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1.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; : ATVBAHA121314689, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827259

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Smyd3 (SET and MYND domain-containing protein 3) is an H3K4 (histone H3 lysine 4) dimethyltransferase and trimethyltransferase that activates the transcription of oncogenes and cell cycle genes in human cancer cells. We discovered its overexpression in proliferative vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). However, whether Smyd3 plays a role in vascular remodeling remains unanswered. The objective of this study is to investigate the role and underlying mechanism of Smyd3 in phenotypic transition of VSMCs (such as proliferation and migration) and vascular remodeling (such as neointima formation). Approach and Results: We discovered upregulation of Smyd3 in both PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor) BB-induced vascular cell proliferation model and balloon injury-induced neointima formation model. Knockdown of Smyd3 or blockade of its enzymatic activity suppressed VSMCs proliferation and migration ability, whereas Smyd3 overexpression promoted VSMC migration and proliferation. Mechanistically, RNA-seq and ChIP-seq analysis revealed Smyd3 promoted neointimal formation by directly binding and increasing H3K4me3 to the promoter regions of target genes that are associated with cell proliferation and migration, cell cycle control. Furthermore, knockout of Smyd3 in mice profoundly suppressed carotid artery ligation-induced neointimal hyperplasia, consistently, local knocking down Smyd3 in rats relieved balloon injury-induced neointimal formation, while restored VSMC contractile protein expression, suggesting that Smyd3 plays a critical role in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that Smyd3 promotes VSMC proliferation and migration during injury-induced vascular remodeling, which provide a potential therapeutic target for preventing neointimal hyperplasia in proliferative vascular diseases.

2.
Health Commun ; : 1-9, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829932

RESUMO

Chinese international students (CIS) in American universities encounter serious mental health issues, and they also underutilize campus mental health care services. The current study examined several factors which result in this phenomenon, such as Chinese face concerns, self-stigma of seeking help for mental health services, as well as English proficiency and language discrimination. A survey with 433 CIS in multiple U.S. universities was conducted to analyze the relationships between these factors above, help-seeking intentions, and mental health problems (depression and anxiety). The SEM results suggested that face concerns increased the risk of mental health problems such as depression and anxiety and also increased self-stigma toward seeking mental health services. However, face concerns positively influenced help-seeking intentions. The self-stigma had a negative effect on help-seeking intentions. Perceived English discrimination increased mental health problems while English proficiency increased help-seeking intentions. Meanwhile, both linguistic factors above were significantly associated with face concerns. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed to investigate how to address mental health problems among Chinese international students.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33834866

RESUMO

Extracellular matrix (ECM) exerts a list of biological functions, contributing to almost 30% of the osteogenic process. Periostin is a secreted protein that can alter ECM remodeling in response to vascular injury. However, the functional role of periostin in vascular calcification has yet to be fully described. Ex vivo, recombinant periostin accelerated thoracic aortas calcification, increased the expression of glycolysis key enzymes, and disturbed the normal oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), which could be alleviated by the peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonist pioglitazone. In vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), recombinant periostin promoted VSMC-osteoblastic phenotype transition and calcium deposition, and suppressed PPARγ expression. Mechanistically, recombinant periostin caused over-activation of glycolysis and mitochondrial dysfunction in VSMCs, as assessed by extracellular acidification rate (ECAR), oxygen consumption rate, and mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes activities. Targeted glycolysis inhibitors reduced mitochondrial calcium overload, apoptosis, and periostin-induced VSMCs calcification. PPARγ agonists preserved glycolysis and OXPHOS in the stimulated microenvironment, and reversed periostin-promoted VSMC calcification. Furthermore, plasma periostin, lactate, and matrix Gla protein levels were measured in 274 patients who underwent computed tomography to determine coronary artery calcium score (Agatston score). Plasma periostin and lactate levels were both linked to an Agatston score of more than zero in patients with coronary artery calcification. There is also a positive correlation between plasma periostin and lactate levels. This study suggests that downregulation of PPARγ is involved in the mechanism by which periostin accelerates arterial calcification, partly through excessive glycolysis activation and unbalanced mitochondrial homeostasis.

