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1.
Funct Plant Biol ; 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34813419

RESUMO

Traditional soybean (Glycine max L.) breeding has improved seed yield in high-input agricultural systems, under high nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) supply. The seed yield improvements under non-P supply and the seed protein and mineral content dilution by yield improvement were evaluated in 18 soybean cultivars released from 1995 to 2016 in south-east China. Soybean varieties were grown under rainfed conditions in the field under 0 and 35kgPha-1 in four sites: Dafang and Shiqian in the growing season of 2017 and Dafang and Puding in the 2018 season. The seed yield, seed protein content and nine seed nutrition concentration were examined. Soybean seed yield increased with the year of release at rates of 5.5-6.7gm-2year-1 under 35kgPha-1 and 3.9-4.8gm-2year-1 under non-P supply in the four experiments. The increase resulted from increases in the number of filled-pods and total seed number rather than from single seed weight and number of seeds per pod. Seed protein content and seed nutrition concentration has not changed with the year of release under 0 and 35kgPha-1. Grain yield was positively correlated with the seed Fe concentration. The cultivar superiority of seed yield, seed P, Zn and Ca concentration was negatively correlated with their static stability coefficient. Traditional soybean breeding increased yield under both P and non-P supply, without affecting seed protein content and mineral concentrations. A trade-off between high seed yield and seed P, Zn and Ca concentration and their stability under different environments was shown.

2.
Nat Prod Bioprospect ; 11(6): 659-670, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750765

RESUMO

Flavonoid glycoside scutellarin (SCU) has been widely applied in the treatment of cerebral ischemic diseases in China. In this article, we conducted research on the working mechanisms of SCU in hypoxia reoxygenation (HR) injury of isolated cerebral basilar artery (BA) and erebral ischemia reperfusion (CIR) injury in rat models. In isolated rat BA rings, HR causes endothelial dysfunction (ED) and acetylcholine (ACh) induces endothelium-dependent vasodilation. The myography result showed that SCU (100 µM) was able to significantly improve the endothelium-dependent vasodilation induced by Ach. However, SCU did not affect the ACh-induced relaxation in normal BA. Further studies suggested that SCU (10-1000 µM) dose-dependently induced relaxation in isolated BA rings which were significantly blocked by the cGMP dependent protein kinase (PKG) inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cGMPs (PKGI-rp, 4 µM). Pre-incubation with SCU (500 µM) reversed the impairment of endothelium-dependent vasodilation induced by HR, but the reversing effect was blocked if PKGI-rp (4 µM) was added. The brain slice staining test in rats' model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) induced CIR proved that the administration of SCU (45, 90 mg/kg, iv) significantly reduced the area of cerebral infarction. The Western blot assay result showed that SCU (45 mg/kg, iv) increased brain PKG activity and PKG protein level after CIR surgery. In conclusion, our findings suggested that SCU possesses the ability of protecting brain cells against CIR injury through vascular endothelium protection and PKG signal.

3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(46)2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34772807

RESUMO

Chronic infection with liver flukes (such as Clonorchis sinensis) can induce severe biliary injuries, which can cause cholangitis, biliary fibrosis, and even cholangiocarcinoma. The release of extracellular vesicles by C. sinensis (CsEVs) is of importance in the long-distance communication between the hosts and worms. However, the biological effects of EVs from liver fluke on biliary injuries and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly characterized. In the present study, we found that CsEVs induced M1-like activation. In addition, the mice that were administrated with CsEVs showed severe biliary injuries associated with remarkable activation of M1-like macrophages. We further characterized the signatures of miRNAs packaged in CsEVs and identified a miRNA Csi-let-7a-5p, which was highly enriched. Further study showed that Csi-let-7a-5p facilitated the activation of M1-like macrophages by targeting Socs1 and Clec7a; however, CsEVs with silencing Csi-let-7a-5p showed a decrease in proinflammatory responses and biliary injuries, which involved in the Socs1- and Clec7a-regulated NF-κB signaling pathway. Our study demonstrates that Csi-let-7a-5p delivered by CsEVs plays a critical role in the activation of M1-like macrophages and contributes to the biliary injuries by targeting the Socs1- and Clec7a-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway, which indicates a mechanism contributing to biliary injuries caused by fluke infection. However, molecules other than Csi-let-7a-5p from CsEVs that may also promote M1-like polarization and exacerbate biliary injuries are not excluded.

