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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35020417

RESUMO

Background: The bZIP gene family plays roles in biotic and abiotic stress, secondary metabolism, and other aspects in plants. They have been reported in Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Artemisia annua, and other plants, but their roles in Cannabis sativa have not been determined. Materials and Methods: In this study, we analyzed the genome-wide identification and expression profile of the bZIP gene family in C. sativa. Results: A total of 51 members of the bZIP gene family were identified based on the C. sativa genome and numbered in order from CsbZIP1 to CsbZIP51. Their phylogenetic relationships, cis-elements in promoter region, gene structures and motif compositions, physicochemical properties, chromosome locations, and expression profiles, were analyzed. The results showed that the 51 CsbZIPs were unevenly distributed on 10 chromosomes and could be clustered into 11 subfamilies. Furthermore, CsbZIPs located in the same subfamilies presented similar intron/exon organization and motif composition. The expression levels of CsbZIPs in various tissues (flowers, bracts, vegetative leaves, stems, and seeds) were determined using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The expression levels of CsbZIPs were higher in flowers and bracts. The 51 CsbZIPs were explored, and their structure, evolution, and expression pattern in different tissues of C. sativa were characterized synthetically. The findings indicated that CsbZIPs are essential for the growth and development of C. sativa. Conclusions: These results provide a theoretical basis for subsequent research on hemp bZIP transcription factors and the cultivation of high-cannabidiol and low-tetrahydrocannabinol high-quality cannabis varieties.

2.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 167, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35013296

RESUMO

The reciprocity principle governs the symmetry in transmission of electromagnetic and acoustic waves, as well as the diffusion of heat between two points in space, with important consequences for thermal management and energy harvesting. There has been significant recent interest in materials with time-modulated properties, which have been shown to efficiently break reciprocity for light, sound, and even charge diffusion. However, time modulation may not be a plausible approach to break thermal reciprocity, in contrast to the usual perception. We establish a theoretical framework to accurately describe the behavior of diffusive processes under time modulation, and prove that thermal reciprocity in dynamic materials is generally preserved by the continuity equation, unless some external bias or special material is considered. We then experimentally demonstrate reciprocal heat transfer in a time-modulated device. Our findings correct previous misconceptions regarding reciprocity breaking for thermal diffusion, revealing the generality of symmetry constraints in heat transfer, and clarifying its differences from other transport processes in what concerns the principles of reciprocity and microscopic reversibility.

3.
Chin J Integr Med ; 2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35023063

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pharmacodynamic material basis, mechanism of actions and targeted diseases of Salicornia europaea L. (SE) based on the network pharmacology method, and to verify the antidepressant-like effect of the SE extract by pharmacological experiments. METHODS: Retrieval tools including Chinese medicine (CM), PubMed, PharmMapper, MAS 3.0 and Cytoscape were used to search the components of SE, predict its targets and related therapeutic diseases, and construct the "Component-Target-Pathway" network of SE for central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Further, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Gene Ontology (GO) function annotation of depression-related targets were analyzed to predict the antidepressant mechanism of SE. Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model was used to construct a mouse model with depression-like symptoms. And the animals were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=10) including the normal group (nonstressed mice administered with distilled water), the CUMS group (CUMS mice administered with distilled water), the venlafaxine group (CUMS mice administered with venlafaxine 9.38 mg/kg), SE high-, medium-, and low-dose groups (CUMS mice administered with SE 1.8, 1.35 and 0.9 g/kg, respectively). Then some relevant indicators were determined for experimental verification by the forced swim test (FST), the tail suspension test (TST) and open-field test (OFT). Dopamine (DA) concentration in hippocampus and cerebral cortex, IL-2 and corticosterone (CORT) levels in blood, and nuclear factor E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2), kelch-like epichlorohydrin related protein 1 (Keap1), NAD(P) H dehydrogenase [quinone] 1 (NQO1) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) levels in mice were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot respectively to explore the possible mechanisms. RESULTS: The "target-disease" network diagram predicted by network pharmacology, showed that the potential target of SE involves a variety of CNS diseases, among which depression accounts for the majority. The experimental results showed that SE (1.8, 1.35 g/kg) significantly decreased the immobility period, compared with the CUMS group in FST and TST in mice after 3-week treatment, while SE exhibited no significant effect on exploratory behavior in OFT in mice. Compared with CUMS group, the SE group (0.9 g/kg) showed significant differences (P<0.05) in DA levels in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. In addition, compared with CUMS control group, SE (1.8 g/kg) group showed a significant effect on decreasing the activities of CORT (P<0.05), and serum IL-2 level with no statistical significance. Finally, Western blot results showed that compared with the model group, Nrf2, Keap1, NQO1 and HO-1 protein expressions in SE group (1.8 g/kg) were up-regulated (all P<0.01). CONCLUSION: The SE extract may have an antidepressant effect, which appeared to regulate Nrf2-ARE pathway and increased levels of DA and CORT in the hippocampus and cortex.

