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1.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(7): 7472-7478, 2019 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30689337

RESUMO

Effluent wastewater containing dyes from textile, paint, and various other industrial wastes have long posed environmental damage. Functional nanomaterials offer new opportunities to treat these effluent wastes in an unprecedentedly rapid and efficient fashion due to their large surface area-to-volume ratio. In this work, we explore a new approach of wastewater treatment using macroionic coacervate complexes formed with zwitterionic polyampholytes and anionic inorganic polyoxometalate (POM) nanoclusters to extract methylene blue (MB) dye as well as other cationic industrial dyes from model wastewater. Biphasic organic-inorganic macroion complexes are designed to produce a small volume of coacervate adsorbents of high density and viscoelasticity, in contrast to a large volume of supernatant solution for rapid and efficient dye removal. The efficiency of coacervate extraction is characterized by the adsorption isotherm and maximum MB uptake capacity against the concentrations of polyampholyte, POM, and LiCl salt using UV-vis spectrophotometry to optimize the coacervate formation conditions. Our macroionic coacervate complexes could reach nearly 99% removal efficiency for the model wastewater samples of varied MB concentration in <1 min. The extraction capacity up to ∼400 mg/g far surpasses the dye extraction efficiency of widely used activated carbon adsorbents. We also explore the regeneration of coacervate complexes containing high concentration of extracted MB by a simple Fenton oxidation process to bleach coacervate complexes for repeated POM usage, which shows similar MB extraction efficiency after regeneration. Hence, coacervate extraction based upon spontaneous liquid-liquid separating complexation between polyzwitterions and POMs is demonstrated as a rapid, efficient, and sustainable method for industrial dye wastewater treatment. In perspective, coacervate extraction could advantageously possess dual processing options in separation industry through either membrane fabrication or use directly in mixer-settlers.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30479120

RESUMO

The mitochondria have emerged as a novel target for cancer chemotherapy primarily due to their central roles in energy metabolism and apoptosis regulation. Here we report a new molecular approach to achieve high levels of tumor- and mitochondria-selective delivery of the anticancer drug doxorubicin. This is achieved by molecular engineering which functionalizes doxorubicin with a hydrophobic lipid tail conju-gated by a solubility-promoting polyethylene glycol polymer (amphiphilic Doxorubicin or amph-DOX). In vivo, the amphiphile conjugated to doxorubicin exhibits a dual function: i) it binds avidly to serum albumin and hijacks albumin's circulating and transporting pathways, resulting in prolonged circulation in blood, increased accumulation in tumor, and reduced exposure to the heart; ii) it also redirects doxorubicin to mi-tochondria by altering the drug molecule's intracellular sorting and transportation routes. Efficient mito-chondrial targeting with amph-DOX causes a significant increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in tumor cells, resulting in markedly improved antitumor efficacy than the unmodified doxorubicin. Am-phiphilic modification provides a simple strategy to simultaneously increase the efficacy and safety of doxorubicin in cancer chemotherapy.

3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(1): 1173-1186, 2018 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29219299

RESUMO

Multiblock poly(arylene ether sulfone) copolymers are attractive for polyelectrolyte membrane fuel cell applications due to their reportedly improved proton conductivity under partially hydrated conditions and better mechanical/thermal stability compared to Nafion. However, the long hydrophilic sequences required to achieve high conductivity usually lead to excessive water uptake and swelling, which degrade membrane dimensional stability. Herein, we report a fundamentally new approach to address this grand challenge by introducing shape-persistent triptycene units into the hydrophobic sequences of multiblock copolymers, which induce strong supramolecular chain-threading and interlocking interactions that effectively suppress water swelling. Consequently, unlike previously reported multiblock copolymer systems, the water swelling of the triptycene-containing multiblock copolymers did not increase proportionally with water uptake. This combination of high water uptake and low swelling behavior of these copolymers resulted in excellent proton conductivity and membrane dimensional stability under fully hydrated conditions. In particular, the triptycene-containing multiblock copolymer film with the longest hydrophilic block length (i.e., BPSH100-TRP0-15k-15k) had a water uptake of 105%, an excellent proton conductivity of 0.150 S/cm, and a volume swelling ratio of just 29% (more than 42% reduction compared to Nafion 212).