4.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836087

RESUMO

Deficient maturations of mitochondrial transcripts are linked to clinical abnormalities but their pathophysiology remains elusive. Previous investigations showed that pathogenic variants in MTO1 for the biosynthesis of τm5U of tRNAGlu, tRNAGln, tRNALys, tRNATrp and tRNALeu(UUR) were associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Using mto1 knock-out(KO) zebrafish generated by CRISPR/Cas9 system, we demonstrated the pleiotropic effects of Mto1 deficiency on mitochondrial RNA maturations. The perturbed structure and stability of tRNAs caused by mto1 deletion were evidenced by conformation changes and sensitivity to S1-mediated digestion of tRNAGln, tRNALys, tRNATrp and tRNALeu(UUR). Notably, mto1KO zebrafish exhibited the global decreases in the aminoacylation of mitochondrial tRNAs with the taurine modification. Strikingly, ablated mto1 mediated the expression of MTPAP and caused the altered polyadenylation of cox1, cox3, and nd1 mRNAs. Immunoprecipitation assay indicated the interaction of MTO1 with MTPAP related to mRNA polyadenylation. These alterations impaired mitochondrial translation and reduced activities of oxidative phosphorylation complexes. These mitochondria dysfunctions caused heart development defects and hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes and myocardial fiber disarray in ventricles. These cardiac defects in the mto1KO zebrafish recapitulated the clinical phenotypes in HCM patients carrying the MTO1 mutation(s). Our findings highlighted the critical role of MTO1 in mitochondrial transcript maturation and their pathological consequences in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7303, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33790328

RESUMO

Only a minority of cases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) have a poor clinical outcome. Clinical outcomes and molecular aspects were assessed in: 144 DTC ≤ 40 mm without distant metastases (group 1); 50 DTC > 40 mm without distant metastases (group 2); and 46 DTC with distant metastases (group 3). Group 3 had a worse outcome than the other two groups: during the follow-up, patients more frequently had persistent disease, died, or underwent further treatment. The outcomes did not differ between groups 1 and 2. Group 3 had a higher prevalence of TERT promoter mutations than group 2 (32.6% vs 14%). Group 1 had a higher frequency of BRAF mutations than groups 2 or 3 (61.1% vs 16.0% and 26.1%, respectively), while RAS mutations were more common in group 2 than in groups 1 and 3 (16.0% vs 2.1% and 6.5%, respectively). Groups 1 and 2 shared the same outcome, but were genetically distinct. Only lymph node involvement, distant metastases, older age and (among the molecular markers) TERT promoter mutations were independent predictors of a worse outcome. Metastatic DTC had the worst outcome, while the outcome was identical for large and small non-metastatic DTC, although they showed different molecular patterns. TERT promoter mutations emerged as an independent factor pointing to a poor prognosis.

6.
Orthop Surg ; 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821565

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate mid- to long-term results of revision total hip arthroplasty for massive femoral bone loss using a cementless modular, fluted, tapered stem. METHODS: This is a retrospective study performed at a single hospital. During the period of January 2007 to January 2015, 33 patients (34 hips) underwent primary revision surgery with cementless modular, fluted, tapered stems due to femoral bone loss. Sixteen men and 17 women were included in the study, with an average age of 63.9 ± 11.7 years (range, 27 to 88 years). Operative data including operative duration, length of incision, drainage volume and duration, blood loss and transfusion, cases of bone graft and extended trochanteric osteotomy were recorded. Clinical evaluation was performed using Harris hip score (HHS), visual analogue scale (VAS), and patients' satisfaction. Radiographic data including femoral stem fixation, subsidence, integrin of allograft bone, and leg length discrepancy were assessed. Complications and survivorship were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival rate. RESULTS: The mean follow-up was 9.1 ± 2.5 years (range, 5-13 years). The Harris hip score was 43.6 ± 11.5 preoperatively and maintained at 86.5 ± 6.6 at the time of latest follow-up (P < 0. 05). The X-ray showed bone ingrowth fixation in 30 hips (88%), fibrous stable fixation in three hips (9%), and instability in one hip (3%). The average stem subsidence was 3.9 ± 2.2 mm (range, 1 to 10 mm). The mean difference in leg length in our study was 3.3 ± 2.7 mm (range, 0 to 10 mm), and the leg length discrepancy in 28 (82%) patients was within 5 mm. No case of junction fracture was observed. Seven (21%) intraoperative fractures occurred in our study. Three (9%) cases with infection were observed after revision. Six (18%) patients had lower limb vein thrombosis. The survivorship of prostheses with re-revision for any reason was 95% (95% CI, 12.0 to 13.0) at the 10-year follow-up. Three (9%) re-revisions were needed, including one for aseptic loosening, one for dislocation, and one for infection. CONCLUSION: The mid- to long-term results of revision total hip arthroplasty with the cementless modular, fluted, tapered stems are encouraging for massive femoral bone loss.

