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1.
Parasitol Res ; 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31788771

RESUMO

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is an opportunistic enteric pathogen which can infect a wide range of animal species and humans. It is the most diagnosed species of Microsporidia in humans and has an impact on public health. Many infected animals including foxes may be a potential source for transmitting E. bieneusi to humans. However, limited information is available on the E. bieneusi prevalence and genotypes in farmed foxes in China. Therefore, in the present study, 344 fresh fecal samples were collected from farmed foxes (Vulpes vulpes and Vulpes lagopus) in Shandong Province, and the prevalence and genotypes of E. bieneusi were examined based on sequence analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. The overall E. bieneusi prevalence was 9% (31/344); of them, 6.5% (9/138) in farmed silver foxes (V. vulpes) and 10.7% (22/206) in farmed arctic foxes (V. lagopus). Moreover, four known (Hum-q1, NCF2, HND-1, and Type IV) and two novel E. bieneusi genotypes (SDF1 and SDF2) were identified in farmed foxes in the present study. All of the E. bieneusi genotypes belonged to the zoonotic group based on phylogenetic analysis. In addition, 2, 4, 0, and 11 samples were successfully amplified at MS1, MS3, MS4, and MS7 loci, respectively. The present study reveals E. bieneusi prevalence and genotype distribution in farmed foxes in Shandong Province and enlarged the host and geographic information of E. bieneusi in China.

2.
Parasitol Res ; 118(12): 3371-3375, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705288

RESUMO

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is a single-celled obligate pathogen that seriously threatens animal and public health. However, information on the prevalence and genotypes of E. bieneusi in alpacas in China is limited. In the present study, 366 fresh fecal samples from alpacas in Shanxi Province, northern China, were collected to detect E. bieneusi by nested PCR amplification of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA). The overall prevalence of E. bieneusi in alpacas was 4.4% (16/366), including 3.9% (12/305) in Yangqu County and 6.6% (4/61) in Dai county, respectively. Four known genotypes were identified, namely ALP1, ALP3, P, and SH11, all of which belong to the zoonotic group 1 by phylogenetic analysis. Moreover, ITS-positive samples were further characterized by PCR amplification of other four targets, including three microsatellites (MS1, MS3, and MS7) and one minisatellite (MS4). Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) showed that 5, 2, 3, and 3 types were identified at MS1, MS3, MS7, and MS4 loci, respectively, representing eight multilocus genotypes (MLGs). These findings contribute to the improved understanding of the prevalence and genotypes of E. bieneusi in alpacas in China and have important implications for controlling E. bieneusi infections in animals and humans.

3.
Parasitol Int ; 75: 102001, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678435

RESUMO

Cooperia spp. are parasitic nematodes parasitizing in small intestine of ruminants with a worldwide distribution. Infection of ruminants with Cooperia species can cause severe enteritis, causing significant socio-economic losses to the livestock industry. However, it is yet to know whether there is genetic diversity in mitochondrial (mt) DNA sequences of Cooperia nematodes from different geographic regions. The objective of the present study was to examine sequence difference in mt genomes between Cooperia sp. from China and other Cooperia species. We determined the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of 11 Cooperia specimens collected from the small intestine of a Tianzhu White yak in Gansu Province, northwestern China, which had 99% similarity with that of C. oncophora from Brazil (GenBank accession Number: AJ544290) in ITS-1, and 99% similarity with those from Denmark (AB245040), Scotland and Australia (AJ000032) in ITS-2, indicating that specimens used in the present study should at least represent parasites in Cooperia. We then determined the complete mt genome sequences of one representative specimen of Cooperia sp. from China (CspC), compared the mt DNA sequences with that of C. oncophora from Australia (COA, GQ888713), and conducted phylogenetic analysis with selected nematodes using both maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) methods based on both concatenated 12 PCGs, rrnL and rrnS sequences and partial cox2 sequences. The complete mt genome sequence of CspC (KY769271) is 13, 583 bp in length, which is 91 bp shorter than that from COA. The sequence difference over the entire mt genome between CspC and COA was 12.2% in nucleotide and 6.3% in inferred amino acids, with nad4L and nad1 being the most variable and the most conserved PCGs, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CspC and COA were closely-related but distinct taxa. The determination of mt genome sequences for Cooperia sp. from China also provides novel resources for further studies of taxonomy, systematics and population genetics of Cooperia from different geographical locations.