4.
J Phys Chem B ; 121(37): 8829-8837, 2017 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28832168

RESUMO

Adding ionic species can critically affect the structure of weak polyelectrolyte (PE) chains, whose charge density in aqueous solution can be greatly regulated by bathing solution conditions such as pH and added ions. Distinct from simple ions that can be treated as point charges, multivalent macroions of finite size, including many charged nanoparticles and biopolymers, could show strong electrostatic coupling with PEs and effectively modify the conformation and assembly of PEs in aqueous solution. In this work, we have compared the effects of hydrophilic multivalent macroion of finite size and simple divalent ion on the conformational transition of a model weak polybase, poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P2VP), in dilute aqueous solution. By using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy combined with photon counting histogram analysis, we have examined the swollen-to-collapsed conformational transition and local electric potential of a P2VP chain in ionic aqueous solution at a single-molecule level. Adding inorganic polytungstate ([W12]) macroion bearing eight negative charges per [W12] of ∼0.8 nm in diameter at increased concentration from 10-9 to 10-5 mM can lead to a shift of the critical conformational transition pH, pHcr, of P2VP to lower pH values, in an opposite trend to the previously reported effect of adding simple monovalent anion. Conversely, adding simple divalent sulfate anion can lead to a nonmonotonic change of pHcr when increasing its concentration from 0.03 to 15 mM. Additionally, at pH < pHcr where P2VP is highly protonated and adopts a swollen conformation, a monotonic decrease of P2VP size is observed with increased sulfate ionic concentration, exhibiting the typical ionic screening effect. In contrast, the size of the P2VP chain shows little change with increasing [W12] concentration before the precipitation of P2VP from water. To investigate the distinct effects of multivalent ion and macroion on the conformational transition of P2VP in aqueous solution, we have also measured the local proton concentration in the vicinity to a P2VP chain by an attached pH-sensitive fluorescence probe. In both cases, we have observed the monotonic reduction of the local electric potential of a swollen P2VP chain with increased ionic concentration, despite the increased protonation degree of P2VP. The results suggest that counterion condensation of multivalent ion and macroion can modify the effective net charge density of P2VP chains in dilute aqueous solution. However, possibly due to its high multivalency and finite size, multivalent [W12] macroion is much more effective in modifying the local electric environment and structure of P2VP chains at 3-7 orders of magnitude lower concentrations than simple sulfate counterion.

5.
Soft Matter ; 13(28): 4881-4889, 2017 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28631793

RESUMO

Coacervate complexes that are liquid-liquid separated complex materials are often formed by stoichiometrically mixing oppositely charged polyelectrolytes in salted aqueous solution. Entropy-driven ion pairing, resulting from the release of counterions near polyelectrolytes, has been identified as the primary driving force for coacervate formation between oppositely charged polyelectrolytes, including proteins and DNA, in aqueous solution. In this work we have examined the complexation between net neutral zwitterionic poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (PSBMA) and inorganic polyoxometalate (POM) polyanions in LiCl aqueous solutions. Biphasic liquid-like coacervate complexes can be formed over a much broader range of POM-to-PSBMA molar ratio and LiCl concentration than that for conventional polyelectrolyte coacervate complexation. Composition analysis of the dried supernatant and dense coacervate has confirmed that both PSBMA and POM macroions are primarily present in the dense coacervate as the macroion-rich phase in contrast to the presence of LiCl solely in the supernatant as the macroion-poor phase. The increase of net charge negativity of PSBMA and supernatant conductivity suggests stronger binding of PSBMA with POM anions than monovalent Cl-, resulting in the release of bound Cl- anions to the aqueous solution for the formation of PSBMA-POM coacervates in LiCl solution. All experimental evidence has demonstrated the generality of ion-pairing induced coacervate complexation with net neutral zwitterionic polymers and multivalent inorganic nanomaterials. The complexation between organic and inorganic macroions could give insights into many supramolecular assembly processes in nature and also lead to a new paradigm in developing hybrid macroionic materials for emerging applications from green catalysis to nanomedicine.