7.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797188

RESUMO

Bladder cancer (BLCA) is one of the most common urological cancer with increasing cases and deaths every year. In the present study, we aim to construct an immune-related prognostic lncRNA signature (IRPLS) in bladder cancer (BLCA) patients and explore its immunogenomic implications in pan-cancers. First, the immune-related differentially expressed lncRNAs (IRDELs) were identified by 'limma' R package and the score of IRPLS in every patient were evaluated by Cox regression. The dysregulation of IRDELs expression between cancer and para-cancer normal tissues was validated through RT-qPCR. Then, we further explore the biological functions of a novel lncRNA from IRPLS, RP11-89 in BLCA using CCK8 assay, Transwell assay and Apoptosis analysis, which indicated that RP11-89 was able to promote cell proliferation and invasive capacity while inhibits cell apoptosis in BLCA. In addition, we performed bioinformatic methods and RIP to investigate and validate the RP11-89/miR-27a-3p/PPARγ pathway in order to explore the mechanism. Next, CIBERSORT and ESTIMATE algorithm were used to evaluate abundance of tumour-infiltrating immune cells and scores of tumour environment elements in BLCA with different level of IRPLS risk scores. Finally, multiple bioinformatic methods were performed to show us the immune landscape of these four lncRNAs for pan-cancers. In conclusion, this study first constructed an immune-related prognostic lncRNA signature, which consists of RP11-89, PSORS1C3, LINC02672 and MIR100HG and might shed lights on novel targets for individualized immunotherapy for BLCA patients.

8.
PLoS Genet ; 17(4): e1009238, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826602

RESUMO

ARID1A is a core DNA-binding subunit of the BAF chromatin remodeling complex, and is lost in up to 7% of all cancers. The frequency of ARID1A loss increases in certain cancer types, such as clear cell ovarian carcinoma where ARID1A protein is lost in about 50% of cases. While the impact of ARID1A loss on the function of the BAF chromatin remodeling complexes is likely to drive oncogenic gene expression programs in specific contexts, ARID1A also binds genome stability regulators such as ATR and TOP2. Here we show that ARID1A loss leads to DNA replication stress associated with R-loops and transcription-replication conflicts in human cells. These effects correlate with altered transcription and replication dynamics in ARID1A knockout cells and to reduced TOP2A binding at R-loop sites. Together this work extends mechanisms of replication stress in ARID1A deficient cells with implications for targeting ARID1A deficient cancers.

