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1.
BMC Nephrol ; 21(1): 51, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Albumin-globulin ratio (AGR), a variable based on serum albumin and non-albumin proteins, has been demonstrated as a predictor of mortality in patients with malignant neoplasm. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of AGR on peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 602 incident PD patients from January 1st, 2008, to December 31st, 2017, at our center and followed them until December 31st, 2018. Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariate Cox regression models were applied to analyze the association between AGR and all-cause of mortality and cardiovascular mortality. RESULTS: The median follow-up time was 32.17 (interquartile range = 32.80) months. During follow-up, 131 (21.8%) patients died, including 57 patients (43.5%) who died due to cardiovascular diseases. Kaplan-Meier curves showed that patients with AGR > 1.26 had better rates of survival than those with AGR ≤ 1.25 (p < 0.001). After adjusting for potential confounders, the lower AGR level was significantly associated with an increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality [hazard ratio (HR): 1.57, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07-2.32, p = 0.022 and HR: 2.01, 95% CI: 1.10-3.69, p = 0.023 respectively]. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with a low AGR level had an increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. AGR may be a useful index in identifying patients on PD at risk for CVD and all-cause of mortality.

2.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061849

RESUMO

Incompatibility of chitin nanomaterials with organic solvents is challenging in the design of the desirable organogels. The long hydrocarbon chains were covalently grafted on the surface of nanochitins, with the attachment of reactive allyl groups and improved dispersion in organic solvents. The reactive thiol groups of poly (ethylene glycol) were introduced into the allyl-nanochitin suspensions to produce the organogels by the thiol-ene click reaction. Attributed to the UV-induced cross-linking between the soft segments of thiolated-PEG and the allyl-nanochitin, the stable organogels with the storage modulus higher than the loss modulus by one order of magnitude were obtained, exhibiting the significant phase transition and mechanical enhancement on the rheological behavior. The combination of crystalline allyl-nanochitin and polymeric chains played a crucial role in the construction of the micro-network, attributing to the stability and mechanical strength of the organogels.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 711: 134589, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000315

RESUMO

Antimony (Sb) is a toxic element for both human and plants, but the toxic responses of plants to different forms of antimony and the associated mechanisms are unknown. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of different forms of Sb [Sb(III) and Sb(V)] on the root exudates, root endogenous hormones, root cell wall components and antioxidant systems in rice plant via three hydroponic experiments. The results showed that Sb(III) displayed a higher toxicity than Sb(V) to the plant which accumulated much more Sb in its tissues under Sb(III) exposure than that under Sb(V) exposure. Under Sb(III) exposure, most of absorbed Sb was found to be Sb(III) in the shoots and roots; however when plants were exposed to Sb(V), most of absorbed Sb in this rice plant was Sb(V). Only two kinds of endogenous hormones were detected as abscisic acid (ABA) and salicylic acid (SA). The addition of Sb(III) significantly increased the content of ABA but Sb(V) did not, probably suggesting the higher toxicity of Sb(III) than Sb(V) might be due to the stimulation of ABA content. The addition of Sb(III) significantly increased the concentration of oxalic acid but decreased the concentrations of formic, acetic and maleic acids. Sb(V) also enhanced the oxalic acid concentration at 20 mg L-1 Sb(V) treatment level but reduced the concentrations of formic and acetic acids. Different forms of Sb dose-dependently increased the content of pectin, but significantly enhanced the content of lignin in cell wall. Different forms of Sb induced oxidative stress, but rice plant triggered the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) to counteract the oxidative stress.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Exenatide promotes insulin secretion and inhibits postprandial glucagon secretion. Polyethylene glycolated exenatide injection (PB-119), a derivative obtained by modification of exenatide, is more stable in metabolic behavior than exenatide in vivo. Our study aimed to evaluate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetic characteristics of polyethylene glycolated exenatide as a single subcutaneous injection in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Seventy subjects were randomly assigned to 8 incremental dosage groups (2, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 400 µg). The 2- to 50-µg groups had 8 subjects in each group (the ratio of test preparation to placebo was 3:1), and the 100- to 400-µg groups had 10 subjects in each group (the ratio of test preparation to placebo was 4:1). All the subjects received a single subcutaneous injection of polyethylene glycolated exenatide and placebo according to the dosage groups. The tolerability test was conducted in the 2- to 10-µg groups. The pharmacokinetic test was carried out in the 25- to 400-µg groups, and plasma samples were collected to determine the pharmacokinetics of polyethylene glycolated exenatide. After medication, the vital signs of the subjects were monitored, and laboratory tests and electrocardiogram tests were carried out regularly in all the subjects. RESULTS: All 70 subjects completed the experiment. Except for the 5-µg and 10-µg groups, the safety and tolerability tests showed no adverse reactions in the 2-µg to 50-µg groups. Several subjects in the 100-µg and 200-µg groups had tolerable gastrointestinal tract reactions, and all subjects in the 400-µg group experienced adverse reactions, mainly gastrointestinal tract reactions and liver dysfunction. The pharmacokinetics of polyethylene glycolated exenatide was studied in 36 subjects, which showed slow absorption, a mean peak time of 20-40 h, and a mean elimination half-life of 51-64 h. CONCLUSION: The administration of polyethylene glycolated exenatide injection at a single dose of 2-200 µg is safe and tolerable for healthy volunteers. Once-weekly polyethylene glycolated exenatide injection can be recommended. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: The study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (No. NCT02084251).