4.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(1): 267-276, 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34989511

RESUMO

In order to understand the characteristics and interrelationship of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in interstitial water and overlying water of a landscape river in Suzhou, the characteristics of DOM in interstitial water and overlying water of landscape river sediments in the urban area of Suzhou from July to September after the 2020 flood season were analyzed using the UV-Vis absorption spectrum, high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC), and fluorescence spectrum combined with the fluorescence region integration method. The results showed that the relative molecular weight of DOM in both the interstitial water and the overlying water was about 1000, and the relative molecular weight tended to increase in the same way over time. Both interstitial water and overlying water had the highest DOM of protein-like content, with a mass fraction that reached 68%-79%. By contrast, the content of humus-like substances was lower, with a mass fraction accounting for approximately 21%-32%, and both were dominated by low-excitation tryptophan. From July to September, a large increase in DOM levels appeared in the interstitial water, followed by a gradual increase in DOM levels in overlying water. These increases might have come from the deposition of algae on the river bottom after summer outbreaks, likely followed by cleavage and release into the interstitial and overlying water. The fluorescence indices (FI) of the interstitial water and overlying water differed more in July and then increased and decreased following the same trend; however, both were greater than 1.2. The authigenic indicator BIX indicator values were all greater than 0.8 and tended toward 1. The humification index (HIX) values were all less than 4; moreover, the interstitial water and overlying water became smaller in the same trend. The same positive correlation was present between the six fluorescent components of DOM (P<0.05), with a significant correlation between low-excitation tyrosine, α254, and HIX. The relationship between interstitial water and DOM in the overlying water in the Suzhou landscape river was closely related, and the interstitial water may be a potential source of DOM in overlying water.


Assuntos
Rios , Água , 2,5-Dimetoxi-4-Metilanfetamina , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
5.
Int J Ophthalmol ; 15(1): 106-112, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35047364

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate foveal vessel density (VD) and foveal thickness using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) children treated with laser photocoagulation or anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injection. Additionally, we assessed the relationship between foveal microvascular anomalies and different therapies in ROP children. METHODS: This was a single-center, retrospective study of patients with a diagnosis of type 1 ROP. Twenty-three eyes (14 patients) treated with anti-VEGF injection and twenty-nine eyes (17 patients) treated with laser coagulation were included in this study. The foveal VD, inner thickness and full thickness were measured at the central 0°, 2° to 8°, and 8° of the retina (centered on the fovea) using OCTA and cross-sectional OCT, respectively. RESULTS: Foveal VD, inner thickness and full thickness were significantly smaller within the central 8° of the retina in ROP children treated with anti-VEGF injection than in those treated with laser photocoagulation (P=0.013, 0.009, 0.036, respectively). The full thickness was also smaller in the anti-VEGF group than in the laser group at the central 0° of the retina (P=0.010). The grade of foveal hypoplasia is lower in the anti-VEGF group than in the laser group (P=0.045). Multivariable analysis did not find any risk factors associated with visual acuity in our study. CONCLUSION: In children with type 1 ROP, the better structural development of fovea in those who were treated with anti-VEGF injection compared with laser photocoagulation are identified. However, visual acuity outcomes are similar 70mo after the treatments.