4.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 729, 2019 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The tropical liver fluke, Fasciola gigantica causes fasciolosis, an important disease of humans and livestock. We characterized dynamic transcriptional changes associated with the development of the parasite in its two hosts, the snail intermediate host and the mammalian definitive host. RESULTS: Differential gene transcription analysis revealed 7445 unigenes transcribed by all F. gigantica lifecycle stages, while the majority (n = 50,977) exhibited stage-specific expression. Miracidia that hatch from eggs are highly transcriptionally active, expressing a myriad of genes involved in pheromone activity and metallopeptidase activity, consistent with snail host finding and invasion. Clonal expansion of rediae within the snail correlates with increased expression of genes associated with transcription, translation and repair. All intra-snail stages (miracidia, rediae and cercariae) require abundant cathepsin L peptidases for migration and feeding and, as indicated by their annotation, express genes putatively involved in the manipulation of snail innate immune responses. Cercariae emerge from the snail, settle on vegetation and become encysted metacercariae that are infectious to mammals; these remain metabolically active, transcribing genes involved in regulation of metabolism, synthesis of nucleotides, pH and endopeptidase activity to assure their longevity and survival on pasture. Dramatic growth and development following infection of the mammalian host are associated with high gene transcription of cell motility pathways, and transport and catabolism pathways. The intra-mammalian stages temporally regulate key families of genes including the cathepsin L and B proteases and their trans-activating peptidases, the legumains, during intense feeding and migration through the intestine, liver and bile ducts. While 70% of the F. gigantica transcripts share homology with genes expressed by the temperate liver fluke Fasciola hepatica, gene expression profiles of the most abundantly expressed transcripts within the comparable lifecycle stages implies significant species-specific gene regulation. CONCLUSIONS: Transcriptional profiling of the F. gigantica lifecycle identified key metabolic, growth and developmental processes the parasite undergoes as it encounters vastly different environments within two very different hosts. Comparative analysis with F. hepatica provides insight into the similarities and differences of these parasites that diverged > 20 million years ago, crucial for the future development of novel control strategies against both species.

5.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 447, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toxocara canis, a globally distributed roundworm, can cause debilitating disease in dogs and humans; however, little is known about the metabolomic response of the hosts to T. canis infection. There is an increasing need to understand the metabolic mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of T. canis infection in dogs. Here, we examined the metabolomic changes in Beagle dogs' serum following T. canis infection using LC-MS/MS. RESULTS: The metabolic profiles of Beagle dogs' serum were determined at 12 h, 24 h, 10 d and 36 d after oral infection with 300 infectious T. canis eggs by LC-MS/MS. We tested whether the T. canis-associated differentially abundant metabolites could distinguish the serum of infected dogs from controls, as measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). The differentially expressed metabolites were further evaluated by principal components analysis and pathway enrichment analysis. A total of 5756 and 5299 ions were detected in ESI+ and ESI- mode, respectively. ROC curve analysis revealed nine and five metabolite markers, at 12 hpi and 24 hpi to 36 dpi, respectively, with potential diagnostic value for toxocariasis. The levels of taurocholate, estradiol, prostaglandins and leukotriene were significantly changed. Primary bile acid biosynthesis pathway, steroid hormone biosynthesis pathway and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids pathway were significantly altered by T. canis infection. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that T. canis infection can induce several changes in the dog serum metabolome and that the metabolic signature associated with T. canis infection in dogs has potential for toxocariasis diagnosis.