5.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 125: 109945, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028240

RESUMO

Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury (CI/RI) is a common feature of ischemic stroke, involving a period of impaired blood supply to the brain, followed by the restoration of cerebral perfusion through medical intervention. Although ischemia and reperfusion brain damage is a complex pathological process with an unclear physiological mechanism, more attention is currently focused on the neuroinflammatory response of an ischemia/reperfusion origin, and anti-inflammatory appears to be a potential therapeutic strategy following ischemic stroke. QiShenYiQi (QSYQ), a component-based Chinese medicine with Qi-tonifying and blood-activating property, has pharmacological actions of anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, mitochondrial protectant, anti-apoptosis, and antiplatelet aggregation. We have previously reported that the cardioprotective effect of QSYQ against ischemia/reperfusion injury is via improvement of mitochondrial functional integrity. In this research work, we aimed to investigate the possible mechanism involved in the neuroprotection of QSYQ in mice model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury based on the inflammatory pathway. The cerebral protection was evaluated in the stroke mice after 24 h reperfusion by assessing the neurological deficit, cerebral infarction, brain edema, BBB functionality, and via histopathological assessment. TCM-based network pharmacology method was performed to establish and analyze compound-target-disease & function-pathway network so as to find the possible mechanism linking to the role of QSYQ in CI/RI. In addition, RT-qPCR was used to verify the accuracy of predicted signaling gene expression. As a result, improvement of neurological outcome, reduction of infarct volume and brain edema, a decrease in BBB disruption, and amelioration of histopathological alteration were observed in mice pretreated with QSYQ after experimental stroke surgery. Network pharmacology analysis revealed neuroinflammatory response was associated with the action of QSYQ in CI/RI. RT-qPCR data showed that the mice pretreated with QSYQ could significantly decrease IFNG-γ, IL-6, TNF-α, NF-κB p65, and TLR-4 mRNA levels and increase TGF-ß1 mRNA level in the brain compared to the untreated mice after CI/RI (p < 0.05). In conclusion, our study indicated the cerebral protective effect of pretreatment with QSYQ against CI/RI, which may be partly related to its potential to the reduction of neuroinflammatory response in a stroke subject.

6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048845

RESUMO

Unveiling the mystery of the contribution of non-surface or non-interface sites in a catalyst to its catalytic performance remains a great challenge because of the difficulty in capturing precisely structural information (surface plus inner) encoded in the catalyst. This work attempts to elucidate the critical role of the internal vacancy in an atomically precise 24-atom gold cluster in regulating the catalytic performance on the hydrogenation reaction of CO2. The experiment results show that the Au24 cluster with internal vacancy can mitigate sintering and exhibit high catalytic activity under relatively harsh reaction conditions, in contrast to the structurally similar Au25 cluster without internal vacancy. Our computational study suggests that the internal vacancy in Au24 provides the cluster with much more structural flexibility, which may be crucial to resisting the aggregation of the cluster and further postponing the deactivation. The hydrogenation and coupling stages of the reaction intermediates are proposed to explain the potential reaction pathway of CO2 with H2 on the Au24 catalyst with internal vacancy.

