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1.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 96(4)2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32166316

RESUMO

Animal bodies are colonized by many microorganisms which can provide indispensable services to their hosts. Although nematode gut microbiota has been extensively studied in recent years, the driving factors of gut microbiome of soil nematodes from a long-term fertilization field are unclear. Here, using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, we explored the nematode gut microbiota under different fertilization patterns (control, inorganic fertilizers and mixed fertilizers) and fertilization durations (5 y, 8 y and 10 y). Our results revealed that nematode gut microbiota was dominated by core bacterial taxa AF502208 (anaerobic bacteria), Enterobacter (plant litter decomposition) and Ancylobacter (organic matter decomposition and nitrogen cycling), significantly distinct from soil microbiome, and the assembly of that was a non-random process, which suggested host conditions contributed to maintaining the gut microbiota. Moreover, fertilization pattern had a greater influence on nematode gut microbiome than fertilization duration. Inorganic fertilization (5.19) significantly reduced the diversity of the nematode gut microbiota (6.68) shown by Shannon index (P < 0.05). Canonical correspondence analysis demonstrates that soil properties such as pH, organic matter, total phosphorus, available phosphorus, ammonium nitrogen, moisture content, nitrate nitrogen and total nitrogen have significant effects on the nematode microbiome. Structured equation models further revealed that fertilization could obviously affect the nematode gut microbiota, and the effects were maintained even when accounting simultaneously for the drivers of soil bacteria and soil properties. This study provides a solid evidence that the shifting of nematode gut microbiota under long-term fertilization was resulted from environmental factors and host conditions, and advance the insights into host-microbiome in the agricultural ecosystems.

2.
Glob Chang Biol ; 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196125

RESUMO

The Earth's surface is increasingly affected by human activity, from the loss of biodiversity to chemical pollution. Human impacts on the Earth ecosystem are so fundamental that a stratigraphic signature in sediments and ice has been produced. This has led to the proposal of a new geological epoch, the Anthropocene (Waters et al., 2016). The start of the early Anthropocene is marked by the spread of agriculture and deforestation, as well as large-scale species exchange. Technological revolutions in the mid-20th century fueled rapid population growth and industrialization, leading to diverse geochemical signatures, such as pollution from synthetic chemicals, and metals, and enrichment of nutrients.

4.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059790

RESUMO

In 2013, a Lancet Infectious Diseases Commission described the state of antimicrobial resistance worldwide. Since then, greater awareness of the public health ramifications of antimicrobial resistance has led to national actions and global initiatives, including a resolution at the high-level meeting of the UN General Assembly in 2016. Progress in addressing this issue has ranged from a ban on irrational drug combinations in India to commitments to ban colistin as a growth promoter in animals, improve hospital infection control, and implement better antimicrobial stewardship. Funds have been mobilised, and regulatory barriers to new antibiotic development have been relaxed. These efforts have been episodic and uneven across countries, however. Sustained funding for antimicrobial resistance and globally harmonised targets to monitor progress are still urgently needed. Except for in a few leading countries, antimicrobial resistance has not captured the sustained focus of national leaders and country-level actors, including care providers.

5.
J Hazard Mater ; 391: 122200, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044634

RESUMO

Straw biochar and straw application to paddy soil dramatically altered arsenic (As) biogeochemical cycling in soil-rice system, but it remains unknown how As biotransformation microbes (ABMs) contribute to these processes. In this study, rice pot experiments combining terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and clone library were performed to characterize ABMs. Through linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size (LEfSe) and correlation analysis, results revealed that arrA-harbouring iron-reducing bacteria (e.g., Geobacter and Shewanella) and arsC-harbouring Gammaproteobacteria (e.g., fermentative hydrogen-producing and lignin-degrading microorganisms) potentially mediated arsenate [As(V)] reduction under biochar and straw amendments, respectively. Methanogens and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) carrying arsM gene might regulate methylated As concentration in soil-rice system. Network analysis demonstrated that the association among ABMs in rhizosphere was significantly stronger than that in bulk soil. Arsenite [As(III)] methylators carrying arsM gene exhibited much stronger co-occurrence pattern with arsC-harbouring As(V) reducers than with arrA-harbouring As(V) reducers. This study would broaden our insights for the dramatic variation of As biogeochemical cycling in soil-rice system after straw biochar and straw amendments through the activities of ABMs, which could contribute to the safe rice production and high rice yield in As-contaminated fields.