6.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 450, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alongshan virus (ALSV) is a novel discovered segmented flavivirus associated with human febrile illness in northeastern China. Ixodes persulcatus is considered as a candidate vector of ALSV in the endemic regions. However, the role of domesticated animals in the circulation and transmission of ALSV have not been investigated. To evaluate the prevalence of ALSV infections in domesticated animals, viral RNA and viral specific antibodies were detected in sheep and cattle in Hulunbuir of northeastern Inner Mongolia. The findings contribute to the understanding of the ecology and transmission of ALSV among different natural hosts. METHODS: A total of 480 animal serum samples were collected in Hulunbuir of northeastern China in May, 2017. Viral specific antibodies were tested by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with a purified E. coli recombinant capsid protein (VP2) of ALSV (strain H3) and further detected by viral neutralization test (VNT). RNA in serum samples were extracted and detected for ALSV sequence by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. ALSV RNA positive samples were used for virus isolation. RESULTS: ALSV-specific antibodies were detected in 9.2% (22/240) of examined sheep and 4.6% (11/240) of examined cattle by ELISA, while lower serological positivity with 4.2% (10/240) for sheep and 1.7% (4/240) for cattle was confirmed by VNT. In contrast, the prevalence of ALSV RNA was much higher, ranging from 26.3% (63/240) in sheep to 27.5% (66/240) in cattle. The partial S1 (NS5-like) and S3 (NS3-like) segments of ALSVs in sheep and cattle shared high identities of more than 98% to the human and tick isolates in the studied regions. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the natural infection of ALSV can be found in sheep and cattle in the endemic regions.

7.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 54(6): 814-819, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479744

RESUMO

The obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii can infect nearly all warm-blooded animals, including humans. Although infection with this parasite is generally benign, severe illness may occur in infected individuals if their immunity becomes less competent, such as in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. In this study, the inhibitory activity of 44 commonly used antiretroviral compounds was determined against T. gondii in vitro. Of the 44 tested antiretroviral compounds, 14 showed potency against T. gondii at IC50 concentrations (concentration inhibiting T. gondii tachyzoite growth by 50%) ranging from 1.18 ± 2.21 µM (nelfinavir) to 18.89 ± 1.87 µM (trovirdine). Of the 14 potent antiretroviral compounds, 7 are HIV-1 protease inhibitors. This study also investigated whether co-administration of these 14 antiretroviral compounds interferes with the anti-T. gondii activity of existing anti-T. gondii drugs, namely sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine. The results showed no significant interaction between any of the 14 tested antiretroviral compounds and pyrimethamine or sulfadiazine. These results warrant investigation of whether administration of the lead antiretroviral drugs with highly potent anti-T. gondii activity to HIV patients may help to limit the occurrence of toxoplasmic encephalitis.

8.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538409

RESUMO

Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite which can infect many mammals and birds with a worldwide distribution. However, no molecular data are available about the occurrence of N. caninum in pigs. In this study, the serological and molecular prevalence of N. caninum infection in farmed pigs were investigated in Hunan province, China, between January 2017 and December 2018. A total of 1,500 serum samples collected from 10 herds in Hunan province were evaluated using a competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunoassay assay (cELISA). The overall seroprevalence of N. caninum in the examined pigs was 1.9%. The seroprevalence of N. caninum ranged from 0.3% to 4.6% among different regions in Hunan province of China (p < .05). DNA was extracted from brain samples, and the Nc-5 gene and ITS-1 region were amplified and then sequenced. Three (0.5%) of the examined 600 brain tissues were found to contain N. caninum DNA. Our phylogenetic analyses indicated that N. caninum samples were classified into two distinct groups. Although the prevalence is low within the pig groups investigated, our results revealed the emergence of N. caninum infection in pigs in China. The finding of the present study provides molecular evidence that the pigs are the natural intermediate host of N. caninum and may have major epidemiological importance.

