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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 606, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001696

RESUMO

Manipulating liquids with tunable shape and optical functionalities in real time is important for electroactive flow devices and optoelectronic devices, but remains a great challenge. Here, we demonstrate electrotunable liquid sulfur microdroplets in an electrochemical cell. We observe electrowetting and merging of sulfur droplets under different potentiostatic conditions, and successfully control these processes via selective design of sulfiphilic/sulfiphobic substrates. Moreover, we employ the electrowetting phenomena to create a microlens based on the liquid sulfur microdroplets and tune its characteristics in real time through changing the shape of the liquid microdroplets in a fast, repeatable, and controlled manner. These studies demonstrate a powerful in situ optical battery platform for unraveling the complex reaction mechanism of sulfur chemistries and for exploring the rich material properties of the liquid sulfur, which shed light on the applications of liquid sulfur droplets in devices such as microlenses, and potentially other electrotunable and optoelectronic devices.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2067, 2019 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31061393

RESUMO

Fast-charging and high-energy-density batteries pose significant safety concerns due to high rates of heat generation. Understanding how localized high temperatures affect the battery is critical but remains challenging, mainly due to the difficulty of probing battery internal temperature with high spatial resolution. Here we introduce a method to induce and sense localized high temperature inside a lithium battery using micro-Raman spectroscopy. We discover that temperature hotspots can induce significant lithium metal growth as compared to the surrounding lower temperature area due to the locally enhanced surface exchange current density. More importantly, localized high temperature can be one of the factors to cause battery internal shorting, which further elevates the temperature and increases the risk of thermal runaway. This work provides important insights on the effects of heterogeneous temperatures within batteries and aids the development of safer batteries, thermal management schemes, and diagnostic tools.

3.
Nano Lett ; 19(2): 1326-1335, 2019 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30676759

RESUMO

Lithium (Li) metal has long been considered the "holy grail" of battery anode chemistry but is plagued by low efficiency and poor safety due to its high chemical reactivity and large volume fluctuation, respectively. Here we introduce a new host of wrinkled graphene cage (WGC) for Li metal. Different from recently reported amorphous carbon spheres, WGC show highly improved mechanical stability, better Li ion conductivity, and excellent solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) for continuous robust Li metal protection. At low areal capacities, Li metal is preferentially deposited inside the graphene cage. Cryogenic electron microscopy characterization shows that a uniform and stable SEI forms on the WGC surface that can shield the Li metal from direct exposure to electrolyte. With increased areal capacities, Li metal is plated densely and homogeneously into the outer pore spaces between graphene cages with no dendrite growth or volume change. As a result, a high Coulombic efficiency (CE) of ∼98.0% was achieved under 0.5 mA/cm2 and 1-10 mAh/cm2 in commercial carbonate electrolytes, and a CE of 99.1% was realized with high-concentration electrolytes under 0.5 mA/cm2 and 3 mAh/cm2. Full cells using WGC electrodes with prestored Li paired with Li iron phosphate showed greatly improved cycle lifetime. With 10 mAh/cm2 Li metal deposition, the WGC/Li composite anode was able to provide a high specific capacity of ∼2785 mAh/g. With its roll-to-roll compatible fabrication procedure, WGC serves as a highly promising material for the practical realization of Li metal anodes in next-generation high energy density secondary batteries.

4.
Nano Lett ; 18(2): 1130-1138, 2018 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29297691

RESUMO

Aerosol-induced haze problem has become a serious environmental concern. Filtration is widely applied to remove aerosols from gas streams. Despite classical filtration theories, the nanoscale capture and evolution of aerosols is not yet clearly understood. Here we report an in situ investigation on the nanoscale capture and evolution of aerosols on polyimide nanofibers. We discovered different capture and evolution behaviors among three types of aerosols: wetting liquid droplets, nonwetting liquid droplets, and solid particles. The wetting droplets had small contact angles and could move, coalesce, and form axisymmetric conformations on polyimide nanofibers. In contrast, the nonwetting droplets had a large contact angle on polyimide nanofibers and formed nonaxisymmetric conformations. Different from the liquid droplets, the solid particles could not move along the nanofibers and formed dendritic structures. This study provides an important insight for obtaining a deep understanding of the nanoscale capture and evolution of aerosols and benefits future design and development of advanced filters.

5.
Langmuir ; 33(36): 8970-8975, 2017 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28816460

RESUMO

Textured surfaces are instrumental in water repellency or fluid wicking applications, where the pinning and depinning of the liquid-gas interface plays an important role. Previous work showed that a contact line can exhibit nonuniform behavior due to heterogeneities in surface chemistry or roughness. We demonstrate that such nonuniformities can be achieved even without varying the local energy barrier. Around a cylindrical pillar, an interface can reside in an intermediate state where segments of the contact line are pinned to the pillar top while the rest of the contact line moves along the sidewall. This partially pinned mode is due to the global nonaxisymmetric pattern of the surface features and exists for all textured surfaces, especially when superhydrophobic surfaces are about to be flooded or when capillary wicks are close to dryout.