6.
Environ Pollut ; 260: 113991, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991357

RESUMO

Arsenic biotransformation has been discovered in guts of soil invertebrates. Reproduction of invertebrates is sensitive to arsenic contamination in soils. However, little is known about the impact of gut microbe-mediated arsenic biotransformation on the fecundity of invertebrates. Here, Caenorhabditis elegans was firstly pre-fed with Escherichia coli BL21 possessing the capability of reducing arsenate [As(V)] or BL21M having the ability to reduce As(V) and methylate arsenite [As(III)], then inoculated worms were transferred to inactive E. coli AW3110 (harboring no arsenic transformation gene)-seeded plates treated with As(V) at different concentrations. Quantification of gut microbes showed that both E. coli BL21 and BL21M stably colonized in the guts after worms were cultured on inactive E. coli AW3110-seeded plates for 72 h. The analysis of arsenic species indicated that there was As(III) in C. elegans guts colonized with E. coli BL21, As(III) and dimethylarsinic acid [DMAs(V)] in C. elegans guts with E. coli BL21M exposed to As(V) for 6 h. After treatment of 100 µM As(V), decrease in brood sizes was observed for worms that were colonized with E. coli BL21 or BL21M compared to that with AW3110 in the guts. The levels of vitellogenin (VTG), glutathione S-transferases (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), closely linked to reproduction and antioxidation-linked indicators, were the highest in worms whose guts colonized with E. coli BL21, followed by worms colonized with E. coli BL21M and worms colonized with inactive E. coli AW3110 exposed to As(V). Our results indicated the toxic impact of As(III) and DMAs(V) produced by gut microbes on reproduction of C. elegans. The work provides novel insight into the interplay between arsenic biotransformation mediated by gut microbes and the host fecundity in soils.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 712: 136418, 2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927444

RESUMO

Soil is a vital reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), but we still know little about their distribution in cropland soils and the main driving forces. Here we performed an investigation for ARGs patterns in 105 cropland soils (planted with maize, peanut or soybean) along a 2, 200 km transect in China using high-throughput quantitative PCR approaches. Totally, 204 ARGs were detected, with a higher diversity found in central China than that in northeast and south China. The most abundant (top 50%) and highly shared (present in >50% samples) ARGs regarded as core resistome were dominated by multidrug resistance genes such as oprJ, acrA-05 and acrA-04. Regressive analyses revealed that the relative abundance of total ARGs and core resistome both had significant relationships with mobile genetic elements (MGEs). Anthropogenic factors including the consumption of plastic films and soil properties including heavy metals showed good correlations with the diversity of ARGs. Structural equation modelling analysis further explained that anthropogenic factors were the main forces shaping the ARGs patterns. These findings highlight the importance of human activities in shaping soil antibiotic resistome in the croplands, providing potential management strategies to mitigate the dissemination of ARGs to humans via food chain.

8.
Sci Total Environ ; 703: 134977, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757553

RESUMO

The optimization of more sustainable fertilization practice to relieve phosphorus (P) resource scarcity and increase P fertilizer utilization, a better understanding of the regulatory roles of microbes in P mobilization is urgently required to reduce P input. The genes phoD and pqqC are responsible for regulating organic and inorganic P mobilization, respectively. Using high-throughput sequencing, the corresponding bacterial communities harbored by these genes were determined. We conducted a 4-year rice-rice-crop rotation to investigate the responses of phoD- and pqqC-harboring bacterial communities to the partial replacement of inorganic P fertilizer by organic manure with reduced P input. The results showed that a combination of organic and inorganic fertilization maintained high rice yield, and also produced a more complex and stable phosphate mobilizing bacterial community, which contributed to phosphatase activities more than their gene abundances in the model analysis. Compared with the conventional mineral fertilization, organic-inorganic fertilization with the reduced P input slightly increased pqqC gene abundance while significantly enhanced the abundance of phoD-harboring bacteria, especially the genera Bradyrhizobium and Methylobacterium known as potential organic P mineralizers which can maintain high rice production. Moreover, the increased pH was the most impactful factor for the phoD- and pqqC-harboring bacterial communities, by promoting microbial P turnover and greatly increasing bioavailable P pools (H2O-Pi and NaHCO3-Pi, NaOH-Pi) in this P-deficient paddy soil. Hence, our study demonstrated that the partial replacement of mineral P with organic manure could reshape the inorganic phosphate solubilizing and alkaline-phosphomonoesterase encoding bacterial communities towards more resilient and effective to the high P utilization and productivity over intense cultivation, providing insights into the potential of soil microbes in the efficient management of agricultural P fertilization.