4.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(11)2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this study, we hypothesize that the ability of the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii to modulate immune response within the tumor might improve the therapeutic effect of immune checkpoint blockade. We examined the synergetic therapeutic activity of attenuated T. gondii RH ΔGRA17 strain and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) treatment on both targeted and distal tumors in mice. METHODS: The effects of administration of T. gondii RH ΔGRA17 strain on the tumor volume and survival rate of mice bearing flank B16-F10, MC38, or LLC tumors were studied. We characterized the effects of ΔGRA17 on tumor biomarkers' expression, PD-L1 expression, immune cells infiltrating the tumors, and expression of immune-related genes by using immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, NanoString platform, and real-time quantitative PCR, respectively. The role of immune cells in the efficacy of ΔGRA17 plus PD-L1 blockade therapy was determined via depletion of immune cell subtypes. RESULTS: Treatment with T. gondii ΔGRA17 tachyzoites and anti-PD-L1 therapy significantly extended the survival of mice and suppressed tumor growth in preclinical mouse models of melanoma, Lewis lung carcinoma, and colon adenocarcinoma. Attenuation of the tumor growth was detected in the injected and distant tumors, which was associated with upregulation of innate and adaptive immune pathways. Complete regression of tumors was underpinned by late interferon-gamma-producing CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. CONCLUSION: The results from these models indicate that intratumoral injection of ΔGRA17 induced a systemic effect, improved mouse immune response, and sensitized immunologically 'cold' tumors and rendered them sensitive to immune checkpoint blockade therapy.

5.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(11)2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34827747

RESUMO

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is a fungus-like protist parasite that can cause diarrhea and enteric diseases. The infection of E. bieneusi has been reported in many host species, including cattle and humans. However, information on prevalence and genotype distribution of E. bieneusi in dairy cattle in Yunnan province in China is still absent. In this study, 490 Holstein Cows and 351 dairy buffalo fecal samples were collected from three regions in Yunnan province, China. By using nest-PCR that targets the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), we found that the prevalence of E. bieneusi was 0.59% (5/841). DNA sequence analysis showed that five E. bieneusi genotypes were identified in this study, including two novel genotypes, YNDCEB-90 and YNDCEB-174, and three known genotypes (I, J, BEB4). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that two novel genotypes, YNDCEB-90 and YNDCEB-174, were clustered into Group 1, representing the zoonotic potential. The remaining genotypes I, J, and BEB4, which are the most frequent genotypes of E. bieneusi infection in cattle and lead to E. bieneusi infection in humans, belonged to Group 2. Although the lower prevalence of E. bieneusi was detected in dairy cattle in Yunnan province, it indicates that dairy cattle should be considered to be one of the potential hosts for transmitting E. bieneusi to humans. These findings are important for the development of effective prevention strategies for microsporidiosis.

6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(10): e0009750, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610021

RESUMO

Fasciola gigantica and Fasciola hepatica are causative pathogens of fascioliasis, with the widest latitudinal, longitudinal, and altitudinal distribution; however, among parasites, they have the largest sequenced genomes, hindering genomic research. In the present study, we used various sequencing and assembly technologies to generate a new high-quality Fasciola gigantica reference genome. We improved the integration of gene structure prediction, and identified two independent transposable element expansion events contributing to (1) the speciation between Fasciola and Fasciolopsis during the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary mass extinction, and (2) the habitat switch to the liver during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, accompanied by gene length increment. Long interspersed element (LINE) duplication contributed to the second transposon-mediated alteration, showing an obvious trend of insertion into gene regions, regardless of strong purifying effect. Gene ontology analysis of genes with long LINE insertions identified membrane-associated and vesicle secretion process proteins, further implicating the functional alteration of the gene network. We identified 852 predicted excretory/secretory proteins and 3300 protein-protein interactions between Fasciola gigantica and its host. Among them, copper/zinc superoxide dismutase genes, with specific gene copy number variations, might play a central role in the phase I detoxification process. Analysis of 559 single-copy orthologs suggested that Fasciola gigantica and Fasciola hepatica diverged at 11.8 Ma near the Middle and Late Miocene Epoch boundary. We identified 98 rapidly evolving gene families, including actin and aquaporin, which might explain the large body size and the parasitic adaptive character resulting in these liver flukes becoming epidemic in tropical and subtropical regions.

