Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 758
Filtrar
1.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 4714735, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32149108

RESUMO

Giardia duodenalis is a zoonotic enteric parasite that can infect humans and a number of animal species including rabbits with a worldwide distribution. Infection with G. duodenalis can cause serious public health problems and significant economic losses to animal husbandry. So accurate understanding of the prevalence and genotype distribution of G. duodenalis in rabbits is necessary. In the present study, a total of 616 fecal samples were collected from rabbits in Shandong province, eastern China, and examined in G. duodenalis prevalence and genotypes by nested PCR amplification of ß-giardin (bg), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) gene loci of G. duodenalis. Sixty-nine (11.2%) of the examined rabbit fecal samples were G. duodenalis-positive. Of them, the prevalence of G. duodenalis is 8.4% (41/490) in Rizhao city and 22.2% (28/126) in Weihai city. Breeds, region, and feeding modes were highly correlated with G. duodenalis infection in rabbits. Moreover, three genotypes (assemblages A, B, and E) were identified in rabbits at three gene loci, and the assemblage E was the dominant genotype, while the assemblage A was reported in rabbits in China for the first time. It is noticeable that two rabbits were found to be infected with two different G. duodenalis assemblages (assemblages A and E, assemblages B and E, respectively). These findings enrich the genotype distribution of G. duodenalis in rabbits and provide baseline data for preventing and controlling G. duodenalis infection in rabbits in eastern China.

2.
Parasitol Res ; 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198626

RESUMO

Eimeria spp. and Blastocystis are the common parasites that parasitize the intestinal tract of rabbits, which can seriously threaten the health of rabbits and lead to economic losses to the rabbit industry. However, information about the prevalence and transmission of these two parasites in rabbits is limited in China. The objective of this study was to survey the prevalence of Eimeria spp. and Blastocystis in rabbits in Shandong Province. A total of 616 rabbit fecal samples were collected from two cities (Rizhao and Weihai) in Shandong Province, eastern China, and Eimeria spp. and Blastocystis were identified by polymerase chain reaction based on species-specific markers. The prevalence of Eimeria spp. was 20% (123/616) and the Blastocystis prevalence was 0.97% (6/616). Five different Eimeria species (Eimeria intestinalis, E. perforans, E. magna, E. media, and E. irresidua) and the ST4 subtype of Blastocystis were identified in rabbits by sequence analysis. This is the first report of Blastocystis prevalence and subtype ST4 in rabbits in Shandong Province. The findings provide baseline data for the prevention and control of Eimeria spp. and Blastocystis in rabbits in Shandong Province, China.

3.
Adv Mater ; : e1907112, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020715

RESUMO

Electrochemical conversion of nitrogen (N2 ) into value-added ammonia (NH3 ) is highly desirable yet formidably challenging due to the extreme inertness of the N2 molecule, which makes the development of a robust electrocatalyst prerequisite. Herein, a new class of bullet-like M-Te (M = Ru, Rh, Ir) glassy porous nanorods (PNRs) is reported as excellent electrocatalysts for N2 reduction reaction (NRR). The optimized IrTe4 PNRs present superior activity with the highest NH3 yield rate (51.1 µg h-1 mg-1 cat. ) and Faraday efficiency (15.3%), as well as long-term stability of up to 20 consecutive cycles, making them among the most active NRR electrocatalysts reported to date. Both the N2 temperature-programmed desorption and valence band X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data show that the strong chemical adsorption of N2 is the key for enhancing the NRR and suppressing the hydrogen evolution reaction of IrTe4 PNRs. Density functional theory calculations comprehensively identify that the superior adsorption strength of IrTe4 adsorptions originates from the synergistic collaboration between electron-rich Ir and the highly electroactive surrounding Te atoms. The optimal adsorption of both N2 and H2 O in alkaline media guarantees the superior consecutive NRR process. This work opens a new avenue for designing high-performance NRR electrocatalysts based on glassy materials.

