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1.
Pediatr Neurol ; 114: 16-20, 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathogenic variants in the IGHMBP2 gene cause recessive spinal motor neuropathies of variable phenotype, including a predominantly distal motor impairment of Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2S and the more severe condition of spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1 in which infantile respiratory failure predominates. METHODS: We describe the first reported case of spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1 caused by a novel deep intronic variant in IGHMBP2 (NM_002180c.712-610A>G). RESULTS: The variant was detected by whole genome sequencing. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and complimentary DNA sequencing were used to characterize the impact of the novel variant. CONCLUSIONS: This report illustrates the utility in clinical practice of genome sequencing and RNA analysis, compared with exome sequencing alone.

2.
Genet Med ; 22(10): 1633-1641, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576985

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Improved resolution of molecular diagnostic technologies enabled detection of smaller sized exonic level copy-number variants (CNVs). The contribution of CNVs to autosomal recessive (AR) conditions may be better recognized using a large clinical cohort. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated the CNVs' contribution to AR conditions in cases subjected to chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA, N = ~70,000) and/or clinical exome sequencing (ES, N = ~12,000) at Baylor Genetics; most had pediatric onset neurodevelopmental disorders. RESULTS: CNVs contributed to biallelic variations in 87 cases, including 81 singletons and three affected sibling pairs. Seventy cases had CNVs affecting both alleles, and 17 had a CNV and a single-nucleotide variant (SNV)/indel in trans. In total, 94.3% of AR-CNVs affected one gene; among these 41.4% were single-exon and 35.0% were multiexon partial-gene events. Sixty-nine percent of homozygous AR-CNVs were embedded in homozygous genomic intervals. Five cases had large deletions unmasking an SNV/indel on the intact allele for a recessive condition, resulting in multiple molecular diagnoses. CONCLUSIONS: AR-CNVs are often smaller in size, transmitted through generations, and underrecognized due to limitations in clinical CNV detection methods. Our findings from a large clinical cohort emphasized integrated CNV and SNV/indel analyses for precise clinical and molecular diagnosis especially in the context of genomic disorders.

3.
Am J Med Genet A ; 182(1): 189-194, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633297

RESUMO

Hennekam lymphangiectasia-lymphedema syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by congenital lymphedema, intestinal lymphangiectasia, facial dysmorphism, and variable intellectual disability. Known disease genes include CCBE1, FAT4, and ADAMTS3. In a patient with clinically diagnosed Hennekam syndrome but without mutations or copy-number changes in the three known disease genes, we identified a homozygous single-exon deletion affecting FBXL7. Specifically, exon 3, which encodes the F-box domain and several leucine-rich repeats of FBXL7, is eliminated. Our analyses of databases representing >100,000 control individuals failed to identify biallelic loss-of-function variants in FBXL7. Published studies in Drosophila indicate Fbxl7 interacts with Fat, of which human FAT4 is an ortholog, and mutation of either gene yields similar morphological consequences. These data suggest that FBXL7 may be the fourth gene for Hennekam syndrome, acting via a shared pathway with FAT4.

5.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 12, 2019 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurodevelopmental disorders are genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous encompassing developmental delay (DD), intellectual disability (ID), autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), structural brain abnormalities, and neurological manifestations with variants in a large number of genes (hundreds) associated. To date, a few de novo mutations potentially disrupting TCF20 function in patients with ID, ASD, and hypotonia have been reported. TCF20 encodes a transcriptional co-regulator structurally related to RAI1, the dosage-sensitive gene responsible for Smith-Magenis syndrome (deletion/haploinsufficiency) and Potocki-Lupski syndrome (duplication/triplosensitivity). METHODS: Genome-wide analyses by exome sequencing (ES) and chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) identified individuals with heterozygous, likely damaging, loss-of-function alleles in TCF20. We implemented further molecular and clinical analyses to determine the inheritance of the pathogenic variant alleles and studied the spectrum of phenotypes. RESULTS: We report 25 unique inactivating single nucleotide variants/indels (1 missense, 1 canonical splice-site variant, 18 frameshift, and 5 nonsense) and 4 deletions of TCF20. The pathogenic variants were detected in 32 patients and 4 affected parents from 31 unrelated families. Among cases with available parental samples, the variants were de novo in 20 instances and inherited from 4 symptomatic parents in 5, including in one set of monozygotic twins. Two pathogenic loss-of-function variants were recurrent in unrelated families. Patients presented with a phenotype characterized by developmental delay, intellectual disability, hypotonia, variable dysmorphic features, movement disorders, and sleep disturbances. CONCLUSIONS: TCF20 pathogenic variants are associated with a novel syndrome manifesting clinical characteristics similar to those observed in Smith-Magenis syndrome. Together with previously described cases, the clinical entity of TCF20-associated neurodevelopmental disorders (TAND) emerges from a genotype-driven perspective.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Mutação INDEL , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Síndrome de Smith-Magenis/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/patologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Masculino , Hipotonia Muscular/patologia , Síndrome de Smith-Magenis/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(1): 154-162, 2018 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29961569