6.
J Phys Chem B ; 121(7): 1723-1730, 2017 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28122183

RESUMO

Polymersomes are self-assembled vesicles of amphiphilic block copolymers and have been explored for wide applications from drug delivery to micro/nanoreactors. As polymersomes are soft and highly deformable, their shape instability due to osmolarity difference across polymer membranes and low elasticity could conversely limit their practical use. Instead of selecting particular polymer chemical reactions to enhance the mechanical properties, we have employed inorganic polyoxometalate (POM) clusters as simple physical cross-linkers to control the shape and mechanical stability of polymersomes in aqueous suspensions. Robust spherical shape with enhanced elastic and bending moduli of POM-dressed poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) based polymersomes is achieved. We have accounted for the hydrogen bonding between POM and PEO blocks for the adsorption and stabilization of POMS on polymersomes, whose interaction strength could also be tuned by mixing solvents of hydrogen bond donors or receptors with water. The stimuli-responsive properties of POMs are introduced in POM-dressed polymersomes upon the interaction of POMs with PEO blocks in aqueous media. As POM can be used as nanomedicines, catalysts, and other functional nanomaterials, POM-dressed polymersomes with significant shape and mechanical reinforcement could broaden the applications of PEO-based polymersomes and other PEO-tethered nanocolloids.

7.
Langmuir ; 32(21): 5403-11, 2016 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27159842

RESUMO

The application of ionic liquids (ILs) in many industrially relevant processes provides an urgent need to better understand their molecular interactions with biological systems. A detailed understanding of the cytotoxicity mechanism of ILs can be helpful in facilitating the molecular design of nontoxic ILs. Using coarse-grained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we investigate the effects of imidazolium-based ILs on several lipid bilayer morphologies. Our results demonstrate that the asymmetric insertion of IL cations into one side of a lipid bilayer leaflet enhances the leaflet strain, which upon reaching a critical value triggers a morphological disruption in the bilayer. Consistently, the bending modulus of the bilayer is reduced by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude relative to that of an IL-free planar bilayer prior to the disruption event. Our results suggest that ILs that can easily insert into the lipid bilayer without diffusing across or inducing lipid flip-flop can be more disruptive to a lipid biomembrane.

8.
J Phys Chem B ; 120(10): 2781-9, 2016 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26910537

RESUMO

Ionic liquids (ILs) have been widely considered and used as "green solvents" for more than two decades. However, their ecotoxicity results have contradicted this view, as ILs, particularly hydrophobic ones, are reported to exhibit high toxicity. Yet the origin of their toxicology remains unclear. In this work, we have investigated the interaction of amphiphilic ILs with a lipid bilayer as a model cell membrane to understand their cytotoxicity at a molecular level. By employing fluorescence imaging and light and X-ray scattering techniques, we have found that amphiphilic ILs could disrupt the lipid bilayer by IL insertion, end-capping the hydrophobic edge of the lipid bilayer, and eventually disintegrating the lipid bilayer at high IL concentration. The insertion of ILs to cause the swelling of the lipid bilayer shows strong dependence on the hydrophobicity of IL cationic alky chain and anions and is strongly correlated with the reported IL cytotoxicity.