6.
Inorg Chem ; 61(3): 1636-1643, 2022 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34995446

RESUMO

Two Cd-based supramolecular coordination polymers, [Cd3(CzIP)3(DMF)2] (1) and [Cd2(CzIP)2(DMF)4] (2), were synthesized by using 5-(carbazol-9-yl) isophthalate (CzIP) as ligands. These two compounds exhibit multiple luminescence emissions; apart from fluorescence, time- and temperature-dependent ultralong phosphorescence (RTP) were also achieved under room conditions. Significantly, compound 1 has a long-lived afterglow of 0.93 s at 545 nm under ambient conditions. Compound 2 shows nearly pure white-light emission with CIE coordinates of (0.33, 0.33) via the dual emission of fluorescence and phosphorescence. It has come to our attention that it is the first example of a luminescent coordination polymer with single-phase white-light emission and color-evolution RTP. In addition, the long-lived RTP materials can be used in time-dependent anticounterfeiting and white-light-emitting diodes. Experimental and singlet and triplet state calculations indicate that both C-H···π interaction and inter- and intramolecular charge transfer interactions could be beneficial to the emission of ultralong RTP.

7.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 8(1)2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35050012

RESUMO

Magnaporthe oryzae is the causal agent of rice blast outbreaks. L-ascorbic acid (ASC) is a famous antioxidant found in nature. However, while ASC is rare or absent in fungi, a five-carbon analog, D-erythroascorbic acid (EASC), seems to appear to be a substitute for ASC. Although the antioxidant function of ASC has been widely described, the specific properties and physiological functions of EASC remain poorly understood. In this study, we identified a D-arabinono-1,4-lactone oxidase (ALO) domain-containing protein, MoAlo1, and found that MoAlo1 was localized to mitochondria. Disruption of MoALO1 (ΔMoalo1) exhibited defects in vegetative growth as well as conidiogenesis. The ΔMoalo1 mutant was found to be more sensitive to exogenous H2O2. Additionally, the pathogenicity of conidia in the ΔMoalo1 null mutant was reduced deeply in rice, and defective penetration of appressorium-like structures (ALS) formed by the hyphal tips was also observed in the ΔMoalo1 null mutant. When exogenous EASC was added to the conidial suspension, the defective pathogenicity of the ΔMoalo1 mutant was restored. Collectively, MoAlo1 is essential for growth, conidiogenesis, and pathogenicity in M. oryzae.

8.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118450, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740740

RESUMO

Aquaculture ecosystem is a hot-spot for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Rice-crayfish co-culture was considered an eco-friendly aquaculture model and has been widely adopted in China. However, it is unclear whether rice-crayfish co-culture is one of the most eco-friendly models from the perspective of antibiotic resistance profiles. In this study, we evaluated the eco-friendliness of rice-crayfish co-culture, and compared this model with other aquaculture models, from the perspectives of antibiotics and ARG patterns, based on multi-omics and antibiotic profiles. Results showed that the nutrient levels, antibiotic concentrations, dominant microbial genera and ARG patterns in the rice-crayfish co-culture model were profoundly different from the other three aquaculture models (crab only aquaculture model, crayfish only aquaculture model, and crab-crayfish co-culture models). Specifically, the rice-crayfish co-culture model has significantly lower diversity of ARGs and lower potential risks of ARGs when compared to the other aquaculture models. Nutrient and antibiotic concentrations were the important environmental factors for shaping ARG patterns, but compared with environmental factors, the effects of mobile genes and bacteria community on the proliferation and transmission of ARGs were stronger. This study has deepened our understanding of ARGs in freshwater aquaculture ecosystem, and suggested that rice-crayfish co-culture model is a relatively eco-friendly aquaculture model when compared with the other aquaculture models.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Oryza , Animais , Aquicultura , Astacoidea , Técnicas de Cocultura , Ecossistema , Genes Bacterianos
10.
Front Oncol ; 11: 745280, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34868943