RESUMO

TRAF7 is a multi-functional protein involved in diverse signaling pathways and cellular processes. The phenotypic consequence of germline TRAF7 variants remains unclear. Here we report missense variants in TRAF7 in seven unrelated individuals referred for clinical exome sequencing. The seven individuals share substantial phenotypic overlap, with developmental delay, congenital heart defects, limb and digital anomalies, and dysmorphic features emerging as key unifying features. The identified variants are de novo in six individuals and comprise four distinct missense changes, including a c.1964G>A (p.Arg655Gln) variant that is recurrent in four individuals. These variants affect evolutionarily conserved amino acids and are located in key functional domains. Gene-specific mutation rate analysis showed that the occurrence of the de novo variants in TRAF7 (p = 2.6 × 10-3) and the recurrent de novo c.1964G>A (p.Arg655Gln) variant (p = 1.9 × 10-8) in our exome cohort was unlikely to have occurred by chance. In vitro analyses of the observed TRAF7 mutations showed reduced ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Our findings suggest that missense mutations in TRAF7 are associated with a multisystem disorder and provide evidence of a role for TRAF7 in human development.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas Associados a Receptores de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/genética , Adulto , Aminoácidos/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Masculino , Anormalidades Musculoesqueléticas/genética , Fenótipo
7.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(4): 973-979, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29423971

RESUMO

SHANK3 encodes for a scaffolding protein that links neurotransmitter receptors to the cytoskeleton and is enriched in postsynaptic densities of excitatory synapses. Deletions or mutations in one copy of the SHANK3 gene cause Phelan-McDermid syndrome, also called 22q13.3 deletion syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder with common features including global developmental delay, absent to severely impaired language, autistic behavior, and minor dysmorphic features. By whole exome sequencing, we identified two de novo novel variants including one frameshift pathogenic variant and one missense variant of unknown significance in a 14-year-old boy with delayed motor milestones, delayed language acquisition, autism, intellectual disability, ataxia, progressively worsening spasticity of the lower extremities, dysmorphic features, short stature, microcephaly, failure to thrive, chronic constipation, intrauterine growth restriction, and bilateral inguinal hernias. Both changes are within the CpG island in exon 21, separated by a 375 bp sequence. Next generation sequencing of PCR products revealed that the two variants are most frequently associated with each other. Sanger sequencing of the cloned PCR products further confirmed that both changes were on a single allele. The clinical presentation in this individual is consistent with other patients with a truncating mutation in exon 21, suggesting that the missense change contributes none or minimally to the phenotypes. This is the first report of two de novo mutations in one SHANK3 allele.


Assuntos
Alelos , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Adolescente , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
9.
Hum Genet ; 136(4): 377-386, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28251352

RESUMO

Impairment of ubiquitin-proteasome system activity involving ubiquitin ligase genes UBE3A, UBE3B, and HUWE1 and deubiquitinating enzyme genes USP7 and USP9X has been reported in patients with neurodevelopmental delays. To date, only a handful of single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) and copy-number variants (CNVs) involving TRIP12, encoding a member of the HECT domain E3 ubiquitin ligases family on chromosome 2q36.3 have been reported. Using chromosomal microarray analysis and whole-exome sequencing (WES), we have identified, respectively, five deletion CNVs and four inactivating SNVs (two frameshifts, one missense, and one splicing) in TRIP12. Seven of these variants were found to be de novo; parental studies could not be completed in two families. Quantitative PCR analyses of the splicing mutation showed a dramatically decreased level of TRIP12 mRNA in the proband compared to the family controls, indicating a loss-of-function mechanism. The shared clinical features include intellectual disability with or without autistic spectrum disorders, speech delay, and facial dysmorphism. Our findings demonstrate that E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIP12 plays an important role in nervous system development and function. The nine presented pathogenic variants further document that TRIP12 haploinsufficiency causes a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder. Finally, our data enable expansion of the phenotypic spectrum of ubiquitin-proteasome dependent disorders.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Facies , Haploinsuficiência , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/complicações , Masculino
10.
Am J Med Genet A ; 170(8): 2206-11, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27250922