6.
Langmuir ; 32(7): 1920-7, 2016 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26808963

RESUMO

Thin-film evaporation in wick structures for cooling high-performance electronic devices is attractive because it harnesses the latent heat of vaporization and does not require external pumping. However, optimizing the wick structures to increase the dry-out heat flux is challenging due to the complexities in modeling the liquid-vapor interface and the flow through the wick structures. In this work, we developed a model for thin-film evaporation from micropillar array wick structures and validated the model with experiments. The model numerically simulates liquid velocity, pressure, and meniscus curvature along the wicking direction by conservation of mass, momentum, and energy based on a finite volume approach. Specifically, the three-dimensional meniscus shape, which varies along the wicking direction with the local liquid pressure, is accurately captured by a force balance using the Young-Laplace equation. The dry-out condition is determined when the minimum contact angle on the pillar surface reaches the receding contact angle as the applied heat flux increases. With this model, we predict the dry-out heat flux on various micropillar structure geometries (diameter, pitch, and height) in the length scale range of 1-100 µm and discuss the optimal geometries to maximize the dry-out heat flux. We also performed detailed experiments to validate the model predictions, which show good agreement. This work provides insights into the role of surface structures in thin-film evaporation and offers important design guidelines for enhanced thermal management of high-performance electronic devices.

7.
Langmuir ; 32(2): 519-26, 2016 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26684395

RESUMO

Capillary assisted passively pumped thermal management devices have gained importance due to their simple design and reduction in energy consumption. The performance of these devices is strongly dependent on the shape of the curved interface between the liquid and vapor phases. We developed a transient laser interferometry technique to investigate the evolution of the shape of the liquid-vapor interface in micropillar arrays during evaporation heat transfer. Controlled cylindrical micropillar arrays were fabricated on the front side of a silicon wafer, while thin-film heaters were deposited on the reverse side to emulate a heat source. The shape of the meniscus was determined using the fringe patterns resulting from interference of a monochromatic beam incident on the thin liquid layer. We studied the evolution of the shape of the meniscus on these surfaces under various operating conditions including varying the micropillar geometry and the applied heating power. By monitoring the transient behavior of the evaporating liquid-vapor interface, we accurately measured the absolute location and shape of the meniscus and calculated the contact angle and the maximum capillary pressure. We demonstrated that the receding contact angle which determines the capillary pumping limit is independent of the microstructure geometry and the rate of evaporation (i.e., the applied heating power). The results of this study provide fundamental insights into the dynamic behavior of the liquid-vapor interface in wick structures during phase-change heat transfer.

8.
Adv Mater ; 26(37): 6442-6, 2014 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25047631

RESUMO

Magnetically tunable micropillar arrays with uniform, continuous and extreme tilt angles for real-time manipulation are reported. We experimentally show uniform tilt angles ranging from 0° to 57°, and develop a model to accurately capture the behavior. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the flexible uniform responsive microstructures (µFUR) can dynamically manipulate liquid spreading directionality, control fluid drag, and tune optical transmittance over a large range.


Assuntos
Magnetismo , Dimetilpolisiloxanos/química , Metais/química , Silício/química , Propriedades de Superfície , Imagem com Lapso de Tempo , Água/química , Molhabilidade
9.
Langmuir ; 28(45): 15777-88, 2012 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23057739

RESUMO

Understanding the complexities associated with contact line dynamics on chemically heterogeneous and superhydrophobic surfaces is important for a wide variety of engineering problems. Despite significant efforts to capture the behavior of a droplet on these surfaces over the past few decades, modeling of the complex dynamics at the three-phase contact line is needed. In this work, we demonstrate that contact line distortion on heterogeneous and superhydrophobic surfaces is the key aspect that needs to be accounted for in the dynamic droplet models. Contact line distortions were visualized and modeled using a thermodynamic approach to develop a unified model for contact angle hysteresis on chemically heterogeneous and superhydrophobic surfaces. On a surface comprised of discrete wetting defects on an interconnected less wetting area, the advancing contact angle was determined to be independent of the defects, while the relative fraction of the distorted contact line with respect to the baseline surface was shown to govern the receding contact angle. This behavior reversed when the relative wettability of the discrete defects and interconnected area was inverted. The developed model showed good agreement with the experimental advancing and receding contact angles, both at low and high solid fractions. The thermodynamic model was further extended to demonstrate its capability to capture droplet shape evolution during liquid addition and removal in our experiments and those in literature. This study offers new insight extending the fundamental understanding of solid-liquid interactions required for design of advanced functional coatings for microfluidics, biological, manufacturing, and heat transfer applications.

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