9.
Parasite ; 26: 58, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535970

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii infection is prevalent in humans and animals worldwide. In this study, recombinant eukaryotic expression plasmids (pVAX-GRA24, pVAX-GRA25 and pVAX-MIC6) were constructed, and then injected into Kunming mice intramuscularly, as cocktailed plasmids or as single-gene plasmids. We evaluated immune protective responses by detecting the titer of antibodies and cytokine production of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12 and IL-23, the percentages of the subclasses of T lymphocytes, as well as the records of the survival time and cyst decrement in the brain of the mouse model after challenge with the T. gondii RH and Pru strains, respectively. Compared with the control groups, antibody and cytokine production were significantly increased, while the survival times of mice in all immunized groups were also prolonged, and the number of T. gondii cysts in their brains were decreased significantly (29.03% for pVAX-GRA24; 40.88% for pVAX-GRA25; 37.70% for pVAX-MIC6; 48.06% for pVAX-GRA24 + pVAX-GRA25; and 55.37% for pVAX-GRA24 + pVAX-GRA25 + pVAX-MIC6). The mouse group immunized with the three-gene cocktail (TgGRA24 + TgGRA25 + TgMIC6) had better performance in each detection index than the mouse groups immunized with the two-gene cocktail of TgGRA24 + TgGRA25, which was better than that in the group immunized with the single gene vaccine of TgGRA24, TgMIC6 or TgGRA25. In conclusion, TgGRA24 or TgGRA25 may be good vaccine candidates against T. gondii infection, but the three-gene cocktail of TgGRA24, TgMIC6 and TgGRA25 may induce the strongest protective immunity. Further studies of multi-antigenic DNA vaccines or cocktailed vaccines against T. gondii infection are necessary.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508380

RESUMO

To gain insights into differences in the virulence among T. gondii strains at the post-translational level, we conducted a quantitative analysis of the phosphoproteome profile of T. gondii strains belonging to three different genotypes. Phosphopeptides from three strains, type I (RH strain), type II (PRU strain) and ToxoDB#9 (PYS strain), were enriched by titanium dioxide (TiO2) affinity chromatography and quantified using iTRAQ technology. A total of 1,441 phosphopeptides, 1,250 phosphorylation sites and 759 phosphoproteins were detected. In addition, 392, 298, and 436 differentially expressed phosphoproteins (DEPs) were identified in RH strain when comparing RH/PRU strains, in PRU strain when comparing PRU/PYS strains, and in PYS strain when comparing PYS/RH strains, respectively. Functional characterization of the DEPs using GO, KEGG, and STRING analyses revealed marked differences between the three strains. In silico kinase substrate motif analysis of the DEPs revealed three (RxxS, SxxE, and SxxxE), three (RxxS, SxxE, and SP), and five (SxxE, SP, SxE, LxRxxS, and RxxS) motifs in RH strain when comparing RH/PRU strains, in PRU strain when comparing PRU/PYS, and in PYS strain when comparing PYS/RH strains, respectively. This suggests that multiple overrepresented protein kinases including PKA, PKG, CKII, IKK, and MAPK could be involved in such a difference between T. gondii strains. Kinase associated network analysis showed that ROP5, ROP16, and cell-cycle-associated protein kinase CDK were the most connected kinase peptides. Our data reveal significant changes in the abundance of phosphoproteins between T. gondii genotypes, which explain some of the mechanisms that contribute to the virulence heterogeneity of this parasite.

11.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1707, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396222

RESUMO

Cathepsin B, a lysosomal cysteine protease, is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of Fasciola gigantica infection, but its exact role remains unclear. In the present study, a recombinant F. gigantica cathepsin B (rFgCatB) protein was expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. Western blot analysis confirmed the reactivity of the purified rFgCatB protein to serum from F. gigantica-infected goats. The effects of serial concentrations (10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 µg/ml) of rFgCatB on various functions of goat peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were examined. We demonstrated that rFgCatB protein can specifically bind to the surface of PBMCs. In addition, rFgCatB increased the expression of cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-17, TGF-ß, and IFN-γ), and increased nitric oxide production and cell apoptosis, but reduced cell viability. These data show that rFgCatB can influence cellular and immunological functions of goat PBMCs. Further characterization of the posttranslational modification and assessment of rFgCatB in immunogenicity studies is warranted.

12.
Infect Genet Evol ; 75: 104019, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470093

RESUMO

Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Giardia duodenalis are important opportunistic enteric zoonotic pathogens that cause diarrhoea and intestinal diseases in animals and humans. China is the largest producer of pigs, but whether Tibetan pigs, a unique pig breed in Tibet, are infected with E. bieneusi and G. duodenalis is unknown. Therefore, we conducted a molecular epidemiological survey to determine the prevalence of E. bieneusi and G. duodenalis in Tibetan pigs in Tibet, China, and identified the genotypes of these causative agents. A total of 345 faecal specimens were collected from Tibetan pigs from three Tibet counties (Milin, Cuona and Gongbujiangda), examined by nested PCR and sequenced utilizing genetic markers in the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) gene for E. bieneusi and G. duodenalis, respectively. Moreover, using multilocus sequence typing, the subtypes of E. bieneusi were identified based on four loci (MS1, MS3, MS4 and MS7). A total of 41 (11.88%) faecal samples from Tibetan pigs were E. bieneusi-positive, and 2 (0.58%) were G. duodenalis-positive. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age was considered a risk factor for Tibetan pig infection of E. bieneusi. Two novel (GB11, GB31) and four known E. bieneusi genotypes (EbpC, EbpD, PigEBITS5 and CHS12) were identified and were all classified as zoonotic group 1 according to the phylogenetic analysis. Two MLGs (MLGI and MLGII) were further identified in the E. bieneusi EbpC genotype by multilocus sequence typing analysis. In addition, two G. duodenalis assemblages (D and E) were found in the present study. To our knowledge, the current study is the first to detect the prevalence and perform genetic characterization of G. duodenalis in Tibetan pigs in Tibet, China. The results could provide essential data for controlling E. bieneusi and G. duodenalis infections in Tibetan pigs that are in contact with other animals and humans, as Tibetan pigs could be a potential source for human infection by these pathogens.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383652

RESUMO

In this study, we analyzed the global metabolomic changes associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection in mice in the presence or absence of sulfadiazine sodium (SDZ) treatment. BALB/c mice were infected with T. gondii GT1 strain and treated orally with SDZ (250 µg/ml in water) for 12 consecutive days. Mice showed typical manifestations of illness at 20 days postinfection (dpi); by 30 dpi, 20% had survived and developed latent infection. We used ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to profile the serum metabolomes in control (untreated and uninfected) mice, acutely infected mice, and SDZ-treated and infected mice. Infection induced significant perturbations in the metabolism of α-linolenic acid, purine, pyrimidine, arginine, tryptophan, valine, glycerophospholipids, and fatty acyls. However, treatment with SDZ seemed to alleviate the serum metabolic alterations caused by infection. The restoration of the serum metabolite levels in the treated mice was associated with better clinical outcomes. These data indicate that untargeted metabolomics can reveal biochemical pathways associated with restoration of the metabolic status of T. gondii-infected mice following SDZ treatment and could be used to monitor responses to SDZ treatment. This study provides a new systems approach to elucidate the metabolic and therapeutic effects of SDZ in the context of murine toxoplasmosis.

14.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 373, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii infects and alters the neurotransmission in cerebral cortex and other brain regions, leading to neurobehavioral and neuropathologic changes in humans and animals. However, the molecules that contribute to these changes remain largely unknown. METHODS: We have investigated the impact of T. gondii infection on the overall metabolism of mouse cerebral cortex. Mass-spectrometry-based metabolomics and multivariate statistical analysis were employed to discover metabolomic signatures that discriminate between cerebral cortex of T. gondii-infected and uninfected control mice. RESULTS: Our results identified 73, 67 and 276 differentially abundant metabolites, which were involved in 25, 37 and 64 pathways at 7, 14 and 21 days post-infection (dpi), respectively. Metabolites in the unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis pathway were upregulated as the infection progressed, indicating that T. gondii induces the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids to promote its own growth and survival. Some of the downregulated metabolites were related to pathways, such as steroid hormone biosynthesis and arachidonic acid metabolism. Nine metabolites were identified as T. gondii responsive metabolites, namely galactosylsphingosine, arachidonic acid, LysoSM(d18:1), L-palmitoylcarnitine, calcitetrol, 27-Deoxy-5b-cyprinol, L-homophenylalanine, oleic acid and ceramide (d18:1/16:0). CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide novel insight into the dysregulation of the metabolism of the mouse cerebral cortex during T. gondii infection and have important implications for studies of T. gondii pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Córtex Cerebral/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Toxoplasmose Animal/patologia , Toxoplasmose Cerebral/patologia , Animais , Encéfalo/patologia , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Espectrometria de Massas , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Metabolômica , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Análise Multivariada , Toxoplasma , Regulação para Cima
15.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 16(8): 539-542, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31259631