9.
Environ Pollut ; 258: 113709, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838394

RESUMO

Plant microbiome, as the second genome of plant, and the interface between human and environmental microbiome, represents a potential pathway of human exposure to environmental pathogens and resistomes. However, the impact of host identity on the profile of resistomes in plant phyllosphere is unclear and this knowledge is vital for establishing a framework to evaluate the dissemination of antibiotic resistance via the plant microbiome. Here, we explored the phyllosphere microbiome and resistomes in 12 selected plant species. By using High-throughput quantitative PCR, we identified a total of 172 unique resistance genes in plant phyllosphere microbiome, which was significantly divergent from the profile of resistomes in associated soils (Adonis, P < 0.01). Host identity had a significant effect on the plant resistome, which was mainly attributed to the dissimilarity of phyllosphere bacterial phylogeny across different plants. We identified a core set of plant resistomes shared in more than 80% of samples, which accounted for more than 64% of total resistance genes. These plant core resistomes conferred resistance to antibiotics that are commonly administered to humans and animals. Our findings extend our knowledge regarding the resistomes in plant phyllosphere microbiome and highlight the role of host identity in shaping the plant associated antibiotic resistance genes.

10.
J Hazard Mater ; 383: 121160, 2020 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518812

RESUMO

The application of current soil quality standards based on total arsenic (As) fails to assess the ecological risks of soil arsenic or to ensure the safety of crops and foods. In this study, bioavailable arsenic instead of total arsenic was applied to improve predictive models for arsenic transfer from soil to wheat (Triticum turgidum L.). The stepwise multiple-linear regression analysis showed that bioavailable arsenic and amorphous iron oxides (FeOX) were the two most important factors contributing to arsenic accumulation in wheat grain, with the explained percentage of variation being up to 82%. Compared with the bioavailable arsenic extracted by NH4H2PO4, bioavailable arsenic extracted by HNO3 from soils generated better predictions of the amount of arsenic in grain. The best reliable model was log[Asgrain] = 0.917 log[HNO3-As] - 0.452 log[FeOX] - 1.507 (R2 = 0.82, P <  0.001). Consistently, bioavailable arsenic and FeOX were also the key factors to predict arsenic accumulation in wheat straw, leaves and spikes. Our prediction models was successfully verified for three independent soils. Our results highlight the role of soil bioavailable heavy metals in predicting their transfer in soil-plant systems and can be used to improve existing Chinese soil quality standards.

11.
Sci Total Environ ; 705: 135766, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841920

RESUMO

A chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology is devastating agricultural communities of Sri Lanka, Central America, areas of India, and Egypt. Researchers are yet to agree on its etio-pathogenesis despite many cross-sectional, case-control and cohort studies done in these countries. These approaches are broadly based on a reductionist approach. We propose a complementary paradigm based on complexity science to deepen our understanding of the disease. Complexity science views a population as system that has several dynamically interacting and inter-dependent sub-systems and is 'open' to the 'outer' environment. Health outcomes or epidemics are viewed as 'emergent' properties of the population. Using available literature from Sri Lanka, the paper presents a system dynamics model incorporating exposures from pesticides and heavy metals, drinking hard water with high levels of fluoride, poverty, low birth weight, micronutrient deficiencies and heat stress. This approach can be used to model the epidemic, understand the impacts of different factors, predict potential populations at risk, and formulate multi-pronged prevention strategies that target leverage points of the system.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Epidemias , Humanos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia
12.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(10): 4685-4690, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854839