RESUMO

Mutations in CRIPT encoding cysteine-rich PDZ domain-binding protein are rare, and to date have been reported in only two patients with autosomal recessive primordial dwarfism and distinctive facies. Here, we describe a female with biallelic mutations in CRIPT presenting with postnatal growth retardation, global developmental delay, and dysmorphic features including frontal bossing, high forehead, and sparse hair and eyebrows. Additional clinical features included high myopia, admixed hyper- and hypopigmented macules primarily on the face, arms, and legs, and syndactyly of 4-5 toes bilaterally. Using whole exome sequencing (WES) and chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA), we detected a c.8G>A (p.C3Y) missense variant in exon 1 of the CRIPT gene inherited from the mother and a 1,331 bp deletion encompassing exon 1, inherited from the father. The c.8G>A (p.C3Y) missense variant in CRIPT was apparently homozygous in the proband due to the exon 1 deletion. Our findings illustrate the clinical utility of combining WES with copy number variant (CNV) analysis to provide a molecular diagnosis to patients with rare Mendelian disorders. Our findings also illustrate the clinical spectrum of CRIPT related mutations. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Éxons , Estudos de Associação Genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Fenótipo , Deleção de Sequência , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Alelos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Nanismo/diagnóstico , Nanismo/genética , Facies , Feminino , Humanos , Microcefalia/diagnóstico , Microcefalia/genética , Linhagem
11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 98(2): 347-57, 2016 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26805781

RESUMO

The underlying genetic etiology of rhabdomyolysis remains elusive in a significant fraction of individuals presenting with recurrent metabolic crises and muscle weakness. Using exome sequencing, we identified bi-allelic mutations in TANGO2 encoding transport and Golgi organization 2 homolog (Drosophila) in 12 subjects with episodic rhabdomyolysis, hypoglycemia, hyperammonemia, and susceptibility to life-threatening cardiac tachyarrhythmias. A recurrent homozygous c.460G>A (p.Gly154Arg) mutation was found in four unrelated individuals of Hispanic/Latino origin, and a homozygous ∼34 kb deletion affecting exons 3-9 was observed in two families of European ancestry. One individual of mixed Hispanic/European descent was found to be compound heterozygous for c.460G>A (p.Gly154Arg) and the deletion of exons 3-9. Additionally, a homozygous exons 4-6 deletion was identified in a consanguineous Middle Eastern Arab family. No homozygotes have been reported for these changes in control databases. Fibroblasts derived from a subject with the recurrent c.460G>A (p.Gly154Arg) mutation showed evidence of increased endoplasmic reticulum stress and a reduction in Golgi volume density in comparison to control. Our results show that the c.460G>A (p.Gly154Arg) mutation and the exons 3-9 heterozygous deletion in TANGO2 are recurrent pathogenic alleles present in the Latino/Hispanic and European populations, respectively, causing considerable morbidity in the homozygotes in these populations.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/genética , Debilidade Muscular/genética , Rabdomiólise/genética , Alelos , Árabes/genética , Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Sequência de Bases , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Exoma , Éxons , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Complexo de Golgi/genética , Complexo de Golgi/metabolismo , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Homozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Debilidade Muscular/diagnóstico , Linhagem , Rabdomiólise/diagnóstico
12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 97(6): 904-13, 2015 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26637980

