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Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30069692


Zinc (Zn) highly concentrates in the brain and plays a key role in memory formation and learning processes. Zn deficiency results in cognitive impairments, memory deficits, alterations of neuropsychological behavior, and motor development. Although Zn-enriched yeast (ZnY) is widely used for dietary fortification and supplementation of Zn, the effect of ZnY on cognition still remains unclear. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of ZnY on behavior in Zn-deficient and Zn-sufficient rats. Three-week-old rats were fed low Zn diets for 145 days to establish Zn-deficient rats. ZnY was orally administered to Zn-deficient rats at three dose levels of 1, 2, and 4 mg Zn/kg/day for 55 days. Rat appearance, body weight, plasma and brain Zn, Morris water maze test, and step-through passive avoidance test were observed. Compared to Zn-sufficient rats, body weight gain, plasma zinc level, resident time, and step-through time in Zn-deficient rats were significantly lower. Zn deficiency impaired functions of learning and memory, while ZnY as a plausible therapeutic intervention alleviated the cognitive impairments caused by Zn deficiency.

Hepatology ; 50(3): 763-71, 2009 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19492430


UNLABELLED: Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) is a viral strategy of immune response evasion associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) persistence. Spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion is usually accompanied by liver disease remission. Unfortunately, this goal is difficult to achieve and requires expensive and time-consuming treatment. Furin, a proprotein convertase, is involved in HBeAg maturation and is therefore a potential therapeutic target or indicator for predicting disease progression and antiviral response. Here we demonstrate that healthy Han Chinese from southern China (an endemic area of HBV infection) harbor a common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; -229 C/T) in a 1268-bp region of the P1 promoter of the furin gene [FES upstream region (Fur)]. A luciferase reporter gene assay showed that transcription activity is about 3 times higher in allele T carriers than in allele C carriers of this SNP. Allele T includes a suboptimal transcription factor NF-E2 [i.e., nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)]-binding motif according to bioinformatics and studies using site-directed mutagenesis. We also observed that individuals carrying allele T were more likely to become persistently infected. When persistently infected patients were divided into subgroups according to recent guidelines and HBeAg-defective virus infection was taken into account, patients with allele T or genotype TT had a decreased likelihood of HBeAg seroconversion or an increased likelihood of progressing to HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B or liver cirrhosis if accompanied by HBeAg-defective virus infection. CONCLUSION: The common SNP in the P1 promoter of the Fur gene affects furin transcription activity and HBV infection outcome, possibly by increasing furin messenger RNA expression, and this suggests that furin is a potential therapeutic target and that this SNP is a potential predictor of disease progression or therapeutic response.

Furina/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/fisiologia , Hepatite B Crônica/imunologia , Transcrição Genética/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas