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1.
Front Genet ; 10: 755, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31497033

RESUMO

Olive (Olea europaea L.) is a very important edible oil crop and has been cultivated for about 4,000 years in the Mediterranean area. Due to its nutritional and economic importance, researches on germplasm characterization received extensive attention. In this study, using the genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) technology, we carried out genetic diversity analysis on 57 olive cultivars with different geographical origins. In total, 73,482 high-quality single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with minor allele frequency (MAF) > 5%, call rate > 50%, and heterozygosity rate < 10% were obtained at the whole genome level. Genetic structure and phylogenetic analysis showed that the 57 olive cultivars could be classified into two groups (Group I and Group II). No clear geographical distributions of cultivars were observed generally between the two groups. The average nucleotide diversities (π) specific for Group I and Group II were 0.317 and 0.305. The fixation index (F ST) between Group I and Group II was 0.033. In Group II, cultivars could be further divided into two subgroups (Group IIa and Group IIb), which seem to be associated with their fruit sizes. The five Chinese-bred cultivars were all clustered in Group II, showing a closer genetic relationship with those from the central Mediterranean region and limited genetic background. It is therefore necessary for Chinese olive breeding programs to incorporate other genetic basis by utilizing germplasm from the other regions particularly from the east Mediterranean region as breeding parents. The results showed that GBS is an effective marker choice for cultivar characterization and genetic diversity analysis in olive and will help us better understand the genetic backgrounds of the crop.

2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 17(1): 16, 2017 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28100173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Seed germination is important to soybean (Glycine max) growth and development, ultimately affecting soybean yield. A lower seed field emergence has been the main hindrance for breeding soybeans low in phytate. Although this reduction could be overcome by additional breeding and selection, the mechanisms of seed germination in different low phytate mutants remain unknown. In this study, we performed a comparative transcript analysis of two low phytate soybean mutants (TW-1 and TW-1-M), which have the same mutation, a 2 bp deletion in GmMIPS1, but show a significant difference in seed field emergence, TW-1-M was higher than that of TW-1 . RESULTS: Numerous genes analyzed by RNA-Seq showed markedly different expression levels between TW-1-M and TW-1 mutants. Approximately 30,000-35,000 read-mapped genes and ~21000-25000 expressed genes were identified for each library. There were ~3900-9200 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in each contrast library, the number of up-regulated genes was similar with down-regulated genes in the mutant TW-1and TW-1-M. Gene ontology functional categories of DEGs indicated that the ethylene-mediated signaling pathway, the abscisic acid-mediated signaling pathway, response to hormone, ethylene biosynthetic process, ethylene metabolic process, regulation of hormone levels, and oxidation-reduction process, regulation of flavonoid biosynthetic process and regulation of abscisic acid-activated signaling pathway had high correlations with seed germination. In total, 2457 DEGs involved in the above functional categories were identified. Twenty-two genes with 20 biological functions were the most highly up/down- regulated (absolute value Log2FC >5) in the high field emergence mutant TW-1-M and were related to metabolic or signaling pathways. Fifty-seven genes with 36 biological functions had the greatest expression abundance (FRPM >100) in germination-related pathways. CONCLUSIONS: Seed germination in the soybean low phytate mutants is a very complex process, which involves a series of physiological, morphological and transcriptional changes. Compared with TW-1, TW-1-M had a very different gene expression profile, which included genes related to plant hormones, antioxidation, anti-stress and energy metabolism processes. Our research provides a molecular basis for understanding germination mechanisms, and is also an important resource for the genetic analysis of germination in low phytate crops. Plant hormone- and antioxidation-related genes might strongly contribute to the high germination rate in the TW-1-M mutant.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sementes/genética , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Mutação , Ácido Fítico/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Soja/química , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento
3.
Theor Appl Genet ; 125(7): 1413-23, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22733447

RESUMO

Phytic acid (myo-inositol 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 hexakisphosphate) is an important constituent of soybean meal. Since phytic acid and its mineral salts (phytates) are almost indigestible for monogastrics, their abundance in grain food/feed causes nutritional and environmental problems; interest in breeding low phytic acid has therefore increased considerably. Based on gene mapping and the characteristics of inositol polyphosphates profile in the seeds of a soybean mutant line Gm-lpa-ZC-2, the soybean ortholog of inositol 1,3,4,5,6 pentakisphosphate (InsP(5)) 2-kinase (IPK1), which transforms InsP(5) into phytic acid, was first hypothesized as the candidate gene responsible for the low phytic acid alteration in Gm-lpa-ZC-2. One IPK1 ortholog (Glyma14g07880, GmIPK1) was then identified in the mapped region on chromosome 14. Sequencing revealed a G → A point mutation in the genomic DNA sequence and the exclusion of the entire fifth exon in the cDNA sequence of GmIPK1 in Gm-lpa-ZC-2 compared with its wild-type progenitor Zhechun No. 3. The excluded exon encodes 37 amino acids that spread across two conserved IPK1 motifs. Furthermore, complete co-segregation of low phytic acid phenotype with the G → A mutation was observed in the F(2) population of ZC-lpa x Zhexiandou No. 4 (a wild-type cultivar). Put together, the G → A point mutation affected the pre-mRNA splicing and resulted in the exclusion of the fifth exon of GmIPK1 which is expected to disrupt the GmIPK1 functionality, leading to low phytic acid level in Gm-lpa-ZC-2. Gm-lpa-ZC-2, would be a good germplasm source in low phytic acid soybean breeding.


Assuntos
Éxons/genética , Mutação/genética , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Sítios de Splice de RNA/genética , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Soja/enzimologia , Soja/genética , Sequência de Bases , Cruzamentos Genéticos , DNA Complementar/genética , DNA de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas/genética , Homozigoto , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Fenótipo , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/genética , Mapeamento Físico do Cromossomo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Soja/embriologia , Transcrição Genética
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 57(9): 3632-8, 2009 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19323582

RESUMO

Reduction of phytic acid in soybean seeds has the potential to improve the nutritional value of soybean meal and lessen phosphorus pollution in large scale animal farming. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of two new low phytic acid (LPA) mutations on seed quality and nutritional traits. Multilocation/season comparative analyses showed that the two mutations did not affect the concentration of crude protein, any of the individual amino acids, crude oil, and individual saturated fatty acids. Among other traits, Gm-lpa-TW75-1 had consistently higher sucrose contents (+47.4-86.1%) and lower raffinose contents (-74.2 to -84.3%) than those of wild type (WT) parent Taiwan 75; Gm-lpa-ZC-2 had higher total isoflavone contents (3038.8-4305.4 microg/g) than its parent Zhechun # 3 (1583.6-2644.9 microg/g) in all environments. Further tests of homozygous F(3) progenies of the cross Gm-lpa-ZC-2 x Wuxing # 4 (WT variety) showed that LPA lines had a mean content of total isoflavone significantly higher than WT lines. This study demonstrated that two LPA mutant genes have no negative effects on seed quality and nutritional traits; they instead have the potential to improve a few other properties. Therefore, these two mutant genes are valuable genetic resources for breeding high quality soybean varieties.


Assuntos
Mutação , Valor Nutritivo , Ácido Fítico/análise , Sementes/genética , Soja/genética , Cruzamento , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Isoflavonas/análise , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Rafinose/análise , Estações do Ano , Sementes/química , Soja/química , Sacarose/análise
5.
Theor Appl Genet ; 117(6): 857-71, 2008 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18587557

RESUMO

The Chinese genebank contains 23,587 soybean landraces collected from 29 provinces. In this study, a representative collection of 1,863 landraces were assessed for genetic diversity and genetic differentiation in order to provide useful information for effective management and utilization. A total of 1,160 SSR alleles at 59 SSR loci were detected including 97 unique and 485 low-frequency alleles, which indicated great richness and uniqueness of genetic variation in this core collection. Seven clusters were inferred by STRUCTURE analysis, which is in good agreement with a neighbor-joining tree. The cluster subdivision was also supported by highly significant pairwise Fst values and was generally in accordance with differences in planting area and sowing season. The cluster HSuM, which contains accessions collected from the region between 32.0 and 40.5 degrees N, 105.4 and 122.2 degrees E along the central and downstream parts of the Yellow River, was the most genetically diverse of the seven clusters. This provides the first molecular evidence for the hypotheses that the origin of cultivated soybean is the Yellow River region. A high proportion (95.1%) of pairs of alleles from different loci was in LD in the complete dataset. This was mostly due to overall population structure, since the number of locus pairs in LD was reduced sharply within each of the clusters compared to the complete dataset. This shows that population structure needs to be accounted for in association studies conducted within this collection. The low value of LD within the clusters can be seen as evidence that much of the recombination events in the past have been maintained in soybean, fixed in homozygous self-fertilizing landraces.


Assuntos
Soja/genética , Alelos , Cruzamento , China , Análise por Conglomerados , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Frequência do Gene , Marcadores Genéticos , Variação Genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Filogenia , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Soja/classificação
6.
Theor Appl Genet ; 115(7): 945-57, 2007 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17701395

RESUMO

Phytic acid (PA, myo-inositol 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 hexakisphosphate) is important to the nutritional quality of soybean meal. Organic phosphorus (P) in PA is indigestible in humans and non-ruminant animals, which affects nutrition and causes P pollution of ground water from animal wastes. Two novel soybean [(Glycine max L. (Merr.)] low phytic acid (lpa) mutations were isolated and characterized. Gm-lpa-TW-1 had a phytic acid P (PA-P) reduction of 66.6% and a sixfold increase in inorganic P (Pi), and Gm-lpa-ZC-2 had a PA-P reduction of 46.3% and a 1.4-fold increase in Pi, compared with their respective non-mutant progenitor lines. The reduction of PA-P and increase of Pi in Gm-lpa-TW-1 were molar equivalent; the decrease of PA-P in Gm-lpa-ZC-2, however, was accompanied by the increase of both Pi and lower inositol phosphates. In both mutant lines, the total P content remained similar to their wild type parents. The two lpa mutations were both inherited in a single recessive gene model but were non-allelic. Sequence data and progeny analysis indicate that Gm-lpa-TW-1 lpa mutation resulted from a 2 bp deletion in the soybean D: -myo-inositol 3-phosphate synthase (MIPS1 EC 5.5.1.4) gene 1 (MIPS1). The lpa mutation in Gm-lpa-ZC-2 was mapped on LG B2, closely linked with microsatellite loci Satt416 and Satt168, at genetic distances of approximately 4.63 and approximately 9.25 cM, respectively. Thus this mutation probably represents a novel soybean lpa locus. The seed emergence rate of Gm-lpa-ZC-2 was similar to its progenitor line and was not affected by seed source and its lpa mutation. However, Gm-lpa-TW-1 had a significantly reduced field emergence when seeds were produced in a subtropic environment. Field tests of the mutants and their progenies further demonstrated that the lpa mutation in Gm-lpa-ZC-2 does not negatively affect plant yield traits. These results will advance understanding of the genetic, biochemical and molecular control of PA synthesis in soybean. The novel lpa mutation in Gm-lpa-ZC-2, together with linked simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, will be of value for breeding productive lpa soybeans, with meal high in digestible Pi eventually to improve animal nutrition and lessen environmental pollution.


Assuntos
Mutação , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Soja/genética , Ácido Fítico/química , Sementes/química , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Soja/química , Soja/metabolismo
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