4.
Adv Mater ; : e1907105, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020742

RESUMO

All-optical modulators are attracting significant attention due to their intrinsic perspective on high-speed, low-loss, and broadband performance, which are promising to replace their electrical counterparts for future information communication technology. However, high-power consumption and large footprint remain obstacles for the prevailing nonlinear optical methods due to the weak photon-photon interaction. Here, efficient all-optical mid-infrared plasmonic waveguide and free-space modulators in atomically thin graphene-MoS2 heterostructures based on the ultrafast and efficient doping of graphene with the photogenerated carrier in the monolayer MoS2 are reported. Plasmonic modulation of 44 cm-1 is demonstrated by an LED with light intensity down to 0.15 mW cm-2 , which is four orders of magnitude smaller than the prevailing graphene nonlinear all-optical modulators (≈103 mW cm-2 ). The ultrafast carrier transfer and recombination time of photogenerated carriers in the heterostructure may achieve ultrafast modulation of the graphene plasmon. The demonstration of the efficient all-optical mid-infrared plasmonic modulators, with chip-scale integrability and deep-sub wavelength light field confinement derived from the van der Waals heterostructures, may be an important step toward on-chip all-optical devices.

5.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052816

RESUMO

Correction for 'A silver-manganese dual co-catalyst for selective reduction of carbon dioxide into carbon monoxide over a potassium hexatitanate photocatalyst with water' by Xing Zhu et al., Chem. Commun., 2019, 55, 13514-13517.

6.
Parasite Immunol ; : e12703, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043596

RESUMO

Excretory/secretory proteins of Haemonchus contortus (HcESPs) intermingle comprehensively with host immune cells and modulate host immune responses. In this study, H contortus ES antigen named as elongation factor 1 alpha (HcEF-1α) was cloned and expressed. The influences of recombinant HcEF-1α on multiple functions of goat peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were observed in vitro. Immunoblot analysis revealed that rHcEF-1α was recognized by the serum of goat infected with H contortus. Immunofluorescence analysis indicated that rHcEF-1α was bound on surface of PBMCs. Moreover, the productions of IL-4, TGF-ß1, IFN-γ and IL-17 of cells were significantly modulated by the incubation with rHcEF-1α. The production of interleukin IL-10 was decreased. Cell migration, cell proliferation and cell apoptosis were significantly increased; however, nitric oxide production (NO) was significantly decreased. The MHC II molecule expression of cells incubated with rHcEF-1α was increased significantly, whereas MHC-I was not changed as compared to the control groups (PBS control and pET32a). These findings indicated that rHcEF-1α protein might play essential roles in functional regulations of HcESPs on goat PBMC and mediate the immune responses of the host during host-parasite relationship.

7.
Nanoscale ; 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32104821

RESUMO

Two-dimensional materials are ideal platforms for intriguing physics and optoelectronic applications because of their ultrathin thicknesses and excellent properties in optics and electronics. Further studies on enhancing the interaction between light and two-dimensional materials by combining metallic nanostructures have generated broad interests in recent years, such as enhanced photoluminescence, strong coupling and functional optoelectronics. In this work, an ultrathin circular polarimeter consisting of chiral plasmonic metasurface and monolayer semiconductor is proposed to detect light with different circular polarization within a compact device. A designed chiral plasmonic metasurface with sub-wavelength thickness is integrated with monolayer MoSe2, and the circular-polarization-dependent photocurrent responses of right and left circularly polarized light for both left- and right-handed metasurfaces are experimentally demonstrated. The photoresponse circular dichroism is also obtained, which further indicates the remarkable performance of the proposed device in detecting and distinguishing circularly polarized light. This design offers a great potential to realize multifunctional measurements in an ultrathin and ultracompact two-dimensional device for future integrated optics and optoelectronic applications with circularly polarized light.