7.
Nature ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015507

RESUMO

Since the SARS outbreak 18 years ago, a large number of severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoV) have been discovered in their natural reservoir host, bats1-4. Previous studies indicated that some of those bat SARSr-CoVs have the potential to infect humans5-7. Here we report the identification and characterization of a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) which caused an epidemic of acute respiratory syndrome in humans in Wuhan, China. The epidemic, which started from 12 December 2019, has caused 2,050 laboratory-confirmed infections with 56 fatal cases by 26 January 2020. Full-length genome sequences were obtained from five patients at the early stage of the outbreak. They are almost identical to each other and share 79.5% sequence identify to SARS-CoV. Furthermore, it was found that 2019-nCoV is 96% identical at the whole-genome level to a bat coronavirus. The pairwise protein sequence analysis of seven conserved non-structural proteins show that this virus belongs to the species of SARSr-CoV. The 2019-nCoV virus was then isolated from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of a critically ill patient, which can be neutralized by sera from several patients. Importantly, we have confirmed that this novel CoV uses the same cell entry receptor, ACE2, as SARS-CoV.

8.
J Pharm Pharm Sci ; 23(1): 1-9, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027818

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We investigated the relationship between imatinib trough concentrations and genetic polymorphisms with efficacy of imatinib in Chinese patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). METHODS: There were 171 eligible patients. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 171 eligible patients between 21 and 27 hours after the last imatinib administration. Complete cytogenetic response (CCyR), major molecular response (MMR) and complete molecular response (CMR) were used as metrics for efficacy. Nine single nucleotide polymorphisms in 5 genes, SLC22A4 (917 T>C, -248 C>G and -538 C>G), SLC22A5 (-945 T>G and -1889 T>C), SLCO1A2 (-361 G>A), SLCO1B3 (334 T>G and 699 G>A) and ABCG2 (421C>A) were selected for genotyping. RESULTS: Patients with CCyR achieve higher trough concentrations than those without CCyR (1478.18±659.83 vs 984.89±454.06 ng mL-1, p<0.001). Patients with MMR and CMR achieve higher trough concentrations than those without MMR and CMR, respectively (1486.40±703.38 vs 1121.17±527.14 ng mL-1, p=0.007; 1528.00±709.98 vs 1112.67±518.35 ng mL-1, p=0.003, respectively). Carriers of A allele in SLCO1A2 -361G>A achieve higher CCyR and MMR rates (p=0.047, OR=4.320, 95% CI: 0.924-20.206; p=0.042, OR=2.825, 95% CI: 1.016-7.853, respectively). Both trough concentrations and SLCO1A2 -361G>A genotypes are independent factors affecting imatinib efficacy. The positive and negative predictive values for CCyR are 71.01% and 68.75%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values for MMR are 62.86% and 69.70%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Imatinib trough concentrations and SLCO1A2 -361G>A genotypes are associated with imatinib efficacy in Chinese patients with CML.

9.
Cancer Lett ; 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954770

RESUMO

Glioblastoma (GBM) has limited therapeutic options. DNA repair mechanisms contribute GBM cells to escape therapies and re-establish tumor growth. Multiple studies have shown that POLD2 plays a critical role in DNA replication, DNA repair and genomic stability. We demonstrate for the first time that POLD2 is highly expressed in human glioma specimens and that expression correlates with poor patient survival. siRNA or shRNA POLD2 inhibited GBM cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, invasiveness, sensitized GBM cells to chemo/radiation-induced cell death and reversed the cytoprotective effects of EGFR signaling. Conversely, forced POLD2 expression was found to induce GBM cell proliferation, colony formation, invasiveness and chemo/radiation resistance. POLD2 expression associated with stem-like cell subsets (CD133+ and SSEA-1+ cells) and positively correlated with Sox2 expression in clinical specimens. Its expression was induced by Sox2 and inhibited by the forced differentiation of GBM neurospheres. shRNA-POLD2 modestly inhibited GBM neurosphere-derived orthotopic xenografts growth, when combined with radiation, dramatically inhibited xenograft growth in a cooperative fashion. These novel findings identify POLD2 as a new potential therapeutic target for enhancing GBM response to current standard of care therapeutics.