RESUMO

Meier-Gorlin syndrome (MGS) is a genetically heterogeneous primordial dwarfism syndrome known to be caused by biallelic loss-of-function mutations in one of five genes encoding pre-replication complex proteins: ORC1, ORC4, ORC6, CDT1, and CDC6. Mutations in these genes cause disruption of the origin of DNA replication initiation. To date, only an autosomal-recessive inheritance pattern has been described in individuals with this disorder, with a molecular etiology established in about three-fourths of cases. Here, we report three subjects with MGS and de novo heterozygous mutations in the 5' end of GMNN, encoding the DNA replication inhibitor geminin. We identified two truncating mutations in exon 2 (the 1(st) coding exon), c.16A>T (p.Lys6(∗)) and c.35_38delTCAA (p.Ile12Lysfs(∗)4), and one missense mutation, c.50A>G (p.Lys17Arg), affecting the second-to-last nucleotide of exon 2 and possibly RNA splicing. Geminin is present during the S, G2, and M phases of the cell cycle and is degraded during the metaphase-anaphase transition by the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), which recognizes the destruction box sequence near the 5' end of the geminin protein. All three GMNN mutations identified alter sites 5' to residue Met28 of the protein, which is located within the destruction box. We present data supporting a gain-of-function mechanism, in which the GMNN mutations result in proteins lacking the destruction box and hence increased protein stability and prolonged inhibition of replication leading to autosomal-dominant MGS.


Assuntos
Microtia Congênita/genética , Nanismo/genética , Geminina/genética , Transtornos do Crescimento/genética , Micrognatismo/genética , Mutação , Patela/anormalidades , Adolescente , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Ciclo Celular/genética , Pré-Escolar , Microtia Congênita/metabolismo , Nanismo/metabolismo , Nanismo/patologia , Éxons , Feminino , Geminina/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Genes Dominantes , Transtornos do Crescimento/metabolismo , Heterozigoto , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Padrões de Herança , Masculino , Micrognatismo/metabolismo , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Patela/metabolismo , Linhagem , Estabilidade Proteica , Proteólise , Processamento de RNA , Alinhamento de Sequência
13.
Am J Hum Genet ; 95(5): 579-83, 2014 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25439098

RESUMO

5q31.3 microdeletion syndrome is characterized by neonatal hypotonia, encephalopathy with or without epilepsy, and severe developmental delay, and the minimal critical deletion interval harbors three genes. We describe 11 individuals with clinical features of 5q31.3 microdeletion syndrome and de novo mutations in PURA, encoding transcriptional activator protein Pur-α, within the critical region. These data implicate causative PURA mutations responsible for the severe neurological phenotypes observed in this syndrome.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 5/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Convulsões/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Humanos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Síndrome
14.
Am J Hum Genet ; 94(5): 784-9, 2014 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24791903

RESUMO

Clinical whole-exome sequencing (WES) for identification of mutations leading to Mendelian disease has been offered to the medical community since 2011. Clinically undiagnosed neurological disorders are the most frequent basis for test referral, and currently, approximately 25% of such cases are diagnosed at the molecular level. To date, there are approximately 4,000 "known" disease-associated loci, and many are associated with striking dysmorphic features, making genotype-phenotype correlations relatively straightforward. A significant fraction of cases, however, lack characteristic dysmorphism or clinical pathognomonic traits and are dependent upon molecular tests for definitive diagnoses. Further, many molecular diagnoses are guided by recent gene-disease association discoveries. Hence, there is a critical interplay between clinical testing and research leading to gene-disease association discovery. Here, we describe four probands, all of whom presented with hypotonia, intellectual disability, global developmental delay, and mildly dysmorphic facial features. Three of the four also had sleep apnea. Each was a simplex case without a remarkable family history. Using WES, we identified AHDC1 de novo truncating mutations that most likely cause this genetic syndrome.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/genética , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação , Síndrome
15.
J Cell Biol ; 182(1): 89-101, 2008 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18625844

RESUMO

Deadenylation is the major step triggering mammalian mRNA decay. One consequence of deadenylation is the formation of nontranslatable messenger RNA (mRNA) protein complexes (messenger ribonucleoproteins [mRNPs]). Nontranslatable mRNPs may accumulate in P-bodies, which contain factors involved in translation repression, decapping, and 5'-to-3' degradation. We demonstrate that deadenylation is required for mammalian P-body formation and mRNA decay. We identify Pan2, Pan3, and Caf1 deadenylases as new P-body components and show that Pan3 helps recruit Pan2, Ccr4, and Caf1 to P-bodies. Pan3 knockdown causes a reduction of P-bodies and has differential effects on mRNA decay. Knocking down Caf1 or overexpressing a Caf1 catalytically inactive mutant impairs deadenylation and mRNA decay. P-bodies are not detected when deadenylation is blocked and are restored when the blockage is released. When deadenylation is impaired, P-body formation is not restorable, even when mRNAs exit the translating pool. These results support a dynamic interplay among deadenylation, mRNP remodeling, and P-body formation in selective decay of mammalian mRNA.