8.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 84, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infection with the apicomplexan protozoan parasite T. gondii can cause severe and potentially fatal cerebral and ocular disease, especially in immunocompromised individuals. The anticoccidial ionophore drug monensin has been shown to have anti-Toxoplasma gondii properties. However, the comprehensive molecular mechanisms that underlie the effect of monensin on T. gondii are still largely unknown. We hypothesized that analysis of T. gondii transcriptional changes induced by monensin treatment can reveal new aspects of the mechanism of action of monensin against T. gondii. METHODS: Porcine kidney (PK)-15 cells were infected with tachyzoites of T. gondii RH strain. Three hours post-infection, PK-15 cells were treated with 0.1 µM monensin, while control cells were treated with medium only. PK-15 cells containing intracellular tachyzoites were harvested at 6 and 24 h post-treatment, and the transcriptomic profiles of T. gondii-infected PK-15 cells were examined using high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Quantitative real-time PCR was used to verify the expression of 15 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) identified by RNA-seq analysis. RESULTS: A total of 4868 downregulated genes and three upregulated genes were identified in monensin-treated T. gondii, indicating that most of T. gondii genes were suppressed by monensin. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis of T. gondii DEGs showed that T. gondii metabolic and cellular pathways were significantly downregulated. Spliceosome, ribosome, and protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum were the top three most significantly enriched pathways out of the 30 highly enriched pathways detected in T. gondii. This result suggests that monensin, via down-regulation of protein biosynthesis in T. gondii, can limit the parasite growth and proliferation. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide a comprehensive insight into T. gondii genes and pathways with altered expression following monensin treatment. These data can be further explored to achieve better understanding of the specific mechanism of action of monensin against T. gondii.

9.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 74, 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Dicrocoeliidae are digenetic trematodes mostly parasitic in the bile ducts and gall bladder of various avian and mammalian hosts. Until recently their systematics was based on morphological data only. Due to the high morphological uniformity across multiple dicrocoeliid taxa and insufficient knowledge of relative systematic value of traditionally used morphological characters, their taxonomy has always been unstable. Therefore, DNA sequence data provide a critical independent source of characters for phylogenetic inference and improvement of the system. METHODS: We examined the phylogenetic affinities of three avian dicrocoeliids representing the genera Brachylecithum, Brachydistomum and Lyperosomum, using partial sequences of the nuclear large ribosomal subunit (28S) RNA gene. We also sequenced the complete or nearly complete mitogenomes of these three isolates and conducted a comparative mitogenomic analysis with the previously available mitogenomes from three mammalian dicrocoeliids (from 2 different genera) and examined the phylogenetic position of the family Dicrocoeliidae within the order Plagiorchiida based on concatenated nucleotide sequences of all mitochondrial genes (except trnG and trnE). RESULTS: Combined nucleotide diversity, Kimura-2-parameter distance, non-synonymous/synonymous substitutions ratio and average sequence identity analyses consistently demonstrated that cox1, cytb, nad1 and two rRNAs were the most conserved and atp6, nad5, nad3 and nad2 were the most variable genes across dicrocoeliid mitogenomes. Phylogenetic analyses based on mtDNA sequences did not support the close relatedness of the Paragonimidae and Dicrocoeliidae and suggested non-monophyly of the Gorgoderoidea as currently recognized. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that fast-evolving mitochondrial genes atp6, nad5 and nad3 would be better markers than slow-evolving genes cox1 and nad1 for species discrimination and population level studies in the Dicrocoeliidae. Furthermore, the Dicrocoeliidae being outside of the clade containing other xiphidiatan trematodes suggests a need for the re-evaluation of the taxonomic content of the Xiphidiata.

10.
Exp Parasitol ; 211: 107843, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044321

RESUMO

The intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii infects approximately one-third of the world's population as well as various animals, causing toxoplasmosis. However, there remains a need to define the functions of newly identified genes of T. gondii. In the present study, a novel molecule, immune mapped protein 1 of T. gondii (TgIMP1), was devitalized by CRISPR/Cas9 system to investigate the phenotypic changes of the parasite. We found that the virulence of ΔTgIMP1 knockout strain was reduced in comparison with wild-type GT1 tachyzoites, showing a statistically decreased plaque in HFF cells and a significantly prolonged survival period of mice (P < 0.05). Moreover, the data of phenotype analyses in vitro showed a different level of the intracellular proliferation and the subsequent egress between ΔTgIMP1 and wild-type GT1 strain (P < 0.05); while no statistically significant difference was detected during the process of attachment or invasion. These results suggested that TgIMP1 is closely associated with the intracellular proliferation of this parasite.