9.
Nature ; 592(7854): 376-380, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33854251

RESUMO

The collective dynamics of topological structures1-6 are of interest from both fundamental and applied perspectives. For example, studies of dynamical properties of magnetic vortices and skyrmions3,4 have not only deepened our understanding of many-body physics but also offered potential applications in data processing and storage7. Topological structures constructed from electrical polarization, rather than electron spin, have recently been realized in ferroelectric superlattices5,6, and these are promising for ultrafast electric-field control of topological orders. However, little is known about the dynamics underlying the functionality of such complex extended nanostructures. Here, using terahertz-field excitation and femtosecond X-ray diffraction measurements, we observe ultrafast collective polarization dynamics that are unique to polar vortices, with orders-of-magnitude higher frequencies and smaller lateral size than those of experimentally realized magnetic vortices3. A previously unseen tunable mode, hereafter referred to as a vortexon, emerges in the form of transient arrays of nanoscale circular patterns of atomic displacements, which reverse their vorticity on picosecond timescales. Its frequency is considerably reduced (softened) at a critical strain, indicating a condensation (freezing) of structural dynamics. We use first-principles-based atomistic calculations and phase-field modelling to reveal the microscopic atomic arrangements and corroborate the frequencies of the vortex modes. The discovery of subterahertz collective dynamics in polar vortices opens opportunities for electric-field-driven data processing in topological structures with ultrahigh speed and density.

10.
Mini Rev Med Chem ; 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845740

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease (CoVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) scrambles the world by infecting millions of peoples all over the globe. It has caused tremendous morbidity, mortality and greatly impacted the lives and economy worldwide as an outcome of mandatory quarantines or isolations. Despite the worsening trends of COVID-19, no drugs are validated to have significant efficacy in clinical treatment of COVID-19 patients in large-scale studies. Physicians and researchers throughout the world are working to understand the pathophysiology to expose the conceivable handling regimens and to determine the effective vaccines and/or therapeutic agents. Some of them re-purposed drugs for clinical trials which were primarily known to be effective against the RNA viruses including MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-1. In the absence of a proven efficacy therapy, the current management use therapies based on antivirals, anti-inflammatory drugs, convalescent plasma, anti-parasitic agents in both oral and parenteral formulation, oxygen therapy and heparin support. What is needed at this hour, however, is a definitive drug therapy or vaccine. Different countries are rushing to find this, and various trials are already underway. We aimed to summarized the potential therapeutic strategies as a treatment options for COVID-19 that could be helpful to stop further spread of SARS-CoV-2 by effecting its structural components or modulation of immune response and also discusses the leading drugs/vaccines, which were considered as potential agents for controlling this pandemic.

11.
Eye Contact Lens ; 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813586

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the lower lid margin thickness (LLMT) from the posterior lash line to the anterior edge of tear meniscus with Oculus Keratograph 4 (K4). METHODS: This was a prospective, single-center, observational study. A total of 90 volunteers aged 18 to 79 years with no ocular diseases were included in this study. The LLMT of 90 subjects was measured twice by the same person with K4. To determine the reliability of K4, measuring the LLMT of 30 normal subjects was separately performed by two operators. RESULTS: The LLMT measurements with K4 between two operators demonstrated a good reproducibility (0.94±0.18 vs. 0.96±0.16 mm; intraclass correlation coefficient=0.88; P=0.18). The mean age of 90 volunteers (42 men and 48 women) was 45.5±14.1 years. The LLMT was 0.95±0.17 mm, which was a significant positive correlation with age (rs=0.57; P<0.001). In addition, there was no significant difference in the LLMT between genders (0.97±0.16 vs. 0.93±0.18 mm; P=0.32). CONCLUSIONS: We found that K4 was a reliable tool in the LLMT measurements, and the LLMT seemed to be closely related to age but not to gender.

12.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 12(3)2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809783

RESUMO

Rapid tooling technology (RTT) provides an alternative approach to quickly provide wax injection molds for the required products since it can reduce the time to market compared with conventional machining approaches. Removing conformal cooling channels (CCCs) is the key technology for manufacturing injection mold fabricated by rapid tooling technology. In this study, three different kinds of materials were used to fabricate CCCs embedded in the injection mold. This work explores a technology for rapid development of injection mold with high cooling performance. It was found that wax is the most suitable material for making CCCs. An innovative method for fabricating a large intermediary mold with both high load and supporting capacities for manufacturing a large rapid tooling using polyurethane foam was demonstrated. A trend equation for predicting the usage amount of polyurethane foam was proposed. The production cost savings of about 50% can be obtained. An optimum conformal cooling channel design obtained by simulation is proposed. Three injection molds with different cooling channels for injection molding were fabricated by RTT. Reductions in the cooling time by about 89% was obtained. The variation of the results between the experiment and the simulation was investigated and analyzed.