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are considered to be emerging environmental contaminants. ARGs are frequently detected in municipal solid waste landfill and its leachate. In this study, high-throughput quantitative PCR techniques were used to investigate the dynamics of ARGs during the treatment process of landfill leachate. The results showed that ARGs in leachate were diverse and abundant, and leachate treatment could effectively reduce their abundance; the absolute abundance of ARGs was reduced to 9.2×1010 copies·L-1, which was five orders of magnitude less than the abundance of the influent. However, the range and abundance of antibiotic resistance genes in the leachate effluents were still high compared to the natural environment. Therefore, the secondary contamination of ARGs might be caused by leachate being directly discharged into municipal sewage system. In this regard, ecological and environmental risk is an inconvenient truth. Furthermore, strong correlations indicate that heavy metals and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in landfill leachate might influence the transfer of ARGs.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Resíduos Sólidos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Bactérias/genética , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
13.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(23): 13648-13656, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682413

RESUMO

Massive amounts of methyl [e.g., methylarsenate, MAs(V)] and aromatic arsenicals [e.g., roxarsone (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylarsonate, Rox(V)] have been utilized as herbicides for weed control and growth promotors for poultry and swine, respectively. The majority of these organoarsenicals degrade into more toxic inorganic species. Here, we demonstrate that the legume symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti both reduces MAs(V) to MAs(III) and catalyzes sequential two-step reduction of nitro and arsenate groups in Rox(V), producing the highly toxic trivalent amino aromatic derivative 4-hydroxy-3-aminophenylarsenite (HAPA(III)). The existence of this process suggests that S. meliloti possesses the ability to transform pentavalent methyl and aromatic arsenicals into antibiotics to provide a competitive advantage over other microbes, which would be a critical process for the synthetic aromatic arsenicals to function as antimicrobial growth promoters. The activated trivalent aromatic arsenicals are degraded into less-toxic inorganic species by an MAs(III)-demethylating aerobe, suggesting that environmental aromatic arsenicals also undergo a multiple-step degradation pathway, in analogy with the previously reported demethylation pathway of the methylarsenate herbicide. We further show that an FAD-NADPH-dependent nitroreductase encoded by mdaB gene catalyzes nitroreduction of roxarsone both in vivo and in vitro. Our results demonstrate that environmental organoarsenicals trigger competition between members of microbial communities, resulting in gradual degradation of organoarsenicals and contamination by inorganic arsenic.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Arsênico , Arsenicais , Fabaceae , Herbicidas , Roxarsona , Sinorhizobium meliloti , Animais , Antibacterianos , Suínos
14.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 95(11)2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689345
15.
Anal Chem ; 91(24): 15345-15354, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714062

RESUMO

With the ever-increasing demand for improved medical diagnosis, safe food supply, advanced biotechnology, and sustainable ecosystems, characterization of the microbial world by sensitive, specific, rapid, and quantitative tools is gaining more and more attentions. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and its flexible integration with other tools, such as microscopes, stable isotope probing, microfluidic analysis, and chemometric analysis, have advanced rapidly and showed great promise for versatile microbial characterization. This perspective provides an overview of the recent advances of SERS and related coupling techniques for microbial diagnosis (e.g., identification and antibiotic resistance testing), phenotypic response profiling, microbial function assessment, in situ biofilm characterization, and multifunctional SERS tags. We further propose future requirements and the direction for SERS methodology to be headed, including standardization of SERS methodology, database generation and management, coupling with omics technology and single-cell sorting, and application in deciphering microbial processes.

16.
Microbiome ; 7(1): 143, 2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: N fixation is one of the most important microbially driven ecosystem processes on Earth, allowing N to enter the soil from the atmosphere, and regulating plant productivity. A question that remains to be answered is whether such a fundamental process would still be that important in an over-fertilized world, as the long-term effects of fertilization on N fixation and associated diazotrophic communities remain to be tested. Here, we used a 35-year fertilization experiment, and investigated the changes in N fixation rates and the diazotrophic community in response to long-term inorganic and organic fertilization. RESULTS: It was found that N fixation was drastically reduced (dropped by 50%) after almost four decades of fertilization. Our results further indicated that functionality losses were associated with reductions in the relative abundance of keystone and phylogenetically clustered N fixers such as Geobacter spp. CONCLUSIONS: Our work suggests that long-term fertilization might have selected against N fixation and specific groups of N fixers. Our study provides solid evidence that N fixation and certain groups of diazotrophic taxa will be largely suppressed in a more and more fertilized world, with implications for soil biodiversity and ecosystem functions.