Assuntos
Estruturas Citoplasmáticas/metabolismo , Poliadenilação , Estabilidade de RNA , Animais , Estruturas Citoplasmáticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Exorribonucleases , Humanos , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , Células NIH 3T3 , Poli A/metabolismo , Poliadenilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Transporte Proteico/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas/metabolismo , Puromicina/farmacologia , Estabilidade de RNA/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptores CCR4/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras , Ribonucleases
16.
Mol Cell Biol ; 27(22): 7791-801, 2007 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17785442

RESUMO

In mammalian cells, mRNA decay begins with deadenylation, which involves two consecutive phases mediated by the PAN2-PAN3 and the CCR4-CAF1 complexes, respectively. The regulation of the critical deadenylation step and its relationship with RNA-processing bodies (P-bodies), which are thought to be a site where poly(A)-shortened mRNAs get degraded, are poorly understood. Using the Tet-Off transcriptional pulsing approach to investigate mRNA decay in mouse NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, we found that TOB, an antiproliferative transcription factor, enhances mRNA deadenylation in vivo. Results from glutathione S-transferase pull-down and coimmunoprecipitation experiments indicate that TOB can simultaneously interact with the poly(A) nuclease complex CCR4-CAF1 and the cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding protein, PABPC1. Combining these findings with those from mutagenesis studies, we further identified the protein motifs on TOB and PABPC1 that are necessary for their interaction and found that interaction with PABPC1 is necessary for TOB's deadenylation-enhancing effect. Moreover, our immunofluorescence microscopy results revealed that TOB colocalizes with P-bodies, suggesting a role of TOB in linking deadenylation to the P-bodies. Our findings reveal a new mechanism by which the fate of mammalian mRNA is modulated at the deadenylation step by a protein that recruits poly(A) nuclease(s) to the 3' poly(A) tail-PABP complex.


Assuntos
Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Proteína I de Ligação a Poli(A)/metabolismo , Estabilidade de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Animais , Células COS , Chlorocebus aethiops , Exorribonucleases/genética , Exorribonucleases/metabolismo , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Camundongos , Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , Células NIH 3T3 , Fenilalanina/metabolismo , Proteína I de Ligação a Poli(A)/genética , Poliadenilação , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética
17.
RNA ; 13(10): 1775-86, 2007 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17728382

RESUMO

Development of transcriptional pulsing approaches using the c-fos and Tet-off promoter systems greatly facilitated studies of mRNA turnover in mammalian cells. However, optimal protocols for these approaches vary for different cell types and/or physiological conditions, limiting their widespread application. In this study, we have further optimized transcriptional pulsing systems for different cell lines and developed new protocols to facilitate investigation of various aspects of mRNA turnover. We apply the Tet-off transcriptional pulsing strategy to investigate ARE-mediated mRNA decay in human erythroleukemic K562 cells arrested at various phases of the cell cycle by pharmacological inhibitors. This application facilitates studies of the role of mRNA stability in control of cell-cycle dependent gene expression. To advance the investigation of factors involved in mRNA turnover and its regulation, we have also incorporated recently developed transfection and siRNA reagents into the transcriptional pulsing approach. Using these protocols, siRNA and DNA plasmids can be effectively cotransfected into mouse NIH3T3 cells to obtain high knockdown efficiency. Moreover, we have established a tTA-harboring stable line using human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells and applied the transcriptional pulsing approach to monitor mRNA deadenylation and decay kinetics in this cell system. This broadens the application of the transcriptional pulsing system to investigate the regulation of mRNA turnover related to allergic inflammation. Critical factors that need to be considered when employing these approaches are characterized and discussed.