13.
Support Care Cancer ; 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704565

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) is a major long-term complication for post-surgery breast cancer survivors. Although several risk factors have been identified, lifestyle characteristics have been neglected in previous studies. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a nomogram for estimating this population's risk of developing lymphedema, taking into consideration their demographic, clinical, and personal lifestyle behaviors. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, we collected data from 775 post-operative breast cancer survivors who had attended a follow-up session in the recent 10 years (primary cohort). Lymphedema was assessed using the Norman telephone questionnaire, self-reported by patients. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for lymphedema, including demographic, clinical, and lifestyle-related factors. A nomogram was constructed based on those factors and was validated using a separate group of 314 breast cancer patients (validation cohort). RESULTS: The factors independently associated with lymphedema were higher body mass index (BMI), modified radical mastectomy (MRM), postsurgical infection, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, exercise of the affected arm, and the active participation in physical activity (P<0.05). The area under the curve (AUC) values of the primary and the validation cohorts were 0.721 (95% confidence interval: 0.685-0.756) and 0.702 (95% confidence interval: 0.646-0.759), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: BCRL risk factors include MRM, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and higher BMI, while the active physical activity behavior of patients appears to be a factor against lymphedema. The nomogram incorporating the patients' clinical and lifestyle factors might be useful for predicting lymphedema in breast cancer survivors.

14.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 132021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752173

RESUMO

Exosome-mediated intercellular communication is considered to be an effective mode for malignant cells to transform biological behaviors in stromal cells. However, the mechanisms by which exosomes modulate macrophages within tumor microenvironment remain largely unclear. In this study, we found that both adriamycin-resistant breast cancer (BCa) cells and the corresponding exosomes (A/exo) were capable of inducing macrophages M2 polarization, which promoted the mobility, proliferation, migration and invasion of BCa cells. Since exosomes deliver microRNAs to affect cellular functions in recipient cells, we confirmed that miR-222 was significantly enriched in A/exo and could be successfully transferred to macrophages. Increased miR-222 level was also detected in exosomes derived from plasma and tissues of chemoresistant patients. Moreover, exosomal miR-222 from A/exo polarized M2 macrophages by targeting PTEN and activating Akt signaling pathway, which promoted BCa cells progression in a feed back loop. Co-culture of adriamycin-resistant BCa cells with macrophages in which miR-222 was upregulated or treated with A/exo facilitated tumor growth in vivo. Collectively, our data demonstrated that chemoresistant BCa cells could remodel macrophages within tumor microenvironment by secreting exosomal miR-222, which directly targeted PTEN and caused Akt cascade activation and macrophages M2 polarization. Our findings may provide a foundation for a promising strategy of BCa treatment by targeting exosomes or exosomal miR-222.

15.
J Ovarian Res ; 14(1): 42, 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous meta-analysis studies suggested that pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) may improve the survival rate of patients with recurrent ovarian cancer. The aim of the present meta-analysis, then, was to further update the role of PLD in the treatment of recurrent ovarian cancer. METHODS: We performed a literature search using the electronic databases Medicine, EMBASE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library to 27 July 2020. We only restricted the randomized clinical trials. Study-specific hazard ratios and 95% confidence interval (HR/95% CI) and risk ratios and 95% confidence interval (RR/95% CI) were pooled using a random-effects model. RESULTS: Ten studies (12 trials) were included after screening 940 articles. We categorized the eligible studies into two groups: the doublet regimens (four trials, 1767 patients) showed that PLD plus carbo provided superior progression-free survival (PFS) (HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.74-0.97) and similar overall survival (OS) (HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.88-1.14) compared to paclitaxel (PAC) plus carboplatin (carbo). PLD plus carbo was associated with significantly more anemia and thrombocytopenia, and other side effects were well tolerated. The monotherapy regimens (eight trials, 1980 patients) showed that PLD possessed a similar PFS (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.90-1.16) and OS (HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.77-1.01) relative to other monotherapies. PLD alone was also more associated with mucositis/stomatitis and hand-foot syndrome, while other side effects were well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: In platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer, PLD plus carbo was more effective than PAC plus carbo, while in platinum-resistant or -refractory recurrent ovarian cancer, PLD exhibited similar survival to other monotherapies. Regarding side effects, PLD plus carbo and mono chemotherapy were both well tolerated.