11.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 46, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence has shown that circular RNAs (circRNAs) are involved in neurodegenerative disorders, but their roles in neurological toxoplasmosis are yet to know. This study examined miRNA and circRNA expressions in mouse brain following oral infection with T. gondii Pru strain. RESULTS: Total RNA extracted from acutely infected (11 days post infection (DPI)), chronically infected (35 DPI) and uninfected mouse brain samples were subjected to genome-wide small RNA sequencing. In the acutely infected mice, 9 circRNAs and 20 miRNAs were upregulated, whereas 67 circRNAs and 28 miRNAs were downregulated. In the chronically infected mice, 2 circRNAs and 42 miRNAs were upregulated, whereas 1 circRNA and 29 miRNAs were downregulated. Gene ontology analysis predicted that the host genes that produced the dysregulated circRNAs in the acutely infected brain were primarily involved in response to stimulus and ion binding activities. Furthermore, predictive interaction networks of circRNA-miRNA and miRNA-mRNA were constructed based on genome-wide transcriptome sequencing and computational analyses, which might suggest the putative functions of miRNAs and circRNAs as a large class of post-transcriptional regulators. CONCLUSIONS: These findings will shed light on circRNA-miRNA interactions during the pathogenesis of toxoplasmosis, and they will lay solid foundation for studying the potential regulation roles of miRNAs and circRNAs in T. gondii induced pathogenesis.

12.
J Immunol ; 204(6): 1562-1570, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996457

RESUMO

In this study, we generated a tkl1 deletion mutant in the Toxoplasma gondii type 1 RH (RHΔtkl1) strain and tested the protective efficacies of vaccination using RHΔtkl1 tachyzoites against acute, chronic, and congenital T. gondii infections in Kunming mice. Mice vaccinated with RHΔtkl1 mounted a strong humoral and cellular response as shown by elevated levels of anti-T. gondii-specific IgG, IL-2, IL-12, IFN-γ, and IL-10. All RHΔtkl1-vaccinated mice survived a lethal challenge with 1 × 103 tachyzoites of type 1 RH or ToxoDB#9 (PYS or TgC7) strain as well as 100 cysts or oocysts of Prugniuad strain. All mock-vaccinated plus infected mice have died. Vaccination also protected against cyst- or oocyst-caused chronic infection, reduced vertical transmission caused by oocysts, increased litter size, and maintained body weight of pups born to dams challenged with 10 oocysts on day 5 of gestation. In contrast, all mock-vaccinated plus oocysts-infected dams had aborted, and no fetus has survived. Vaccinated dams remained healthy postinfection, and their brain cyst burden was significantly reduced compared with mock-vaccinated dams infected with oocysts. In vivo depletion of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and B cells revealed that CD8+ T cells are involved in the protection of mice against T. gondii infection. Additionally, adoptive transfer of CD8+ T cells from RHΔtkl1-vaccinated mice significantly enhanced the survival of naive mice infected with the pathogenic strain. Together, these data reaffirm the importance of CD8+ T cell responses in future vaccine design for toxoplasmosis and present T. gondii tkl1 gene as a promising vaccine candidate.

13.
Exp Parasitol ; 211: 107828, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917163

RESUMO

Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are the most abundant leukocytes and are among the first line of immune system defense. PMNs can form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in response to some pathogens. The release of NETs plays an important role in trapping and killing invading parasites. However, the effects of NETs on parasitic trematode infections remain unclear. In the present study, water buffalo NET formation, triggered by the newly excysted juveniles (NEJs) of Fasciola gigantica, was visualized by scanning electron microscopy. The major components of the structure of NETs were characterized by immunofluorescence. Viability of flukes incubated with water buffalo PMNs were examined under light microscopy. The results revealed that F. gigantic juveniles triggered PMN-mediated NETs. These NETs were confirmed to comprise the classic characteristics of NETs: DNA, histones, myeloperoxidase and neutrophil elastase. Although NETs were formed in response to viable larvae, the larvae were not killed in vitro. These results suggest that NET formation may serve as a mechanism to hamper the migration of large larvae to facilitate immune cells to kill them. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that parasitic trematode juveniles can trigger NET formation.

14.
Infect Genet Evol ; 80: 104173, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917357

RESUMO

The phylum Acanthocephala is a small group of endoparasites occurring in the alimentary canal of all major lineages of vertebrates worldwide. In the present study, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of Cavisoma magnum (Southwell, 1927) (Palaeacanthocephala: Echinorhynchida) was determined and annotated, the representative of the family Cavisomidae with the characterization of the complete mt genome firstly decoded. The mt genome of this acanthocephalan is 13,594 bp in length, containing 36 genes plus two non-coding regions. The positions of trnV and SNCR (short non-coding region) in the mt genome of C. magnum are different comparing to those of the other acanthocephalan species available in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis based on amino acid sequences of 12 protein-coding genes using Bayesian inference (BI) supported the class Palaeacanthocephala and its included order Polymorphida to be monophyletic, but rejected monophyly of the order Echinorhynchida. Our phylogenetic results also challenged the validity of the genus Sphaerirostris (Polymorphida: Centrorhynchidae). The novel mt genomic data of C. magnum are very useful for understanding the evolutionary history of this group of parasites and establishing a natural classification of Acanthocephala.

15.
FASEB J ; 34(2): 3165-3178, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31908049

RESUMO

Dense granule protein 12 (GRA12) is implicated in a range of processes related to the establishment of Toxoplasma gondii infection, such as the formation of the intravacuolar network (IVN) within the parasitophorous vacuole (PV). This protein is also thought to be important for T. gondii-host interaction, pathogenesis, and immune evasion, but their exact roles remain unknown. In this study, the contributions of GRA12 to the molecular pathogenesis of T. gondii infection were examined in vitro and in vivo. Deletion of GRA12 in type I RH and type II Pru T. gondii strains did not affect the parasite growth and replication in vitro, however, it caused a significant reduction in the parasite virulence and tissue cyst burden in vivo. T. gondii Δgra12 mutants were more vulnerable to be eliminated by host immunity, without the accumulation of immunity-related GTPase a6 (Irga6) onto the PV membrane. The ultrastructure of IVN in Δgra12 mutants appeared normal, suggesting that GRA12 is not required for biogenesis of the IVN. Combined deletion of GRA12 and ROP18 induced more severe attenuation of virulence compared to single Δgra12 or Δrop18 mutant strains. These data suggest a functional association between GRA12 and ROP18 that is revealed by the severe attenuation of virulence in a double mutant relative to the single individual mutations. Future studies are needed to define the molecular basis of this putative association. Collectively these findings indicate that although GRA12 is not essential for the parasite growth and replication in vitro, it contributes to the virulence and growth of T. gondii in mice.

16.
Parasitol Int ; 75: 102001, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678435

RESUMO

Cooperia spp. are parasitic nematodes parasitizing in small intestine of ruminants with a worldwide distribution. Infection of ruminants with Cooperia species can cause severe enteritis, causing significant socio-economic losses to the livestock industry. However, it is yet to know whether there is genetic diversity in mitochondrial (mt) DNA sequences of Cooperia nematodes from different geographic regions. The objective of the present study was to examine sequence difference in mt genomes between Cooperia sp. from China and other Cooperia species. We determined the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of 11 Cooperia specimens collected from the small intestine of a Tianzhu White yak in Gansu Province, northwestern China, which had 99% similarity with that of C. oncophora from Brazil (GenBank accession Number: AJ544290) in ITS-1, and 99% similarity with those from Denmark (AB245040), Scotland and Australia (AJ000032) in ITS-2, indicating that specimens used in the present study should at least represent parasites in Cooperia. We then determined the complete mt genome sequences of one representative specimen of Cooperia sp. from China (CspC), compared the mt DNA sequences with that of C. oncophora from Australia (COA, GQ888713), and conducted phylogenetic analysis with selected nematodes using both maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) methods based on both concatenated 12 PCGs, rrnL and rrnS sequences and partial cox2 sequences. The complete mt genome sequence of CspC (KY769271) is 13, 583 bp in length, which is 91 bp shorter than that from COA. The sequence difference over the entire mt genome between CspC and COA was 12.2% in nucleotide and 6.3% in inferred amino acids, with nad4L and nad1 being the most variable and the most conserved PCGs, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CspC and COA were closely-related but distinct taxa. The determination of mt genome sequences for Cooperia sp. from China also provides novel resources for further studies of taxonomy, systematics and population genetics of Cooperia from different geographical locations.