Assuntos
Líquidos Iônicos/química , Líquidos Iônicos/toxicidade , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Bicamadas Lipídicas/síntese química , Estrutura Molecular , Ratos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
9.
Sci Rep ; 6: 19889, 2016 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26831599

RESUMO

Ionic liquids (ILs) are salts that remain liquid down to low temperatures, and sometimes well below room temperature. ILs have been called "green solvents" because of their extraordinarily low vapor pressure and excellent solvation power, but ecotoxicology studies have shown that some ILs exhibit greater toxicity than traditional solvents. A fundamental understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for IL toxicity remains elusive. Here we show that one mode of IL toxicity on unicellular organisms is driven by swelling of the cell membrane. Cytotoxicity assays, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and molecular simulations reveal that IL cations nucleate morphological defects in the microbial cell membrane at concentrations near the half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of several microorganisms. Cytotoxicity increases with increasing alkyl chain length of the cation due to the ability of the longer alkyl chain to more easily embed in, and ultimately disrupt, the cell membrane.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/metabolismo , Simulação por Computador , Citotoxinas , Líquidos Iônicos , Citotoxinas/farmacocinética , Citotoxinas/farmacologia , Líquidos Iônicos/farmacocinética , Líquidos Iônicos/farmacologia
10.
Langmuir ; 31(47): 12920-8, 2015 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26540211

RESUMO

We report on studies of lipid transfer rates between different morphology nanoparticles and lipids with different length acyl chains. The lipid transfer rate of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (di-C14, DMPC) in discoidal "bicelles" (0.156 h(-1)) is 2 orders of magnitude greater than that of DMPC vesicles (ULVs) (1.1 × 10(-3) h(-1)). For both bicellar and ULV morphologies, increasing the acyl chain length by two carbons [going from di-C14 DMPC to di-C16, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)] causes lipid transfer rates to decrease by more than 2 orders of magnitude. Results from small angle neutron scattering (SANS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) are in good agreement. The present studies highlight the importance of lipid dynamic processes taking place in different morphology biomimetic membranes.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas/química , 1,2-Dipalmitoilfosfatidilcolina/química , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Dimiristoilfosfatidilcolina/química
11.
Biomicrofluidics ; 9(4): 044123, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26339322

RESUMO

The time-dependent nucleation phase is critical to amyloid fibrillation and related to many pathologies, in which the conversion from natively folded amyloidogenic proteins to oligomers via nucleation is often hypothesized as a possible underlying mechanism. In this work, non-uniform AC-electric fields across two asymmetric electrodes were explored to control and examine the aggregation of insulin, a model amyloid protein, in aqueous buffer solution at constant temperature (20 °C) by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy. Insulin was rapidly concentrated in a strong AC-field by imposed AC-electroosmosis flow over an optimal frequency range of 0.5-2 kHz. In the presence of an AC-field, direct fibrillation from insulin monomers without the formation of oligomer precursors was observed. Once the insulin concentration had nearly doubled its initial concentration, insulin aggregates were observed in solution. The measured lag time for the onset of insulin aggregation, determined from the abrupt reduction in insulin concentration in solution, was significantly shortened from months or years in the absence of AC-fields to 1 min-3 h under AC-fields. The ability of external fields to alter amyloid nucleation kinetics provides insights into the onset of amyloid fibrillation.

12.
Soft Matter ; 11(27): 5485-91, 2015 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26061613

RESUMO

"Fragile" glassy materials, which include most polymeric materials and organic liquids, exhibit a steep and super-Arrhenius dependence of relaxation time with temperature upon the glass transition and have been extensively studied. Yet, a full understanding of strong glass formers that exhibit an Arrhenius dependence on temperature is still lacking. In this work, we have investigated the glassy dynamics of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) microgel particles of varied elasticity in dense aqueous suspensions, giving rise to a full spectrum of strong to fragile glass-forming behaviors. We have observed the dependence of particle motions and structural relaxation on particle volume fraction can be weakened by decreasing particle elasticity, due to particle deformation and the resulting interparticle elastic interaction upon intimate particle contacts at high particle concentration. Both measured α-relaxation time scales and dynamic length scales for cooperative rearranging motions of microgels in suspensions show similarly dependence on particle volume fraction and elasticity, thereby quantifying the glass fragility of dense microgel suspension of varied particle elasticity.