Assuntos
Estabilidade de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética , Ciclo Celular , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Cinética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Transfecção
18.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 12(12): 1054-63, 2005 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16284618

RESUMO

In mammalian cells, the enzymatic pathways involved in cytoplasmic mRNA decay are incompletely defined. In this study, we have used two approaches to disrupt activities of deadenylating and/or decapping enzymes to monitor effects on mRNA decay kinetics and trap decay intermediates. Our results show that deadenylation is the key first step that triggers decay of both wild-type stable and nonsense codon-containing unstable beta-globin mRNAs in mouse NIH3T3 fibroblasts. PAN2 and CCR4 are the major poly(A) nucleases active in cytoplasmic deadenylation that have biphasic kinetics, with PAN2 initiating deadenylation followed by CCR4-mediated poly(A) shortening. DCP2-mediated decapping takes place after deadenylation and may serve as a backup mechanism for triggering mRNA decay when initial deadenylation by PAN2 is compromised. Our findings reveal a functional link between deadenylation and decapping and help to define in vivo pathways for mammalian cytoplasmic mRNA decay.


Assuntos
Endorribonucleases/metabolismo , Exorribonucleases/metabolismo , Estabilidade de RNA/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Animais , Núcleo Celular/enzimologia , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Endorribonucleases/análise , Endorribonucleases/genética , Exorribonucleases/análise , Exorribonucleases/genética , Fibroblastos/enzimologia , Globinas/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Células NIH 3T3 , Interferência de RNA
19.
Genes Dev ; 18(16): 2010-23, 2004 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15314026

RESUMO

Messenger RNA decay mediated by the c-fos major protein coding-region determinant of instability (mCRD) is a useful system for studying translationally coupled mRNA turnover. Among the five mCRD-associated proteins identified previously, UNR was found to be an mCRD-binding protein and also a PABP-interacting protein. Interaction between UNR and PABP is necessary for the full destabilization function of the mCRD. By testing different classes of mammalian poly(A) nucleases, we identified CCR4 as a poly(A) nuclease involved in the mCRD-mediated rapid deadenylation in vivo and also associated with UNR. Blocking either translation initiation or elongation greatly impeded poly(A) shortening and mRNA decay mediated by the mCRD, demonstrating that the deadenylation step is coupled to ongoing translation of the message. These findings suggest a model in which the mCRD/UNR complex serves as a "landing/assembly" platform for formation of a deadenylation/decay mRNA-protein complex on an mCRD-containing transcript. The complex is dormant prior to translation. Accelerated deadenylation and decay of the transcript follows ribosome transit through the mCRD. This study provides new insights into a mechanism by which interplay between mRNA turnover and translation determines the lifespan of an mCRD-containing mRNA in the cytoplasm.


Assuntos
Genes fos , Proteínas de Ligação a Poli(A)/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Poli(A)/fisiologia , Biossíntese de Proteínas , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Sítios de Ligação , Camundongos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Células NIH 3T3 , Proteínas de Ligação a Poli(A)/química , Proteínas de Ligação a Poli(A)/genética , Receptores CCR4 , Receptores de Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico
20.
RNA ; 10(4): 669-80, 2004 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15037776

RESUMO

Many shuttling proteins not only function in the nucleus but also control mRNA fates in the cytoplasm. We test whether a link exists between their nuclear association with mRNPs and their cytoplasmic functions using the p37 isoform of hnRNP D, which inhibits the rapid cytoplasmic mRNA decay in NIH3T3 cells. We showed that p37 shuttles between nucleus and cytoplasm, and narrowed down the nuclear import signal to a 50-amino-acid C-terminal domain. A p37 mutant missing this domain, still capable of associating with target mRNAs in vitro, was confined to the cytoplasm, where it was unable to block cytoplasmic mRNA turnover. Introducing heterologous shuttling domains to this mutant, thereby restoring its ability to enter the nucleus, concomitantly restored its cytoplasmic function. Association of p37 with its target mRNAs can only be detected when it can enter the nucleus. Our results suggest that nuclear import of hnRNP D is a prerequisite for it to exert its cytoplasmic function. This study provides a useful model system to elucidate the mechanisms by which "nuclear history" affects cytoplasmic mRNA fates.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Heterogêneas Grupo D/fisiologia , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular/fisiologia , Animais , Camundongos , Células NIH 3T3 , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Transporte Proteico/fisiologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
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