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the effects of Physical Therapies (PTs) on improvement in psychosomatic symptoms and quality of life (QOL) in breast cancer patients. Data Sources: Seven databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wangfang, VIP, and China Biology Medicine disc databases) were systematically searched from the database inception through May 18, 2021. Study Selection: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared acupuncture or exercise with a sham control or usual care for the treatment of aromatase inhibitors (AIs)-related psychosomatic symptoms and QOL. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Data were screened and extracted independently using predesigned forms. The quality of RCTs was assessed with the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. The effect size was calculated via random-effects modeling. The quality of evidence was evaluated with the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Main Outcomes and Measures: The score of pain was measured with BPI scale and Western Ontario and the McMaster Universities Index (WOMAC) scale. Emotional state was measured with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-A), and Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-Fatigue). The QOL score was measured by self-reported measurements, including the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G) scale and 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36) scale. Results: Eleven RCTs (with 830 patients) were included in the systematic review, and data from 10 RCTs (with 798 patients) were used in the meta-analysis. Results showed acupuncture significantly reduced worst pain scores (P < 0.00001, I 2 = 83.5%) [SMD = -0.81, 95% CI (-1.51, -0.11)], but the effect of exercise therapies was not significant in overall change in worst pain scores (P =0.006, I 2 = 72.3%) [SMD = -0.30, 95% CI (-0.76, 0.16)]. Both acupuncture and exercise resulted in little to no difference in overall change in HADS-A subscale (P = 0.026<0.05, I 2 = 79.8%) [WMD = -0.21, 95% CI (-3.44, 3.03)], PSQI subscale (P = 0.488, I 2 = 0%) [WMD = 0.98, 95% CI (-0.57, 2.53)], and FACIT-Fatigue subscale (P = 0.022<0.05, I 2 = 81.0%) [WMD = 1.6, 95% CI (-5.75, 8.94)]. Exercise (compared with usual care) was associated with improving overall change in health-related QOL (subscales of SF-36 tool) (P = 0, I 2 = 72.1%) [WMD = 7.97, 95% CI (5.68, 10.25)] and cancer-specific QOL (subscales of FACT-G tool) (P = 0.304, I 2 = 16%) [WMD = 1.16, 95% CI (0.34, 1.97)]. Conclusions and Relevance: This systematic review and meta-analysis suggested that based on moderate-level evidence, acupuncture was associated with significant reductions in pain intensity, and exercise might improve QOL in breast cancer patients treated with AIs. However, in psychosomatic symptoms such as anxiety, sleep disturbance, and fatigue, acupuncture and exercise training did not result in significant improvements.

11.
Cells ; 10(12)2021 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34943854

RESUMO

Previous studies have revealed that high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation can trigger an antitumor immune response. The aim of this study was to investigate immune response in tumor-draining lymph nodes (TDLNs) after HIFU treatment. Forty-eight female patients with biopsy-confirmed breast cancer were divided into a control group and an HIFU group. In the control group, 25 patients underwent modified radical mastectomy, but 23 patients in the HIFU group received HIFU ablation of primary cancer, followed by the same operation. Using HE and immunohistochemical staining, the immunologic reactivity pattern and immune cell profile were assessed in paraffin-embedded axillary lymph nodes (ALNs) in all patients. The results showed that ALNs presented more evident immune reactions in the HIFU group than in the control group (100% vs. 64%). Among the ALNs, 78.3% had mixed cellular and humoral immune response, whereas 36% in the control group showed cellular immune response. The numbers of CD3+, CD4+, NK cell, and activated CTLs with Fas ligand+, granzyme+ and perforin+ expression were significantly higher in the ALNs in the HIFU group. It was concluded that HIFU could stimulate potent immune response and significantly increase T cell, activated CTLs and NK cell populations in the TDLNs of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Ablação por Ultrassom Focalizado de Alta Intensidade , Imunidade , Linfonodos/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Axila/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 773235, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34925032