17.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(21): 12823-12834, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593455

RESUMO

Microplastics pollution in the environment is now receiving worldwide attention; however, the effects of copollution of antibiotics and microplastics on the gut microbiome of globally distributed and functionally important nontarget soil animals remain poorly understood. We studied a model collembolan (Folsomia candida) and found that the ingestion of microplastics (polystyrene, 2-2.9 µm) substantially altered the gut microbiome, antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) profile, and the isotopic fractionation in the soil collembolan tissue. Importantly, collembolans exposed to polystyrene microplastics loaded with sulfamethoxazole (MA) presented a distinctive gut microbiome, ARG profile, and isotopic fractionation compared to those exposed to polystyrene alone (MH). We observed that the abundance of ARGs and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in the MA-treated collembolan guts was significantly higher than in the MH and the control treatments. There were also strong interactions between the gut microbiome and ARGs in the collembolan guts. We further found that bacterial ß-diversity correlated significantly with the δ13C and δ15N values in collembolan body tissues. Together, our results indicate that changes in isotopic fractionation and ARG profiles in the collembolan were induced by the changes in gut microbiota and suggest that microplastics from diverse sources may have profound influences on soil fauna and soil food webs.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Antibacterianos , Genes Bacterianos , Plásticos , Poliestirenos , Solo , Sulfametoxazol
18.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(20): 11714-11724, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509697

RESUMO

Increasing CO2 levels are speculated to change the effects of engineered nanomaterials in soil and on plant growth. How plants will respond to a combination of elevated CO2 and nanomaterials stress has rarely been investigated, and the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we conducted a field experiment to investigate the rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. IIyou) response to TiO2 nanoparticles (nano-TiO2, 0 and 200 mg kg-1) using a free-air CO2 enrichment system with different CO2 levels (ambient ∼370 µmol mol-1 and elevated ∼570 µmol mol-1). The results showed that elevated CO2 or nano-TiO2 alone did not significantly affect rice chlorophyll content and antioxidant enzyme activities. However, in the presence of nano-TiO2, elevated CO2 significantly enhanced the rice height, shoot biomass, and panicle biomass (by 9.4%, 12.8%, and 15.8%, respectively). Furthermore, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis revealed that genes involved in photosynthesis were up-regulated while most genes associated with secondary metabolite biosynthesis were down-regulated in combination-treated rice. This indicated that elevated CO2 and nano-TiO2 might stimulate rice growth by adjusting resource allocation between photosynthesis and metabolism. This study provides novel insights into rice responses to increasing contamination under climate change.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Oryza , Dióxido de Carbono , Nitrogênio , Fotossíntese , Transcriptoma
19.
Microbiome ; 7(1): 128, 2019 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484554

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sharp increases in food production worldwide are attributable to agricultural intensification aided by heavy use of agrochemicals. This massive use of pesticides and fertilizers in combination with global climate change has led to collateral damage in freshwater systems, notably an increase in the frequency of harmful cyanobacterial blooms (HCBs). The precise mechanisms and magnitude of effects that pesticides exert on HCBs formation and proliferation have received little research attention and are poorly constrained. RESULTS: We found that azoxystrobin (AZ), a common strobilurin fungicide, can favor cyanobacterial growth through growth inhibition of eukaryotic competitors (Chlorophyta) and possibly by inhibiting cyanobacterial parasites (fungi) as well as pathogenic bacteria and viruses. Meta-transcriptomic analyses identified AZ-responsive genes and biochemical pathways in eukaryotic plankton and bacteria, potentially explaining the microbial effects of AZ. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides novel mechanistic insights into the intertwined effects of a fungicide and eutrophication on microbial planktonic communities and cyanobacterial blooms in a eutrophic freshwater ecosystem. This knowledge may prove useful in mitigating cyanobacteria blooms resulting from agricultural intensification.

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