10.
Talanta ; 210: 120652, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31987200

RESUMO

Here, the novel petal-shaped ionic liquids modified covalent organic frameworks (PS-IL-COFs) particles have been synthesized by using ionic liquids as modifying agent, which could be beneficial to avoid the aggregation of COFs during the preparation and improve its dispersing performance. The novel PS-IL-COFs particles have been used and evaluated in the one step cleanup and extraction (OSCE) procedure for human plasma prior to the analysis of 3 general anesthetics by liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In the OSCE procedure, human plasma samples are directly mixed with extraction solvent and PS-IL-COFs particles, and the extraction and cleanup procedure have been carried out simultaneously. Compared with the Oasis PRiME HLB cartridge method, the OSCE procedure using PS-IL-COFs particles as sorbents is much more effective for the minimization of ion suppression resulted from blood phospholipids. Under optimal conditions, the PS-IL-COFs particles show higher cleanup efficiency of 3 general anesthetics with recoveries in the range of 82.5%-115%. The limits of quantification (LOQs) for propofol, ketamine and etomidate are 0.18 µg/L, 0.15 µg/L and 0.016 µg/L, respectively. Validation results on linearity, specificity, precision and trueness, as well as on the application to analysis of general anesthetics in a case of a 54-year-old female suffered gallstone demonstrate the applicability to clinical studies.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965499

RESUMO

Understanding the mechanisms that lead various hydrological conditions to influence solute and carbon dynamics in karst rivers is a crucial issue. In this study, high-frequency sampling and analyses of water chemistry and ẟ13CDIC were conducted from October 2013 to September 2014 in a typical karst river, the Beipan River in southwestern China. The major ions (such as Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3-, K+, SO42-, Na+, and Cl-) in the river are mainly from the weathering of carbonates and silicates and present temporal hydrological variabilities. Sr and U are mainly derived from carbonate weathering and show chemostatic behaviors responding to increasing discharge, similar to carbonate-sourced ions Ca2+, Mg2+, and HCO3-. Silicate weathering is the primary source of Al and Li, which show significant dilution effects similar to those of Na+ responding to high discharge. Meanwhile, most dissolved trace elements (such as Zn, Cu, Ba, Sb, Mn, Mo, and Pb) are strongly impacted by anthropogenic overprints and also exhibit a significant seasonal variability, which may be related with mining activities in the investigated area. A simultaneous increase of ẟ13CDIC and decrease in ∆DIC contents and pCO2 values suggests that photosynthesis is the primary control on riverine DIC variability during the high-flow season. Besides, the pCO2 values display significant chemostatic behaviors owing to the influx of biological CO2, which is produced by microbiological activities and ecological processes, and enhanced by monsoonal climatic conditions. A two-dimensional endmember mixing model demonstrates that carbonate weathering (averaging 62%) along with biological carbon (averaging 38%) are main sources to the riverine DIC, with temporal variability. Consequently, these results show that carbonate weathering and involved plant photosynthesis are the dominant processes controlling the riverine DIC contents under high discharge and temperature conditions. This work provides insight into the crucial influence of hydrological variability on solute sources and carbon dynamics under monsoonal climate for the karst rivers.

12.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2108: 89-97, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939172

RESUMO

Tyramide signal amplification (TSA) is an enzyme-mediated method to enhance the immunohistochemical detection of protein, nucleic acid, or other molecules in situ.Here we describe immunofluorescent detection of a low-abundance cytokine receptor, interleukin-17 receptor B (IL17RB) in U2OS cells, using tyramide signal amplification. In addition, we present a tyramide signal amplification compatible double-color immunostaining protocol using primary antibodies from the same host species. Those applications allow detection of cellular proteins with enhanced sensitivity and add flexibility on primary antibody selection in double- or multicolor immunofluorescence staining assays.