16.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(3): 1158-1165, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742912

RESUMO

The remediation potential of large biomass energy grasses in cadmium-contaminated soil remains ambiguous. A field experiment was carried out in a cadmium-contaminated farmland using two energy grasses and two control plants. The two energy grasses were hybrid pennisetum (Pennisetum americanum×P. purpureum, PAP) and purple elephant grass (P. purpureum 'Purple', PPP), and the two control plants were Iris lactea var. chinensis (ILC) and a cadmium hyperaccumulator, Noccaea caerulescens (NC). The results showed that the aboveground biomass of PAP was the largest among the four plants, and 126 and 36 times that of NC and ILC, respectively, but no significant difference with that of PPP. The concentrations of cadmium and zinc in the shoots and roots of NC were significantly higher than in the other plants. Zinc concentrations in the shoots and roots of ILC were lower than in the other plants, while cadmium concentrations were significantly higher than in PAP and PPP (P<0.05). The amounts of cadmium and zinc accumulated in the shoots of PPP were the highest among the four plants, while cadmium concentrations in the shoots and roots of PPP were significantly lower than in ILC and NC (P<0.05). Cadmium amounts accumulated in PPP shoots were 7.0 and 4.1 times that of ILC and NC, respectively. Zinc amounts accumulated in PPP shoots were 41 and 11 times that of ILC and NC, respectively (P<0.05). Cadmium accumulation in the shoots of PAP was 19.4% lower than in PPP, and zinc accumulation had no significant difference with that of PPP. NC, having a bioconcentration factor of shoot (BCFS) and a translocation factor (TF) for cadmium and zinc both larger than 1, is usable for phytoextraction of soils contaminated by cadmium and zinc. ILC, having a bioconcentration factor of root (BCFR) larger than 1 and a TF lower than 1 for cadmium, is usable for the phytostabilization of soils contaminated by cadmium. PPP, having a BCFR larger than 1 and a TF lower than 1 for zinc, can be used in the phytostabilization of soils contaminated by zinc. Under field conditions, PPP and PAP showed great potential for the extraction and removal of cadmium and zinc from soil due to their large biomass and ability to produce economic benefits, have good application prospects.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Zinco/análise
17.
J Epidemiol ; 2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33746147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing number of studies has suggested the time to first cigarette after waking (TTFC) have significant positive effect on respiratory diseases. However, few of them are focused on Chinese population. This study aims to estimate the impact of TTFC on the prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases (CRD) in Chinese elderly and explore the association in different sub-populations. METHODS: Cross-sectional data of demographic characteristics, living environment, smoking-related variables, and CRD were drawn from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey in 2018. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association of the TTFC with the prevalence of CRD. RESULTS: This study includes 13208 subjects aged 52 years and older, with a mean age of 85.3 years. Of them, 3779 participants are ex- or current smokers (44.9% had the TTFC ≤30 minutes, 55.1% >30 minutes) and 1503 have suffered from CRD. Compared with non-smokers, participants with TTFC ≤30 minutes seemed to have higher prevalence of CRD (OR 1.97; 95% CI, 1.65-2.35) than those with TTFC >30 minutes (OR 1.70; 95% CI, 1.44-2.00), although the difference was statistically insignificant (Pinteraction=0.12). Compared with TTFC >30 minutes, TTFC ≤30 minutes could drive a higher prevalence of CRD among female participants, those aged 90 years and older, urban residents, and those ex-smokers (Pinteraction<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Shorter TTFC relates to higher prevalences of CRD in Chinese older females, those aged 90 years and older, urban residents, and ex-smokers. Delaying TTFC might particially reduce its detrimental impact on respiratory disease in these specific subpopulations.

18.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33779828

RESUMO

Bacterial blight (BB), caused by Xanthomonas citri pv. malvacearum (Xcm), is a destructive disease to cotton production in many countries. In the U.S., Xcm race 18 is the most virulent and widespread race and can cause serious yield losses. Planting BB-resistant cotton cultivars is the most effective method of controlling this disease. In this study, 335 U.S. Upland cotton accessions were evaluated for resistance to race 18 using artificial inoculations by scratching cotyledons on an individual plant basis in a greenhouse. The analysis of variance detected significant genotypic variation in disease incidence, and 50 accessions were resistant including 38 lines with no symptoms on either cotyledons or true leaves. Many of the resistant lines were developed in the MAR (multi-adversity resistance) breeding program at Texas A&M University, whereas others were developed before race 18 was first reported in the U.S. in 1973, suggesting a broad base of resistance to race 18. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) based on 26,301 single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers detected 11 quantitative trait loci (QTL) anchored by 79 SNPs, including three QTL on each of the three chromosomes A01, A05 and D02, and one QTL on each of D08 and D10. This study has identified a set of obsolete Upland germplasm with resistance to race 18 and specific chromosomal regions delineated by SNPs for resistance. The results will assist in breeding cotton for BB resistance and facilitate further genomic studies in fine mapping resistance genes to enhance the understanding of the genetic basis of BB resistance in cotton.

19.
Org Lett ; 23(7): 2443-2448, 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33703906

RESUMO

The asymmetric introduction of the CF3 unit is a powerful tool for modifying pharmacokinetic properties and slowing metabolic degradation in medicinal chemistry. A catalytic and enantioselective addition of α-CF3 enolates allows for expeditious access to functionalized chiral building blocks with CF3-containing stereogenicity. The computational studies reveal that the choice of ligand in a designed palladium-complex system regulates the regioselectivity and stereoselectivity of the asymmetric allylic alkyation of α-CF3 ketones and Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts.

20.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 16(1): 234, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33785020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite being a commonly encountered injury in orthopedic practice, controversy surrounds the methods of optimal internal fixation for femoral neck fractures (FNF) in young patients. The objective of the present study is to compare complication rates and failure mechanisms for surgical fixation of FNF using fully threaded headless cannulated screws (FTHCS) versus partial threaded cannulated screws (PTS) in young adults. METHODS: A total of 75 patients (18-65 years old) with FNF were prospectively treated with close reduction and internal fixation using three parallel FTHCS and compared to a historical control case-matched group (75 patients) with FNF treated by PTS fixation. After 2 years follow-up, rates of fixation failure (including varus collapse, fracture displacement, and femoral neck shortening), nonunion, and avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH) were compared between the two cohorts. The demographic, follow-up information, and radiological images were assessed by independent blinded investigators. RESULTS: Patient demographics and fracture patterns were similar in the two patient groups. The overall fixation failure rates were 8% (6/75) in the FTHCS cohort, which was significantly lower than the 25.3% (19/75) seen in the PTS group. Rates of nonunion and ANFH were significantly lower in the FTHCS group when compared to the PTS control group. When stratified by injury severity (high-energy vs. low-energy fractures), the rate of fixation failure was significant lower with the use of FTHCS when compared with PTS for high-energy fractures while there was no difference in the rates of nonunion or ANFH for high or low-energy fracture patterns. Unique to the FTHCS cohort was an atypical screw migration pattern with varus collapse (6/75, 8%). CONCLUSIONS: The results show that FTHCS fixation could significantly reduce the complication rate of young patients with FNF, especially in high-energy fracture patterns (Garden III-IV, Pauwels III, or vertical of the neck axis (VN) angle ≥ 15°). There was also confirmation that the modes of fixation loosening in the FTCHS group, including screw "medial migration" and superior cutout, were different from the screw withdrawal pattern seen in the PTS cohort. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was retrospectively registered at www.Chictr.org.cn ( ChiCTR-IPR-1900025851 ) on September 11, 2019.

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