13.
Langmuir ; 31(14): 4246-54, 2015 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25803421

RESUMO

The effects of cosolutes on amyloid aggregation kinetics in vivo are critical and not fully understood. To explore the effects of cosolute additives, the in vitro behavior of destabilizing and stabilizing osmolytes with polymer cosolutes on the aggregation of a model amyloid, human insulin, is probed using experiments coupled with an amyloid aggregation reaction model. The destabilizing osmolyte, guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl), induces biphasic behavior on the amyloid aggregation rate exhibited by an enhancement of the aggregation kinetics at low concentrations of GuHCl (<0.6 M) and a reduction in kinetics at higher GuHCl concentrations. Stabilizing osmolytes, glycerol, sorbitol and trimethylamine N-oxide, slow the rate of aggregation by reducing the rate of monomer unfolding. Polymer cosolutes, polyvinylpyrrolidone 3.5 kDa and 40 kDa, delay amyloid aggregation mainly through a decrease in the nucleation reaction. These results are in good agreement with the volume exclusion principle for polymer crowding and supports the need to include conformational rearrangement of monomers prior to nucleation. Using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we demonstrate that amyloid aggregation is nondiffusion limited, except during fibril accumulation in the presence of high concentrations of long chain polymers. Lastly, the neutral surface area of osmolytes correlates well with the time to initiate fibril formation, tlag, which implicates an intrinsic osmolyte property underlying preferential interactions.


Assuntos
Amiloide/química , Insulina/química , Osmose/efeitos dos fármacos , Agregados Proteicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Difusão , Guanidina/farmacologia , Humanos , Cinética , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Termodinâmica
14.
J Phys Chem B ; 118(46): 13175-82, 2014 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25337793

RESUMO

The interaction of nanoparticles with cell membranes is critical to understand and control the structural change and molecular transport of cell membranes for medicines and medical diagnostics, in which hydrophobic interaction is often involved. We examine the specific ion effect on the interaction of semihydrophobic nanoparticle with zwitterionic phospholipid bilayer in aqueous media added with different types of salts. Specifically, we compare the effect of different anions or cations on the adsorption of carboxyl-functionalized polystyrene nanoparticle on supported lipid bilayer and its induced bilayer disruption. By adding different anions at the same ionic concentration to the nanoparticle-lipid bilayer interface, we observe that the growth rate of nanoparticle-induced lipid-poor regions follows the exact Hofmeister anion order of CH3COO(-) > Cl(-) > NO3(-) ≫ SCN(-), suggesting the regulated hydrophobic interaction by anions. In contrast, the specific cation effect on nanoparticle-induced disruption rate of lipid bilayer does not follow the Hofmeister cation order and instead exhibits a trend of Cs(+) ∼ Rb(+) > Na(+) ≫ N(CH3)4(+). It is suggested that the effect of specific ions can be exploited as a simple and efficient approach to modify the nanoparticles-biomembrane interactions with the implication from drug delivery to nontoxic nanomaterial design.


Assuntos
Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Nanopartículas/química , Ânions/química , Cátions/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Fosfatidilcolinas/química , Técnicas de Microbalança de Cristal de Quartzo
15.
Soft Matter ; 10(43): 8641-51, 2014 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25248460

