patients to receive the cisterna IDDS operation. Pain intensity (Visual Analogue scale, VAS), quality of life (36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, SF-36), and depression (Self-Rating Depression scale, SDS) are assessed along with side effects in the postoperative follow-up visits. Recent literature suggests a potential role for cisterna IDDS morphine delivery for refractory pain states above the middle thoracic level. Conclusion: The results of this study may provide further evidence that cisterna IDDS of morphine can serve as an effective and safe pain relief strategy for refractory pain above the middle thoracic vertebrae level in advanced cancer patients.

17.
J Control Release ; 339: 91-113, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560157

RESUMO

Topical corticosteroids are the primary treatment of ocular inflammation caused by surgery, injury, or other conditions. Drug pre-corneal residence time, drug water solubility, and drug corneal permeability coefficient are the major factors that determine the ocular drug bioavailability after topical administration. Although growing research successfully enhanced local delivery of corticosteroids utilizing various strategies, rational and dynamic approaches to strategy selection are still lacking. Within this review, an overview of the various strategies as well as their performance in retention, solubility, and permeability coefficient of corticosteroids are provided. On this basis, the tradeoff of strategy selection is discussed, which may shed light on the rational choice and application of ophthalmic delivery enhancement strategies.

18.
Clin Interv Aging ; 16: 1457-1470, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34349505

RESUMO

Introduction: Our previous study revealed that a young internal environment ameliorated kidney aging by virtue of an animal model of heterochronic parabiosis and a model of heterochronic renal transplantation. In this research, we used proteome to investigate the effects of donor-recipient age difference in clinical renal transplantation. Methods: This study included 10 pairs of renal transplantation donors and recipients with an age difference of greater than 20 years to their corresponding recipients/donors. All recipients have received transplantation more than 3 years ago. Renal function and the serum/urine proteomes of the donors and recipients were analyzed. Results: The renal function was similar between the young recipients and the old donors. In contrast, the renal function of the young donors was significantly superior to that of the old recipients. Furthermore, 497 and 975 proteins were identified in the serum and urine proteomes, respectively. The content of SLC3A2 in the blood was found to be related to aging, while the contents of SERPINA1 and SERPINA3 in the urine were related to immune functions after renal transplantation. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that, in the human body, a younger internal environment could ameliorate kidney aging and provided not only clinical evidence for increasing the age limit of kidney transplant donors but also new information for kidney aging research.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim , Proteoma , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Rim/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
19.
Planta ; 254(3): 50, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34386845

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Overexpression of the leaf color (Lc) gene in Ma bamboo substantially increased the accumulation level of anthocyanin, and improved plant tolerance to cold and drought stresses, probably due to the increased antioxidant capacity. Most bamboos, including Ma bamboo (Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro), are naturally evergreen and sensitive to cold and drought stresses, while it's nearly impossible to make improvements through conventual breeding due to their long and irregular flowering habit. Moreover, few studies have reported bamboo germplasm innovation through genetic engineering as bamboo genetic transformation remains difficult. In this study, we have upregulated anthocyanin biosynthesis in Ma bamboo, to generate non-green Ma bamboo with increased abiotic stress tolerance. By overexpressing the maize Lc gene, a bHLH transcription activator involved in the anthocyanin biosynthesis in Ma bamboo, we generated purple bamboos with increased anthocyanin levels including cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside, peonidin 3-O-rutinoside, and an unknown cyanidin pentaglycoside derivative. The expression levels of 9 anthocyanin biosynthesis genes were up-regulated. Overexpression of the Lc gene improved the plant tolerance to cold and drought stress, probably due to increased antioxidant capacity. The levels of the cold- and drought-related phytohormone jasmonic acid in the transgenic plants were also enhanced, which may also contribute to the plant stress-tolerant phenotypes. High anthocyanin accumulation level did not affect plant growth. Transcriptomic analysis showed higher expressions of genes involved in the flavonoid pathway in Lc transgenic bamboos compared with those in wild-type ones. The anthocyanin-rich bamboos generated here provide an example of ornamental and multiple agronomic trait improvements by genetic engineering in this important grass species.


Assuntos
Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Antocianinas , Resposta ao Choque Frio , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo
20.
Chem Asian J ; 16(19): 2896-2919, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390547

RESUMO

Transition metal catalysed C-H bond activation chemistry has emerged as an exciting and promising approach in organic synthesis. This allows us to synthesize a wider range of functional molecules and conjugated polymers in a more convenient and more atom economical way. The formation of C-C bonds in the construction of pi-conjugated systems, particularly for conjugated polymers, has benefited much from the advances in C-H bond activation chemistry. Compared to conventional transition-metal catalysed cross-coupling polymerization such as Suzuki and Stille cross-coupling, pre-functionalization of aromatic monomers, such as halogenation, borylation and stannylation, is no longer required for direct arylation polymerization (DArP), which involve C-H/C-X cross-coupling, and oxidative direct arylation polymerization (Ox-DArP), which involves C-H/C-H cross-coupling protocols driven by the activation of monomers' C(sp2 )-H bonds. Furthermore, poly(annulation) via C-H bond activation chemistry leads to the formation of unique pi-conjugated moieties as part of the polymeric backbone. This review thus summarises advances to date in the synthesis of conjugated polymers utilizing transition metal catalysed C-H bond activation chemistry. A variety of conjugated polymers via DArP including poly(thiophene), thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione)-containing, fluorenyl-containing, benzothiadiazole-containing and diketopyrrolopyrrole-containing copolymers, were summarized. Conjugated polymers obtained through Ox-DArP were outlined and compared. Furthermore, poly(annulation) using transition metal catalysed C-H bond activation chemistry was also reviewed. In the last part of this review, difficulties and perspective to make use of transition metal catalysed C-H activation polymerization to prepare conjugated polymers were discussed and commented.

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