RESUMO

Abnormal proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) is a critical pathological feature in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), but the regulatory mechanisms remain largely unknown. Herein, we demonstrated that interferon regulatory factor 9 (IRF9) accelerated PASMCs proliferation by regulating Prohibitin 1 (PHB1) expression and the AKT-GSK3ß signaling pathway. Compared with control groups, the rats treated with chronic hypoxia (CH), monocrotaline (MCT) or sugen5416 combined with chronic hypoxia (SuHx), and mice challenged with CH had significantly thickened pulmonary arterioles and hyperproliferative PASMCs. More importantly, the protein level of IRF9 was found to be elevated in the thickened medial wall of the pulmonary arterioles in all of these PAH models. Notably, overexpression of IRF9 significantly promoted the proliferation of rat and human PASMCs, as evidenced by increased cell counts, EdU-positive cells and upregulated biomarkers of cell proliferation. In contrast, knockdown of IRF9 suppressed the proliferation of rat and human PASMCs. Mechanistically, IRF9 directly restrained PHB1 expression and interacted with AKT to inhibit the phosphorylation of AKT at thr308 site, which finally led to mitochondrial dysfunction and PASMC proliferation. Unsurprisingly, MK2206, a specific inhibitor of AKT, partially reversed the PASMC proliferation inhibited by IRF9 knockdown. Thus, our results suggested that elevation of IRF9 facilitates PASMC proliferation by regulating PHB1 expression and AKT signaling pathway to affect mitochondrial function during the development of PAH, which indicated that targeting IRF9 may serve as a novel strategy to delay the pathological progression of PAH.

13.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 794904, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34970248

RESUMO

To deepen understanding the evolutionary process of lucanid-yeast association, the lateral transmission process of yeast symbionts among stag beetle genera Platycerus and Prismognathus around the border between Japan and South Korea was estimated based on molecular analyses and species distribution modelings. Phylogenetic analyses were based on yeast ITS and IGS sequences and beetle COI sequences using Prismognathus dauricus from the Tsushima Islands and Pr. angularis from Kyushu, Japan, as well as other sequence data from our previous studies. The range overlap based on the species distribution model (SDM) and differentiation in ecological space were analyzed. Based on the IGS sequences, Clade II yeast symbionts were shared by Platycerus hongwonpyoi and Pr. dauricus in South Korea and the Tsushima Islands, and Platycerus viridicuprus in Japan. Clade III yeasts were shared by Pr. dauricus from the Tsushima Islands and Pr. angularis in Japan. During the Last Interglacial period when the land bridge between Japan and the Korean Peninsula existed, range overlap was predicted to occur between Pl. viridicuprus and Pr. dauricus in Kyushu and between Pr. dauricus and Pr. angularis in Kyushu and the Tsushima Islands. The ecological space of Pl. hongwonpyoi was differentiated from that of Pl. viridicuprus and Pr. angularis. We demonstrated the paleogeographical lateral transmission process of Scheffersomyces yeast symbionts among lucanid genera and species: putative transmission of yeasts from Pr. dauricus to Pl. viridicuprus in Kyushu and from Pr. angularis to Pr. dauricus in Kyushu or the Tsushima Islands. We also found that the yeast symbionts are likely being replaced in Pr. dauricus on the Tsushima Islands. We present novel estimates of the lateral transmission process of microbial symbionts based on phylogenetic, SDM and environmental analyses among lucanid beetles.