7.
Microb Pathog ; 161(Pt A): 105240, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655729

RESUMO

In this study, the differences in the phosphoproteomic landscape of sporulated oocysts between virulent and avirulent strains of Toxoplasma gondii were examined using a global phosphoproteomics approach. Phosphopeptides from sporulated oocysts of the virulent PYS strain (Chinese ToxoDB#9) and the avirulent PRU strain (type II) were enriched by titanium dioxide (TiO2) affinity chromatography and quantified using IBT approach. A total of 10,645 unique phosphopeptides, 8181 nonredundant phosphorylation sites and 2792 phosphoproteins were identified. We also detected 4129 differentially expressed phosphopeptides (DEPs) between sporulated oocysts of PYS strain and PRU strain (|log1.5 fold change| > 1 and p < 0.05), including 2485 upregulated and 1644 downregulated phosphopeptides. Motif analysis identified 24 motifs from the upregulated phosphorylated peptides including 22 serine motifs and two threonine motifs (TPE and TP), and 15 motifs from the downregulated phosphorylated peptides including 12 serine motifs and three threonine motifs (TP, RxxT and KxxT) in PYS strain when comparing PYS strain to PRU strain. Several kinases were consistent with motifs of overrepresented phosphopeptides, such as PKA, PKG, CKII, IKK, MAPK, EGFR, INSR, Jak, Syk, Src, Ab1. GO enrichment, KEGG pathway analysis and STRING analysis revealed DEPs significantly enriched in many biological processes and pathways. Kinase related network analysis showed that AGC kinase was the most connected kinase peptide. Our findings reveal significant difference in phosphopeptide profiles of sporulated oocysts between virulent and avirulent T. gondii strains, providing new resources for further elucidation of the mechanisms underpinning the virulence of T. gondii.

8.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 703059, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531837

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, which has a worldwide distribution and can infect a large number of warm-blooded animals and humans. T. gondii must colonize and proliferate inside the host cells in order to maintain its own survival by securing essential nutrients for the development of the newly generated tachyzoites. The type II fatty acid biosynthesis pathway (FASII) in the apicoplast is essential for the growth and survival of T. gondii. We investigated whether deletion of genes in the FASII pathway influences the in vitro growth and in vivo virulence of T. gondii. We focused on beta-hydroxyacyl-acyl carrier protein dehydratase (FabZ) and oxidoreductase, short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family proteins ODSCI and ODSCII. We constructed T. gondii strains deficient in FabZ, ODSCI, and ODSCII using CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing technology. The results of immunofluorescence assay, plaque assay, proliferation assay and egress assay showed that in RHΔFabZ strain the apicoplast was partly lost and the growth ability of the parasite in vitro was significantly inhibited, while for RHΔODSCI and RHΔODSCII mutant strains no similar changes were detected. RHΔFabZ exhibited reduced virulence for mice compared with RHΔODSCI and RHΔODSCII, as shown by the improved survival rate. Deletion of FabZ in the PRU strain significantly decreased the brain cyst burden in mice compared with PRUΔODSCI and PRUΔODSCII. Collectively, these findings suggest that FabZ contributes to the growth and virulence of T. gondii, while ODSCI and ODSCII do not contribute to these traits.