13.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2108: 197-207, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939182

RESUMO

Interferon-γ (IFNγ) is a pleiotropic cytokine that signals to many different cell types. IFNγ has both antitumor functions and pro-tumorigenic effects and regulates different aspects of cell physiology, including metabolism. Cancer cells undergo a complex rearrangement of metabolic pathways that allows them to satisfy the needs of increased proliferation, and many cancer cells redirect glucose metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis. In this chapter, we describe a protocol that utilizes the Agilent Seahorse XFp Analyzer to assess mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis in ovarian cancer cells treated with IFNγ.

14.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2108: 345-353, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939193

RESUMO

CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing is an inexpensive and efficient tool for genetic modification. Here we present a methodological approach of establishing interleukin-17 receptor B (IL17RB) knockout cell lines using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genomic deletion. IL17RB gene encodes for a cytokine receptor that specifically binds to IL17B and IL17E and overexpressed in various cancers. The method involves CRISPR design, CRISPR cloning, delivery of CRISPR clone into cells, and verification of IL17RB gene deletion by deletion screening primer design, genomic DNA extraction, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Similar approaches can be used for generating mammalian cell lines with gene knockout for other genes of interest.

15.
J Chromatogr A ; : 460891, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980265

RESUMO

In this study, three batches of nano-titania functionalized covalent organic frameworks were acquired depending on different solvothermal reaction stages (24 h, 48 h and 72 h), which were named as single roll-up shaped nano-titania functionalized COFs (SSTF-COFs), double roll-up shaped nano-titania functionalized COFs (DSTF-COFs) and clover-shaped nano-titania functionalized covalent organic framework (CSTF-COFs), respectively. After comparing their extraction performances, the more efficient and stable CSTF-COFs were selected as sorbent for the dispersive solid phase extraction (dSPE) of eight target N-nitrosamines in drinking water, followed by the determination with liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Owing to the introduction of hydroxy groups, CSTF-COFs showed high extraction efficiency for N-nitrosamines with a wide range of polarities through hydrogen bonding interaction, hydrophobic interaction and hydrophilic interaction. Under optimum conditions, the developed method provided relatively low limits of detection (0.13-2.45 ng/L) and satisfactory recoveries (88.6-105.5%), with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 8.3%. Therefore, with the assistance of CSTF-COFs, trace levels of N-nitrosamines were quantitatively and sensitively determined in 31 out of 460 bottled drinking water samples in a sensitive and convenient way.

16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(3)2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991579

RESUMO

Eukaryotic genes are packaged into dynamic but stable chromatin structures to deal with transcriptional reprogramming and inheritance during development. Chromatin remodeling factors and histone chaperones are epigenetic factors that target nucleosomes and/or histones to establish and maintain proper chromatin structures during critical physiological processes such as DNA replication and transcriptional modulation. Root apical meristems are vital for plant root development. Regarding the well-characterized transcription factors involved in stem cell proliferation and differentiation, there is increasing evidence of the functional implications of epigenetic regulation in root apical meristem development. In this review, we focus on the activities of chromatin remodeling factors and histone chaperones in the root apical meristems of the model plant species Arabidopsis and rice.

17.
Orthop Surg ; 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958888

RESUMO

Derived disaster is a common concept in emergencies such as earthquakes. With the progress of society, the incidence of fractures caused by high-energy trauma has increased year by year. After the first injury, the possibility of derived injury caused by the original injury also increases rapidly. Orthopaedic surgeons, especially trauma orthopaedic surgeons, lack sufficient understanding and recognition of this kind of injury. The purpose of this article is to present a case series of an often missed injury pattern that is associated with an original injury. The diagnosis of derived injury may go unrecognized in a considerable number of cases and delayed treatment decreases the success rate of soft tissue repairing; therefore, a high index of suspicion and a proper early diagnosis is of paramount importance. We also describe the current surgical management used by the authors, and propose the concept of "derived injury", studying its clinical significance in traumatic orthopaedics.