14.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 73(6): 1017-1024, 2021 Dec 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34961876

RESUMO

Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are one of the primary transcription factors regulating oxygen balance, and their stability is determined by the hydroxylation state of the prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD) that is sensitive to oxygen. In recent years, studies have shown that HIFs-prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs) oxygen-sensing pathway is involved in the process of cellular ferroptosis. Ferroptosis, a new type of cell death, different from necrosis, apoptosis, necrotizing apoptosis, and pyroptosis, is essentially a programmed death caused by the accumulation of iron-dependent lipid peroxides in cells. This paper focuses on the role and mechanism of the HIFs-PHDs oxygen-sensing pathway in cellular ferroptosis involved in nerve diseases, tumors, lung injury, and chemical nerve damage from three aspects of iron metabolism, lipid metabolism, and glutathione (GSH) synthesis/metabolism. This review will provide a theoretical basis and new ideas for the development of novel drugs targeting the HIFs-PHDs oxygen-sensing pathway and capable of regulating ferroptosis for the treatment of diseases related to ferroptosis such as nervous system diseases and tumors.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos , Ferroptose , Prolil Hidroxilases , Apoptose , Oxigênio
15.
Exp Eye Res ; 215: 108906, 2021 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34953864

RESUMO

Müller cells maintain homeostatic functions in the retina. Their dysfunction leads to irreversible retinal diseases. Oxidative injury is a leading cause of retinal cytotoxicity. Our previous studies reported several betulinic acid (BA) derivatives can protect Müller cells from oxidative injury but achieving pharmacologically effective concentrations in the Müller cells could be a limitation. To optimise cellular delivery, we encapsulated the BA analogues H3, H5 and H7 into the clinically approved Compritol 888 and HD5 ATO solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) using the micro-emulsion method. The cytoprotective effects of these SLN-formulations were determined in human MIO-M1 cells. We found cytoprotection by H3 and H5 SLN-formulations was significantly enhanced, which was evident at concentrations much lower than those required with the free agents. Both SLN-formulations prolonged the duration of action of these agents. The most effective agent H5 delivered in 888 ATO SLNs attenuated glutamate-induced ROS formation and the associated necrosis in MIO-M1 cells. Overall, SLNs have emerged as promising delivery carriers for BA derivatives enhancing their protective effects against oxidative injury in human Müller cells. Our study is the first to show SLNs can be a viable route to delivery agents with improved efficacy and stability into human Müller cells favoring the treatment/prevention of retinal diseases.

16.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(3): e0125521, 2021 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34937163

RESUMO

Fecal microbial community could not fully represent the intestinal microbial community. However, most studies analyzing diarrhea-dominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) were mainly based on fecal samples. We aimed to characterize the IBS-D microbial community patterns using samples at multiple intestinal sites. This study recruited 74 IBS-D patients and 20 healthy controls (HC). 22.34%, 8.51%, 14.89%, and 54.26% of them contributed to one, two, three, and four sites: duodenal mucosa (DM), duodenal lumen (DL), rectal mucosa (RM), and rectal lumen (RL) of intestinal samples, respectively. Then 16S rRNA gene analysis was performed on these 283 samples. The result showed that IBS-D microbial communities have specific patterns at each intestinal site differing from that of HC. Across hosts and sites, Bacillus, Burkholderia, and Faecalibacterium were the representative genera in duodenum of IBS-D, duodenum of HC, and rectum of HC, respectively. Samples from mucosa and lumen in rectum were highly distinguishable, regardless of IBS-D and HC. Additionally, IBS-D patients have lower microbial co-abundance network connectivity. Moreover, RM site-specific biomarker: Bacteroides used alone or together with Prevotella and Oscillospira in RM showed outstanding performance in IBS-D diagnosis. Furthermore, Bacteroides and Prevotella in RM were strongly related to the severity of abdominal pain, abdominal discomfort, and bloating in IBS-D patients. In summary, this study also confirmed fecal microbial community could not fully characterize intestinal microbial communities. Among these site-specific microbial communities, RM microbial community would be more applicable in the diagnosis of IBS-D. IMPORTANCE Microbial community varied from one site to another along the gastrointestinal tract, but current studies about intestinal microbial community in IBS-D were mainly based on fecal samples. Based on 283 intestinal samples collected from DM, DL, RM, and RL of HC and IBS-D, we found different intestinal sites had their site-specific microbial patterns in IBS-D. Notably, RM site-specific microbes Bacteroides, Prevotella, and Oscillospira could be used to discriminate IBS-D from HC accurately. Our findings could help clinicians realize the great potential of the intestinal microbial community in RM for better diagnosis of IBS-D patients.

18.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(8): 2675-2684, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664439

RESUMO

Agricultural tillage practices significantly affect the structure and function of soil micro-bial community, as well as its control over soil carbon cycling. Conservation tillage practice based on no-tillage and crop straw returning is an important measure to improve soil carbon sequestration and fertility, in which soil microorganisms play a key role. Although many previous studies focus on the structure and function of microbial communities under conservation tillage, our overall understanding of soil microbial responses at community level upon conservation tillage is still lacking, due to the complexity of the soil, environmental factors and the different selections of microbial research methods. Furthermore, previous studies paid more attention to the role of soil microorganisms as decomposers and the contribution of plant-derived carbon to the formation of soil carbon pool, but ignored the contribution of microbial-derived carbon to the formation and stability of soil carbon pool. We summarized the paradigm shift in soil organic matter formation and stability theories, reviewed the research methods of soil microbial community, focused on the effects of conservation tillage on soil microbial biomass, community diversity and composition, carbon metabolism, as well as microbial-derived carbon storage, and proposed suggestions for future study, aiming to provide support for future studies regarding microbial responses and its control over soil carbon dynamics in agroecosystem.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Solo , Agricultura , Carbono , Microbiologia do Solo
19.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(8): 2685-2692, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664440

RESUMO

We examined carbon chemical composition and stability along soil depth (topsoil 0-5 cm, mid-soil 20-40 cm, and deep soil 60-100 cm) in a no-tillage (NT) agricultural system with various amount of corn stover as mulch for 8 years, including 0 (NT0), 33% (NT33), 67% (NT67) and 100% (NT100), in Northeast China, using mid-infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that, relative to NT0, the treatments of NT33 and NT100 increased polysaccharide content of the top layer and mid-layer soils, the former decreased topsoil carbon component diversity, while the latter maintained soil carbon stability of three soil layers. NT67 increased carbon stability at the deep layer soil. Our results demonstrated that if corn stover resources were sufficient, NT with 100% corn stover mulch could both be beneficial to carbon availability at 0-40 cm soil layer and stability of the whole soil profile. The nonlinear relationship between the amount of corn stover mulch and the mid-infrared spectral characteristics of the soil called for further research on the microbial-control mechanism over soil carbon cycling under different amounts of corn stover mulch.


Assuntos
Carbono , Solo , Ecossistema , Análise Espectral , Zea mays
20.
New Phytol ; 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665465

RESUMO

ALUMINUM-ACTIVATED MALATE TRANSPORTER1 (ALMT1)-mediated malate exudation from roots is critical for aluminium (Al) resistance in Arabidopsis. Its upstream molecular signalling regulation is not yet well understood. The role of CALMODULIN-LIKE24 (CML24) in Al-inhibited root growth and downstream molecular regulation of ALMT1-meditaed Al resistance was investigated. CML24 confers Al resistance demonstrated by an increased root-growth inhibition of the cml24 loss-of-function mutant under Al stress. This occurs mainly through the regulation of the ALMT1-mediated malate exudation from roots. The mutation and overexpression of CML24 leads to an elevated and reduced Al accumulation in the cell wall of roots, respectively. Al stress induced both transcript and protein abundance of CML24 in root tips, especially in the transition zone. CML24 interacts with CALMODULIN BINDING TRANSCRIPTION ACTIVATOR2 (CAMTA2) and promotes its transcriptional activity in the regulation of ALMT1 expression. This results in an enhanced malate exudation from roots and less root-growth inhibition under Al stress. Both CML24 and CAMTA2 interacted with WRKY46 suppressing the transcriptional repression of ALMT1 by WRKY46. The study provides novel insights into understanding of the upstream molecular signalling of the ALMT1-depdendent Al resistance.

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