9.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 16(1): 146, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542720

RESUMO

Due to their excellent mechanical properties and good biocompatibility, titanium alloys have become a popular research topic in the field of medical metal implants. However, the surface of the titanium alloy does not exhibit biological activity, which may cause poor integration between the interface of the titanium implant and the interface of the bone tissue and subsequently may cause the implant to fall off. Therefore, surface biological inertness is one of the problems that titanium alloys must overcome to become an ideal orthopedic implant material. Surface modification can improve the biological properties of titanium, thereby enhancing its osseointegration effect. Copper is an essential trace element for the human body, can promote bone formation and plays an important role in maintaining the physiological structure and function of bone and bone growth and development. In this study, a microporous copper-titanium dioxide coating was prepared on the surface of titanium by microarc oxidation. Based on the evaluation of its surface characteristics, the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells were observed. A titanium rod was implanted into the rabbit femoral condyle, and the integration of the coating and bone tissue was evaluated. Our research results show that the microporous copper-titanium dioxide coating has a nearly three-dimensional porous structure, and copper is incorporated into the coating without changing the structure of the coating. In vitro experiments found that the coating can promote the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. In vivo experiments further confirmed that the titanium copper-titanium dioxide microporous coating can promote the osseointegration of titanium implants. In conclusion, copper-titanium dioxide microporous coatings can be prepared by microarc oxidation, which can improve the biological activity and biocompatibility of titanium, promote new bone formation and demonstrate good osteoinductive properties. Therefore, the use of this coating in orthopedics has potential clinical application.

10.
Pathogens ; 10(9)2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578141

RESUMO

Giardia duodenalis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Cryptosporidium spp. are common enteric pathogens that reside in the intestines of humans and animals. These pathogens have a broad host range and worldwide distribution, but are mostly known for their ability to cause diarrhea. However, very limited information on prevalence and genotypes of G. duodenalis, E. bieneusi and Cryptosporidium spp. in pet dogs and cats are available in China. In the present study, a total of 433 fecal samples were collected from 262 pet dogs and 171 pet cats in Yunnan province, southwestern China, and the prevalence and the genotypes of G. duodenalis, E. bieneusi and Cryptosporidium spp. were investigated by nested PCR amplification and DNA sequencing. The prevalence of G. duodenalis, E. bieneusi and Cryptosporidium spp. was 13.7% (36/262), 8.0% (21/262), and 4.6% (12/262) in dogs, and 1.2% (2/171), 2.3% (4/171) and 0.6% (1/171) in cats, respectively. The different living conditions of dogs is a risk factor that is related with the prevalence of G. duodenalis and E. bieneusi (p < 0.05). However, there were no statistically significant difference in prevalence of three pathogens in cats. DNA sequencing and analyses showed that four E. bieneusi genotypes (PtEb IX, CD9, DgEb I and DgEb II), one Cryptosporidium spp. (C. canis) and two G. duodenalis assemblages (C and D) were identified in dogs; two E. bieneusi genotypes (Type IV and CtEb I), one Cryptosporidium spp. (C. felis) and one G. duodenalis assemblage (F) were identified in cats. Three novel E. bieneusi genotypes (DgEb I, DgEb II and CtEb I) were identified, and the human-pathogenic genotypes/species Type IV C. canis and C. felis were also observed in this study, indicating a potential zoonotic threat of pet dogs and cats. Our results revealed the prevalence and genetic diversity of G. duodenalis, E. bieneusi and Cryptosporidium spp. infection in pet dogs and cats in Yunnan province, southwestern China, and suggested the potential threat of pet dogs and cats to public health.

11.
Pathogens ; 10(9)2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578221

RESUMO

Blastocystis sp. is a common pathogen that infects the intestines of humans and animals, causing a threat to public health. However, little information on the prevalence and subtypes of Blastocystis sp. in diarrheic pigs in China is available. Herein, 1254 fecal samples were collected from diarrheic pigs in 37 intensive pig farms in Hunan, Jiangxi, and Fujian provinces in southern China, and the prevalence and subtypes of Blastocystis sp. were investigated. Blastocystis sp. was detected by PCR assay, which amplified the small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene. Overall prevalence of Blastocystis sp. was 31.4% (394/1254), including 21.5% (66/307), 33.1% (99/299), 58.9% (56/95), and 31.3% (173/553) in suckling piglets, weaned piglets, fattening pigs, and sows, respectively. Moreover, age and region factors were significantly related to prevalence of Blastocystis sp. (p < 0.05). Four Blastocystis sp. subtypes were identified, including ST1, ST3, ST5, and ST14. The preponderant subtype was ST5 (76.9%, 303/394). To our knowledge, ST14 was firstly found in pigs in China. The human-pathogenic subtypes (ST1, ST3, ST5, and ST14) that were observed in this study indicate a potential threat to public health. These findings provided a new sight for studying the genetic structure of Blastocystis sp.

12.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 732790, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34539413

RESUMO

Interleukin-38 (IL-38), a new cytokine of interleukin-1 family (IL-1F), is expressed in the human heart, kidney, skin, etc. Recently, new evidence indicated that IL-38 is involved in the process of different autoimmune diseases. Autoimmune diseases are a cluster of diseases accompanied with tissue damage caused by autoimmune reactions, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriasis, etc. This review summarized the links between IL-38 and autoimmune diseases, as well as the latest knowledge about the function and regulatory mechanism of IL-38 in autoimmune diseases. Especially, this review focused on the differentiation of immune cells and explore future prospects, such as the application of IL-38 in new technologies. Understanding the function of IL-38 is helpful to shed light on the progress of autoimmune diseases.

13.
Parasitol Res ; 120(11): 3749-3759, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499198

RESUMO

Fatty acid uptake is extremely important for the survival and growth of the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. In this study, CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing technology was used to investigate the role of four lipid synthesis enzymes, namely, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), malonyl CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase (FabD), acyl-ACP thiolesterase (TE), and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), in the virulence and infectivity of Type I RH and Type II Prugniaud (Pru) strains of T. gondii. Immunofluorescence analysis of the tachyzoite stage showed that FabD protein was located in the apicoplast; however, the expression level of the other three proteins was undetectable. Compared with wild-type (WT) strains, the growth of RHΔG3PDH, RHΔTE, and RHΔDGAT in vitro and their virulence in vivo were not significantly different. However, RHΔFabD exhibited a significantly reduced growth rate, compared with the WT strain. The deletion of FabD attenuated the virulence of Type II Pru strain and reduced the formation of cysts in vivo. These data improved our understanding of the role of lipid synthesis enzymes in the pathogenesis of T. gondii.


Assuntos
Parasitos , Toxoplasma , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Ácidos Graxos , Parasitos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasma/metabolismo , Virulência
14.
J Biol Chem ; 297(4): 101187, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520757

RESUMO

The human AAA+ ATPase p97, also known as valosin-containing protein, a potential target for cancer therapeutics, plays a vital role in the clearing of misfolded proteins. p97 dysfunction is also known to play a crucial role in several neurodegenerative disorders, such as MultiSystem Proteinopathy 1 (MSP-1) and Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). However, the structural basis of its role in such diseases remains elusive. Here, we present cryo-EM structural analyses of four disease mutants p97R155H, p97R191Q, p97A232E, p97D592N, as well as p97E470D, implicated in resistance to the drug CB-5083, a potent p97 inhibitor. Our cryo-EM structures demonstrate that these mutations affect nucleotide-driven allosteric activation across the three principal p97 domains (N, D1, and D2) by predominantly interfering with either (1) the coupling between the D1 and N-terminal domains (p97R155H and p97R191Q), (2) the interprotomer interactions (p97A232E), or (3) the coupling between D1 and D2 nucleotide domains (p97D592N, p97E470D). We also show that binding of the competitive inhibitor, CB-5083, to the D2 domain prevents conformational changes similar to those seen for mutations that affect coupling between the D1 and D2 domains. Our studies enable tracing of the path of allosteric activation across p97 and establish a common mechanistic link between active site inhibition and defects in allosteric activation by disease-causing mutations and have potential implications for the design of novel allosteric compounds that can modulate p97 function.


Assuntos
Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Proteína com Valosina/química , Regulação Alostérica , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Humanos , Domínios Proteicos , Proteína com Valosina/genética , Proteína com Valosina/metabolismo
15.
Genome Biol ; 22(1): 230, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biomolecular condensates have been implicated in multiple cellular processes. However, the global role played by condensates in 3D chromatin organization remains unclear. At present, 1,6-hexanediol (1,6-HD) is the only available tool to globally disrupt condensates, yet the conditions of 1,6-HD vary considerably between studies and may even trigger apoptosis. RESULTS: In this study, we first analyzed the effects of different concentrations and treatment durations of 1,6-HD and found that short-term exposure to 1.5% 1,6-HD dissolved biomolecular condensates whereas long-term exposure caused aberrant aggregation without affecting cell viability. Based on this condition, we drew a time-resolved map of 3D chromatin organization and found that short-term treatment with 1.5% 1,6-HD resulted in reduced long-range interactions, strengthened compartmentalization, homogenized A-A interactions, B-to-A compartment switch and TAD reorganization, whereas longer exposure had the opposite effects. Furthermore, the long-range interactions between condensate-component-enriched regions were markedly weakened following 1,6-HD treatment. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our study finds a proper 1,6-HD condition and provides a resource for exploring the role of biomolecular condensates in 3D chromatin organization.

16.
Exp Neurol ; 345: 113828, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343528

RESUMO

Inflammation and cell death play important roles in the pathogenesis of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD). Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) triggers the activation of the inflammatory pathway. Ferroptosis, a newly identified type of regulated cell death, is implicated in various diseases involving neuronal injury. However, the role of ferroptosis in HIBD has not been elucidated. The objectives of this study were to explore the function and mechanism of TLR4 in neuronal ferroptosis in the context of HIBD. A neonatal rat model of hypoxia-ischemia (HI) and a cell model of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) were employed. TAK-242, a TLR4-specific antagonist, was used to evaluate the effect of TLR4 on neuronal ferroptosis in vivo. A TAK-242 inhibitor and a p38 inhibitor (SB203580) were administered to HT22 hippocampal neurons to explore the association between TLR4 in inflammation and ferroptosis in vitro. The effects of TLR4 on ferroptosis were assessed by the Western blot, real-time PCR, immunofluorescence staining, cell viability and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) assays. HI insult significantly upregulated the TLR4, increased the p53 level, reduced the SLC7A11 and GPX4 levels, and caused mitochondrial damage, thereby inducing neuronal ferroptosis in the hippocampus. Inhibition of TLR4 inhibited the expression of ferroptosis-related proteins, decreased the expression of ferroptosis-related genes and the proinflammatory milieu, attenuated oxidative stress and mitochondrial injury and, finally, ameliorated the activation of hippocampal neuronal ferroptosis following HIBD. Consistent with the results of these in vivo experiments, TLR4 inhibition also attenuated OGD-induced ferroptosis by suppressing oxidative stress and p38MAPK signaling, ultimately increasing neuronal cell viability. Finally, the in vitro and in vivo results demonstrated that TAK-242 exerted neuroprotective and antiferroptotic effects by suppressing TLR4-p38 MAPK signaling. TLR4 activation induced neuronal ferroptosis following both HIBD and OGD. Inhibition of TLR4 attenuated oxidative stress-induced damage, decreased the activation of ferroptosis, and attenuated neuroinflammation following HIBD. In this study, we demonstrated that the inhibition of TLR4-p38 MAPK signaling modulates HIBD- or OGD-induced ferroptosis in neuronal cells and may play a novel role in brain homeostasis.