RESUMO

Current bottlenecks in the large-scale commercial use of many ionic liquids (ILs) include their high costs, low biodegradability, and often unknown toxicities. As a proactive effort to better understand the molecular mechanisms of ionic liquid toxicities, the work herein presents a comprehensive molecular simulation study on the interactions of 1-n-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ILs with a phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipid bilayer. We explore the effects of increasing alkyl chain length (n = 4, 8, and 12) in the cation and anion hydrophobicity on the interactions with the lipid bilayer. Bulk atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations performed at millimolar (mM) IL concentrations show spontaneous insertion of cations into the lipid bilayer regardless of the alkyl chain length and a favorable orientational preference once a cation is inserted. Cations also exhibit the ability to "flip" inside the lipid bilayer (as is common for amphiphiles) if partially inserted with an unfavorable orientation. Moreover, structural analysis of the lipid bilayer show that cationic insertion induces roughening of the bilayer surface, which may be a precursor to bilayer disruption. To overcome the limitation in the timescale of our simulations, free energies for a single IL cation and anion insertion have been determined based on potential of mean force calculations. These results show a decrease in free energy in response to both short and long alkyl chain IL cation insertion, and likewise for a single hydrophobic anion insertion, but an increase in free energy for the insertion of a hydrophilic chloride anion. Both bulk MD simulations and free energy calculations suggest that toxicity mechanisms toward biological systems are likely caused by ILs behaving as ionic surfactants. [Yoo et al., Soft Matter, 2014].


Assuntos
Imidazóis/química , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Modelos Químicos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Fosfatidilcolinas/química
16.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 40: 307-313, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25262201

RESUMO

The progression of several diseases, such as osteoporosis and diabetes, are associated with changes in marrow composition and physiology. As these diseases are affected by aging and activity, the biomechanical properties and mechanobiology of marrow may play a role in their progression. Bone marrow is comprised primarily of cells, and provides a niche for several mechanosensitive cell lineages. The mechanical signals imparted to the cells depend on their interaction with one another, the extracellular matrix, and the intercellular fluid. At a macroscopic scale, these interactions manifest as viscosity in marrow. Marrow viscosity has been measured in human and bovine bone. However, a large range of storage, retrieval, and measurement techniques has resulted in inconsistent data. To provide physiologically relevant data, marrow samples from young adult pigs were harvested and tested within less than 8h of slaughter. The viscosity was over 100Pas at a shear rate of 1s(-1), and decreased with shear rate according to a power law. However, the marrow did not exhibit a measurable yield stress as some complex fluids do. The viscosity of samples that had been frozen and thawed prior to testing was lower by an order of magnitude. The difference in properties was associated with a loss of integrity of the marrow adipocyte membranes. Previous reports of bone marrow viscosity have shown inconsistent results, which may be due to different storage and handling prior to testing. The higher viscosity compared to previous reports would impact poroelastic models of bone, and suggests that the stress on marrow cells during whole bone loading may be higher than previously believed.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/fisiologia , Medula Óssea/fisiologia , Manejo de Espécimes , Animais , Modelos Biológicos , Reologia , Suínos , Viscosidade
17.
Biomacromolecules ; 15(7): 2760-8, 2014 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24955481

RESUMO

Healthy synovial fluids (SFs) are complex fluids consisting of biopolymers, globule proteins, and lipids and regarded as superlubricants to provide nearly life-long low friction and wear protection of synovial joints in mammals. In this paper, we report that the intricate lubricious mixture can be simulated by the aggregation of hyaluronic acid (HA) and hydrogel particles in aqueous suspensions. In the HA aqueous suspensions added with synthetic polymer microgels, we have effectively captured the bulk rheological properties of healthy SFs. It is also confirmed by light scattering and fluorescence microscopic characterization that added hydrogel particles can enhance the HA network by hydrogel-mediated hydrogen bonding, leading to the fractal HA-hydrogel aggregating networks in aqueous suspensions. The potential application of HA-hydrogel particle aggregates as biomimetic superlubricants is supported by the comparable low friction at high load to that of healthy SFs.