18.
J Cell Biochem ; 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960992

RESUMO

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly malignant brain tumor. We explored the prognostic gene signature in 443 GBM samples by systematic bioinformatics analysis, using GSE16011 with microarray expression and corresponding clinical data from Gene Expression Omnibus as the training set. Meanwhile, patients from The Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas database (CGGA) were used as the test set and The Cancer Genome Atlas database (TCGA) as the validation set. Through Cox regression analysis, Kaplan-Meier analysis, t-distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding algorithm, clustering, and receiver operating characteristic analysis, a two-gene signature (GRIA2 and RYR3) associated with survival was selected in the GSE16011 dataset. The GRIA2-RYR3 signature divided patients into two risk groups with significantly different survival in the GSE16011 dataset (median: 0.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.64-0.98, vs median: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.65-1.61 years, logrank test P < .001), the CGGA dataset (median: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.70-1.18, vs median: 1.21, 95% CI: 0.95-2.94 years, logrank test P = .0017), and the TCGA dataset (median: 1.03, 95% CI: 0.86-1.24, vs median: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.04-1.85 years, logrank test P = .0064), validating the predictive value of the signature. And the survival predictive potency of the signature was independent from clinicopathological prognostic features in multivariable Cox analysis. We found that after transfection of U87 cells with small interfering RNA, GRIA2 and RYR3 influenced the biological behaviors of proliferation, migration, and invasion of glioblastoma cells. In conclusion, the two-gene signature was a robust prognostic model to predict GBM survival.

19.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 133(1): 9-16, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects of keto acid (KA) supplements on Chinese patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) are unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of KA supplementation on nutritional status, inflammatory markers, and bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) parameters in a cohort of Chinese patients with MHD without malnutrition. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized, controlled, single-center clinical study conducted in 2011 till 2014. Twenty-nine patients with MHD were randomly assigned to a control (n = 14) or a KA (n = 15) group. The control group maintained a dietary protein intake of 0.9 g/kg/day. The KA group received additional KA supplement (0.1 g/kg/day). BIA was used to determine the lean tissue mass, adipose tissue mass, and body cell mass. The patients' nutritional status, dialysis adequacy, and biochemical parameters were assessed at the ends of the third and sixth months with t test or Wilcoxon rank-sum test. RESULTS: The daily total energy intake for both groups was about 28 kcal/kg/day. After 6 months, the Kt/V (where K is the dialyzer clearance of urea, t is the dialysis time, and V is the volume of the distribution of urea) was 1.33 ±â€Š0.25 in KA group, and 1.34 ±â€Š0.25 in the control group. The median triceps skin-fold thickness in KA group was 12.00 and 9.00 mm in the control group. In addition, the median hand-grip strength in KA group was 21.10 and 25.65 kg in the control group. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to the anthropometry parameters, dialysis adequacy, serum calcium and phosphorus levels, inflammatory markers, and amino-acid profiles, or in relation to the parameters determined by BIA. Both groups achieved dialysis adequacy and maintained nutritional status during the study. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of Chinese patients with MHD, the patients in the control group whose dietary protein intake was 0.9 g/kg/day and total energy intake was 28 kcal/kg/day, maintained well nutritional status during study period. The KA supplement (0.1 g/kg/day) did not improve the essential amino acid/non-essential amino acid ratio, nor did it change the patients' mineral metabolism, inflammatory parameters, or body compositions.

20.
Elife ; 92020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959283

RESUMO

Many animals exhibit an astonishing ability to form groups of large numbers of individuals. The dynamic properties of such groups have been the subject of intensive investigation. The actual grouping processes and underlying neural mechanisms, however, remain elusive. Here, we established a social clustering paradigm in Drosophila to investigate the principles governing social group formation. Fruit flies spontaneously assembled into a stable cluster mimicking a distributed network. Social clustering was exhibited as a highly dynamic process including all individuals, which participated in stochastic pair-wise encounters mediated by appendage touches. Depriving sensory inputs resulted in abnormal encounter responses and a high failure rate of cluster formation. Furthermore, the social distance of the emergent network was regulated by ppk-specific neurons, which were activated by contact-dependent social grouping. Taken together, these findings revealed the development of an orderly social structure from initially unorganised individuals via collective actions.

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