17.
Microorganisms ; 9(8)2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34442722

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis, caused by the intracellular protozoon Toxoplasma gondii, is a significant parasitic zoonosis with a world-wide distribution. As a main transmission route, human infection can be acquired by the ingestion of T. gondii oocysts from the environment (e.g., soil, water, fruits and vegetables). Regarding the detection of T. gondii oocysts in environmental samples, the development of a time-saving, cost-effective and highly sensitive technique is crucial for the surveillance, prevention and control of toxoplasmosis. In this study, we developed a new method by combining recombinase-aided amplification (RAA) with CRISPR-Cas12a, designated as the RAA-Cas12a-Tg system. Here, we compared this system targeting the 529 bp repeat element (529 bp-RE) with the routine PCR targeting both 529 bp-RE and ITS-1 gene, respectively, to assess its ability to detect T. gondii oocysts in soil samples. Our results indicated that the 529 bp RE-based RAA-Cas12a-Tg system was able to detect T. gondii successfully in nearly an hour at body temperature and was more sensitive than the routine PCR assay. The sensitivity of this system reached as low as 1 fM with high specificity. Thus, RAA-Cas12a-Tg system provided a rapid, sensitive and easily operable method for point-of-care detection of T. gondii oocysts in soil, which will facilitate the control of T. gondii infection in humans and animals.

18.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 1004, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429506

RESUMO

Taenia hydatigena is a widespread gastrointestinal helminth that causes significant health problems in livestock industry. This parasite can survive in a remarkably wide range of intermediate hosts and affects the transmission dynamics of zoonotic parasites. T. hydatigena is therefore of particular interest to researchers interested in studying zoonotic diseases and the evolutionary strategies of parasites. Herein we report a high-quality draft genome for this tapeworm, characterized by some hallmarks (e.g., expanded genome size, wide integrations of viral-like sequences and extensive alternative splicing during development), and specialized adaptations related to its parasitic fitness (e.g., adaptive evolutions for teguments and lipid metabolism). Importantly, in contrast with the evolutionarily close trematodes, which achieve gene diversification associated with immunosuppression by gene family expansions, in T. hydatigena and other cestodes, this is accomplished by alternative splicing and gene loss. This indicates that these two classes have evolved different mechanisms for survival. In addition, molecular targets for diagnosis and intervention were identified to facilitate the development of control interventions. Overall, this work uncovers new strategies by which helminths evolved to interact with their hosts.

19.
Front Immunol ; 12: 681242, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34367142

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite capable of establishing persistent infection within the host brain and inducing severe neuropathology. Peptides are important native molecules responsible for a wide range of biological functions within the central nervous system. However, peptidome profiling in host brain during T. gondii infection has never been investigated. Using a label-free peptidomics approach (LC-MS/MS), we identified a total of 2,735 endogenous peptides from acutely infected, chronically infected and control brain samples following T. gondii infection. Quantitative analysis revealed 478 and 344 significantly differentially expressed peptides (DEPs) in the acute and chronic infection stages, respectively. Functional analysis of DEPs by Gene Ontology suggested these DEPs mainly originated from cell part and took part in cellular process. We also identified three novel neuropeptides derived from the precursor protein cholecystokinin. These results demonstrated the usefulness of quantitative peptidomics in determining bioactive peptides and elucidating their functions in the regulation of behavior modification during T. gondii infection.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/parasitologia , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Proteômica , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Cerebral/metabolismo , Toxoplasmose Cerebral/parasitologia , Animais , Encéfalo/patologia , Cromatografia Líquida , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Imuno-Histoquímica , Camundongos , Proteômica/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Toxoplasmose Animal , Toxoplasmose Cerebral/patologia
20.
ACS Omega ; 6(26): 17103-17112, 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34250367

RESUMO

Novel highly stereoselective syntheses of (+)-streptol and (-)-1-epi-streptol starting from naturally abundant (-)-shikimic acid were described in this article. (-)-Shikimic acid was first converted to the common key intermediate by 11 steps in 40% yield. It was then converted to (+)-streptol by three steps in 72% yield, and it was also converted to (-)-1-epi-streptol by one step in 90% yield. In summary, (+)-streptol and (-)-1-epi-streptol were synthesized from (-)-shikimic acid by 14 and 12 steps in 29 and 36% overall yields, respectively.

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