Assuntos
Resinas Acrílicas/química , Ácido Hialurônico/química , Lubrificantes/química , Animais , Biomimética , Bovinos , Módulo de Elasticidade , Fricção , Hidrogéis/química , Líquido Sinovial/química , Viscosidade , Água/química
18.
Water Res ; 47(12): 4198-205, 2013 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23582309

RESUMO

Water contaminated by oil and gas production poses challenges to the management of America's water resources. Here we report the design, fabrication, and laboratory evaluation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes decorated with superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) for oil-water separation. As revealed by confocal laser-scanning fluorescence microscopy, the magnetic carbon nanotubes (MCNTs) remove oil droplets through a two-step mechanism, in which MCNTs are first dispersed at the oil-water interface and then drag the droplets with them out of water by a magnet. Measurements of removal efficiency with different initial oil concentration, MCNT dose, and mixing time show that kinetics and equilibrium of the separation process can be described by the Langmuir model. Separation capacity qt is a function of MCNT dose m, mixing time t, and residual oil concentration Ce at equilibrium: [Formula in text] where qmax, kw, and K are maximum separation capacity, wrapping rate constant, and equilibrium constant, respectively. Least-square regressions using experimental data estimate qmax = 6.6(± 0.6) g-diesel g-MCNT(-1), kw = 3.36(± 0.03) L g-diesel(-1) min(-1), and K = 2.4(± 0.2) L g-diesel(-1). For used MCNTs, we further show that over 80% of the separation capacity can be restored by a 10 min wash with 1 mL ethanol for every 6 mg MCNTs. The separation by reusable MCNTs provides a promising alternative strategy for water treatment design complementary to existing ones such as coagulation, adsorption, filtration, and membrane processes.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Magnéticos , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Óleos/isolamento & purificação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação , Purificação da Água/métodos , Dextranos/química , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Nanotubos de Carbono/ultraestrutura , Água/química
19.
Langmuir ; 29(10): 3259-68, 2013 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23441753

RESUMO

The structure of a hydrated poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) brush loaded with 5 vol % Isoniazid is studied as a function of temperature using neutron reflectometry (NR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). NR measurements show that Isoniazid increases the thickness of the brush before, during and after the polymer collapse, and it is retained inside the brush at all measured temperatures. The Isoniazid concentration in the expanded brush is ~14% higher than in the bulk solution, and the concentration nearly doubles in the collapsed polymer, suggesting stronger binding between Isoniazid and the polymer compared to water, even at temperatures below the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) where the polymer is hydrophilic. Typically, additives that bind strongly to the polymer backbone and increase the hydrophilicity of the polymer will delay the onset of the LCST, which is suggested by AFM and NR measurements. The extent of small-molecule loading and distribution throughout a thermo-responsive polymer brush, such as pNIPAAm, will have important consequences for applications such as drug delivery and gating.


Assuntos
Acrilamidas/química , Microscopia de Força Atômica/métodos , Polímeros/química , Resinas Acrílicas , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Isoniazida/química
20.
Langmuir ; 28(37): 13201-7, 2012 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22924894

RESUMO

The manipulation and assembly of polystyrene-based Janus particles of varied surface chemistry on one hemispherical particle surface under high frequency nonuniform ac-electric fields is examined experimentally by in situ microscopic observation. Strong effects of ac-field frequency, medium conductivity, and particle surface chemistry on the structure of Janus colloidal assembly are observed. At low medium conductivity, σ(m) from 0.0007 S/m to 0.0153 S/m, pearl chains of Janus particles are observed over the ac-frequency range from 25 kHz to 20 MHz, indicating the dielectrophoresis (DEP)-directed assembly. In contrast, the chaining of Janus particles is disrupted in a certain frequency range at high σ(m) from 0.0153 S/m to 0.116 S/m, suggesting the combining effects of both induced-charge electrophoresis (ICEP) and DEP. The critical transition frequency for the onset of the fractal aggregation at high σ(m) from 0.0153 S/m to 0.116 S/m is experimentally determined, showing a good agreement with the theoretically predicted upper ICEP frequency limit. Additionally, it is demonstrated that by using zwitterionic Janus particles, the assembled structure of Janus particles under ac-fields can be modified by the chemical coatings on each hemispherical surface of Janus particles.

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