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is an important zoonotic parasite infecting humans and various animals with a worldwide distribution. However, limited information is available on T. gondii infection in wild rats. The present study aimed to examine the prevalence and characterize the genotypes of T. gondii in wild rats in two regions of China. Brain tissues were collected from 111 Edward's long-tailed rats (Leopoldamys edwardsi) and 117 Bower's white-toothed rats (Berylmys bowersi) between November 2017 and January 2018. Genomic DNA was extracted and amplified by PCR targeting the T. gondii B1 gene. B1 gene-positive samples were genotyped at 10 genetic markers (SAG1, SAG2 [5', 3'] and [alternative], SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico) using multilocus nested polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism. Six (5.41%, 6/111) Edward's long-tailed rats from Chongqing Municipality were positive for T. gondii B1 gene, whereas no T. gondii infection was detected in Bower's white-toothed rats (n = 117) from Guangdong province. T. gondii prevalence in female and male rats was 1.77% (2/113) and 3.48 (4/115), respectively. Four of the six positive DNA samples were completely genotyped at 10 genetic loci and were identified as ToxoDB#20. The present study revealed the occurrence of T. gondii infection in Edward's long-tailed rats. These findings raised public health concerning about T. gondii infection in wild rats. These results provide reference data for understanding the distribution of T. gondii genotypes in wild rats in China.

16.
Infect Genet Evol ; 75: 103946, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279002

RESUMO

The phylum Acanthocephala is a small group of obligate parasites of animals. However, the current classifications of Acanthocephala are still under debate. Moreover, our present knowledge of the complete mitochondrial genome of this parasite group remains limited. To fill this knowledge gap, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of Centrorhynchus milvusWard, 1956 (Palaeacanthocephala: Polymorphida) was firstly sequenced and determined based on specimens collected from the red kite (Milvus milvus) in Pakistan. The mitochondrial genome of C. milvus is 14,314 bp in length and contains 36 genes, including 12 protein-coding (PCGs) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes (rrnL and rrnS). To elucidate the phylogenetic relationships of the four classes of Acanthocephala and the systematic position of C. milvus, phylogenetic analysis based on concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 PCGs was performed using Bayesian inference (BI). The results supported the monophyly of Archiacanthocephala and Palaeacanthocephala with strong support (BPP = 1) and also indicated that Archiacanthocephala is the sister clade to the remaining classes of Acanthocephala (Palaeacanthocephala, Eoacanthocephala and Polyacanthocephala). However, Polyacanthocephala with only one representative species (P. caballeroi) is nested within Eoacanthocephala. Our phylogenetic analysis also confirmed C. milvus as the member of the family Centrorhynchidae with a sister relationship to C. aluconis. Our present mt genomic data are very useful for studying the molecular epidemiology, population genetics and systematics of acanthocephalans.

17.
Parasitol Res ; 118(9): 2729-2734, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321521

RESUMO

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is a zoonotic parasite which is considered to be an opportunistic pathogen of humans and animals. A number of studies have reported E. bieneusi infection in various animals. However, no information is available on the occurrence of E. bieneusi in Tan sheep, a unique indigenous sheep species in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China. The objectives of the present study were to examine the prevalence and identify the genotypes of E. bieneusi in Tan sheep in China. A total of 1014 fecal specimens of Tan sheep from six farms in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region were examined by nested PCR amplification of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA. The total prevalence of E. bieneusi was 12.2% (124/1014), ranging from 0.5 to 22.2% on six farms. Sequence analysis identified 10 genotypes of E. bieneusi, including three known genotypes, BEB6, COS-I, and CHG13, and seven novel genotypes designated as NX1 to NX7, which all belonged to group 2 by phylogenetic analysis. This is the first report describing the prevalence of E. bieneusi in Tan sheep, and the new genotypes identified in the current study expand the genotype distribution of E. bieneusi. These findings provide baseline data and have implications for the epidemiology and control of E. bieneusi infection in Tan sheep.


Assuntos
Enterocytozoon/isolamento & purificação , Microsporidiose/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Enterocytozoon/classificação , Enterocytozoon/genética , Genótipo , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Microsporidiose/parasitologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
18.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1531, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31333663

RESUMO

We characterized the porcine tissue transcriptional landscapes that follow Toxoplasma gondii infection. RNAs were isolated from liver, spleen, cerebral cortex, lung, and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) of T. gondii-infected and uninfected (control) pigs at days 6 and 18 postinfection, and were analyzed using next-generation sequencing (RNA-seq). T. gondii altered the expression of 178, 476, 199, 201, and 362 transcripts at 6 dpi and 217, 223, 347, 119, and 161 at 18 dpi in the infected brain, liver, lung, MLNs and spleen, respectively. The differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) were grouped into five expression patterns and 10 sub-clusters. Gene Ontology enrichment and pathway analysis revealed that immune-related genes dominated the overall transcriptomic signature and that metabolic processes, such as steroid biosynthesis, and metabolism of lipid and carboxylic acid, were downregulated in infected tissues. Co-expression network analysis identified transcriptional modules associated with host immune response to infection. These findings not only show how T. gondii infection alters porcine transcriptome in a tissue-specific manner, but also offer a gateway for testing new hypotheses regarding human response to T. gondii infection.

19.
Acta Trop ; 197: 105044, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173736

RESUMO

Neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan infecting many domestic and wild animals. In the present study, the brain tissues of wild birds collected in Hunan province of China were examined by N. caninum specific nested PCR, targeting the Nc-5 gene and the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. The prevalence of N. caninum was detected in 15.5% (37/239) of wild birds, including 20.5% (9/44) of the examined olive-backed pipit Anthus hodgsoni, 18.3% (24/131) of the examined tree sparrows Passer montanus, 7.9% (3/38) of the examined chestnut bunting Emberiza rutila and 3.8% (1/26) of the examined yellow-breasted bunting E. aureola. Phylogenetic analyses showed that N. caninum from different hosts and geographical origins are genetically diverse and can be further classified into two distinct groups. Our findings indicated that wild birds are potential source of N. caninum for other animals. To our knowledge, this is the first report of N. caninum infection in wild birds in China, which provides a foundation for the prevention and control of this parasite in China and elsewhere.

20.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 281, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The liver fluke Fasciola gigantica modulates several signaling pathways in infected buffaloes to facilitate its survival and establishment of persistent infection. In response to the parasite invasion, buffaloes activate innate and adaptive immune responses to counter the parasite infection. To detect new proteins that might be involved in the interaction between F. gigantica and the buffaloes, and that also might serve as biomarkers for fasciolosis, we used proteomic techniques to study the serum proteome of buffaloes during F. gigantica infection. Here, we used an isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomic approach to identify serum proteins that are differentially expressed in infected buffaloes compared to uninfected control buffaloes. Additionally, we applied a parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) assay to validate specific proteins identified by the iTRAQ method. RESULTS: A total of 313, 459 and 399 proteins were identified at 3, 42 and 70 days post-infection, respectively; of these 92, 93 and 138 were differentially abundant proteins. Some of the identified differentially abundant proteins, including complement factor H related 5, complement component C6, complement component C7, amine oxidase, plasma serine protease inhibitor and lysozyme, are known to be involved in complement system activation, blood coagulation, platelet activation, lymphocyte's adhesion and lysozyme hydrolysis. Analysis of data for all three time points after infection identified six significantly upregulated proteins in infected serum that separated infected and uninfected buffaloes into distinct clusters. Further PRM analysis confirmed the expression of five proteins, namely MHC class I antigen, Beta-2-microglobulin, NID2 protein, Fetuin-B and Fibrinogen gamma-B chain. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide novel insights into the serum proteomics signature of buffaloes during F. gigantica infection.


Assuntos
Búfalos/parasitologia , Fasciolíase/sangue , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Proteoma , Animais , Búfalos/imunologia , Fasciola , Fasciolíase/imunologia
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