17.
Parasitol Res ; 119(1): 321-326, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31788771

RESUMO

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is an opportunistic enteric pathogen which can infect a wide range of animal species and humans. It is the most diagnosed species of Microsporidia in humans and has an impact on public health. Many infected animals including foxes may be a potential source for transmitting E. bieneusi to humans. However, limited information is available on the E. bieneusi prevalence and genotypes in farmed foxes in China. Therefore, in the present study, 344 fresh fecal samples were collected from farmed foxes (Vulpes vulpes and Vulpes lagopus) in Shandong Province, and the prevalence and genotypes of E. bieneusi were examined based on sequence analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. The overall E. bieneusi prevalence was 9% (31/344); of them, 6.5% (9/138) in farmed silver foxes (V. vulpes) and 10.7% (22/206) in farmed arctic foxes (V. lagopus). Moreover, four known (Hum-q1, NCF2, HND-1, and Type IV) and two novel E. bieneusi genotypes (SDF1 and SDF2) were identified in farmed foxes in the present study. All of the E. bieneusi genotypes belonged to the zoonotic group based on phylogenetic analysis. In addition, 2, 4, 0, and 11 samples were successfully amplified at MS1, MS3, MS4, and MS7 loci, respectively. The present study reveals E. bieneusi prevalence and genotype distribution in farmed foxes in Shandong Province and enlarged the host and geographic information of E. bieneusi in China.

18.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(1): 29-32, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538409

RESUMO

Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite which can infect many mammals and birds with a worldwide distribution. However, no molecular data are available about the occurrence of N. caninum in pigs. In this study, the serological and molecular prevalence of N. caninum infection in farmed pigs were investigated in Hunan province, China, between January 2017 and December 2018. A total of 1,500 serum samples collected from 10 herds in Hunan province were evaluated using a competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunoassay assay (cELISA). The overall seroprevalence of N. caninum in the examined pigs was 1.9%. The seroprevalence of N. caninum ranged from 0.3% to 4.6% among different regions in Hunan province of China (p < .05). DNA was extracted from brain samples, and the Nc-5 gene and ITS-1 region were amplified and then sequenced. Three (0.5%) of the examined 600 brain tissues were found to contain N. caninum DNA. Our phylogenetic analyses indicated that N. caninum samples were classified into two distinct groups. Although the prevalence is low within the pig groups investigated, our results revealed the emergence of N. caninum infection in pigs in China. The finding of the present study provides molecular evidence that the pigs are the natural intermediate host of N. caninum and may have major epidemiological importance.

19.
ChemSusChem ; 13(4): 663-667, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802645

RESUMO

The solid-solid (immobilized cellulase-insoluble cellulose) phase cellulose hydrolysis reaction is significant in cellulosic biomass conversion processes but hindered because of its low efficiency. Herein, a smart temperature-pH dual-responsive material (D-N-N material) was prepared to be used as a carrier for cellulase recovery. This D-N-N material could undergo reversible and switchable transitions between solution, hydrogel, and solid phases. The following results were demonstrated: 1) the hydrolytic degree of this strategy could be as high as that of free cellulase in buffer solution; 2) the cellulase could be encapsulated into the D-N-N hydrogel without significant leaching and most of the cellulase activity was retained after recycling for at least 10 batches; and 3) more than 95 % of the glucose inside the hydrogel could be extracted during the hydrogel-solid transition within 1 h, which can assist in the high-efficiency separation of cellulase from glucose. The results suggested that this strategy provides a feasible platform for efficient cellulose hydrolysis and could be applied to other bio-derived reactions.

20.
Environ Pollut ; 257: 113583, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780361

RESUMO

In recent years, numerous studies paid more attention to the molecular mechanisms associated with fluoride toxicity. However, the detailed mechanisms of fluoride immunotoxicity in bovine neutrophils remain unclear. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is a novel immune mechanism of neutrophils. We hypothesized that sodium fluoride (NaF) can trigger NETs activation and release, and investigate the related molecular mechanisms during the process. We exposed peripheral blood neutrophils to 1 mM NaF for 120 min in bovine neutrophils. The results showed that NaF exposure triggered NET-like structures decorated with histones and granule proteins. Quantitative measurement of NETs content correlated positively with the concentration of NaF. Mechanistically, NaF exposure increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and phosphorylation levels of ERK, p38, whereas inhibiting the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) compared with control neutrophils. NETs formation is induced by NaF and this effect was inhibited by the inhibitors diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI), U0126 and SB202190. Our findings described the potential importance of NaF-triggered NETs related molecules, which might help to extend the current understanding of NaF immunotoxicity.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA