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1.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792671

RESUMO

Ocean acidification (OA) in estuaries is becoming a global concern, and may affect microbial characteristics in estuarine sediments. Bacterial communities in response to acidification in this habitat have been well discussed; however, knowledge about how fungal communities respond to OA remains poorly understood. Here, we explored the effects of acidification on bacterial and fungal activities, structures and functions in estuarine sediments during a 50-day incubation experiment. Under acidified conditions, activities of three extracellular enzymes related to nutrient cycling were inhibited and basal respiration rates were decreased. Acidification significantly altered bacterial communities and their interactions, while weak alkalization had a minor impact on fungal communities. We distinguished pH-sensitive/tolerant bacteria and fungi in estuarine sediments, and found that only pH-sensitive/tolerant bacteria had strong correlations with sediment basal respiration activity. FUNGuild analysis indicated that animal pathogen abundances in sediment were greatly increased by acidification, while plant pathogens were unaffected. High-throughput quantitative PCR-based SmartChip analysis suggested that the nutrient cycling-related multifunctionality of sediments was reduced under acidified conditions. Most functional genes associated with nutrient cycling were identified in bacterial communities and their relative abundances were decreased by acidification. These new findings highlight that acidification in estuarine regions affects bacterial and fungal communities differently, increases potential pathogens and disrupts bacteria-mediated nutrient cycling.

2.
Environ Microbiol ; 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33817921

RESUMO

Termites are ubiquitous insects in tropical and subtropical habitats, and some of them construct massive nests ('mounds'), which substantially promote substrate heterogeneity by altering soil properties. Yet, the role of termite nesting process in regulating the distribution and diversity of soil microbial communities remains poorly understood, which introduces uncertainty in predictions of ecosystem functions of termite mounds in a changing environment. Here, by using amplicon sequencing, we conducted a survey of 134 termite mounds across >1500 km in northern Australia and found that termite mounds significantly differed from bulk soils in the microbial diversity and community compositions. Compared with bulk soils, termite nesting process decreased the microbial diversity and the relative abundance of rare taxa. Rare taxa had a narrower habitat niche breadth than dominant taxa, and might be easier to be filtered by the potential intensive microbial competition during the nesting processes. We further demonstrated that the shift in pH induced by termite nesting process was a major driver shaping the microbial community profiles in termite mounds. Together, our work provides novel evidence that termite nesting is an important process in regulating soil microbial diversity, which advances our understanding of the functioning of termite mounds. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(2): 761-765, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742870

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are considered emerging contaminants posing an increasing threat to the ecological environment and global human health. Profiling ARGs in tailings ponds is essential to better understand their spatial and temporal dynamics. In this study, high-throughput quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were used to investigate the occurrence, diversity, abundance, and distribution of ARGs in a tailings pond. A total of 97, 52, 44, and 56 ARGs were detected in WK0, WK1, WK2, and HS, respectively, with 11, 6, 3, and 6 mobile genetic elements (MGEs) also being detected, respectively. The absolute abundance of ARGs in the pond water ranged from 6.39×107 to 1.75×108 copies·L-1. Additionally, the abundance of MGEs were higher than ARGs in WK1 and WK2, indicating the potential for horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Furthermore, Cu, TOC, and MGEs were significantly associated with ARGs. Indeed, redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that Cu, TOC, and MGEs explained 61.64% of the alteration of the ARG profiles, implying their potential roles in the spread and evolution of ARGs in tailings ponds.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Tanques , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Humanos
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 771: 144848, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736163

RESUMO

In this study, we use high-throughput quantitative polymerase chain reaction approaches to comprehensively assess the effects of agricultural land-use change on the antibiotic resistome of agricultural runoffs after rainfalls in Lake Tai Basin. For the first time in this region, our findings show that orchard runoffs harbored more diverse and abundant antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) than traditional cropland runoffs. Network analysis demonstrated that orchard runoffs possessed a strong ability for ARG dissemination via horizontal gene transfer. These results suggest that residents might be exposed to a higher public health threat than before. Moreover, the present study confirmed that the rice-wheat rotation system plays a key role in regulating the soil antibiotic resistome profile. Using 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing technology, this study clarified the relationships between the antibiotic resistome and soil microbiome composition. Finally, we discuss the key environmental factors driving changes in the soil antibiotic resistome. In summary, this study gives insight into the dissemination of environmental ARGs to the people living in the Lake Tai Basin.


Assuntos
Lagos , Solo , Antibacterianos , Genes Bacterianos , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rotação , Microbiologia do Solo
5.
Environ Int ; 152: 106502, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721724

RESUMO

The phyllosphere is considered a key site for the transfer of both naturally and anthropogenically selected antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) to humans. Consequently, the development of green building systems may pose an, as yet, unexplored pathway for ARGs and pathogens to transfer from the environment to outdoor plants. We collected leaves from plants climbing up buildings at 1, 2, 4 and 15 m above ground level and collected associated dust samples from adjacent windowsills to determine the diversity and relative abundance of microbiota and ARGs. Overall, a total of 143 ARGs from 11 major classes and 18 mobile genetic elements (MGEs) were detected. The relative abundance of ARGs within the phyllosphere decreased with increasing height above ground level. Fast expectation-maximization microbial source tracking (FEAST) suggested that the contribution of soil and aerosols to the phyllosphere microbiome was limited. A culture-dependent method to isolate bacteria from plant tissues identified a total of 91 genera from root, stem, and leaf samples as well as endophytes isolated from leaves. Of those bacteria, 20 isolates representing 9 genera were known human pathogenic members to humans. Shared bacterial from culture-dependent and culture-independent methods suggest microorganisms may move from soil to plant, potentially through an endophytic mechanism and thus, there is a clear potential for movement of ARGs and human pathogens from the outdoor environment.

6.
Environ Int ; 151: 106444, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33621917

RESUMO

Oral bioavailability of arsenic (As) determines levels of As exposure via ingestion of As-contaminated soil, however, the role of gut microbiota in As bioavailability has not evaluated in vivo although some in vitro studies have investigated this. Here, we made a comparison in As relative bioavailability (RBA) estimates for a contaminated soil (3913 mg As kg-1) using a mouse model with and without penicillin perturbing gut microbiota and metabolites. Compared to soil exposure alone (2% w/w soil in diets), addition of penicillin (100 or 1000 mg kg-1) reduced probiotic Lactobacillus and sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio, enriched penicillin-resistant Enterobacter and Bacteroides, and decreased amino acid concentrations in ileum. With perturbed gut microbiota and metabolic profile, penicillin and soil co-exposed mice accumulated 2.81-3.81-fold less As in kidneys, excreted 1.02-1.35-fold less As in urine, and showed lower As-RBA (25.7-29.0%) compared to mice receiving diets amended with soil alone (56 ± 9.63%). One mechanism accounted for this is the decreased concentrations of amino acids arising from the gut microbiota shift which resulted in elevated iron (Fe) and As co-precipitation, leading to reduced As solubilization in the intestine. Another mechanism was conversion of bioavailable inorganic As to less bioavailable monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV) by the antibiotic perturbed microflora. Based on in vivo mouse model, we demonstrated the important role of gut microbiota and gut metabolites in participating soil As solubilization and speciation transformation then affecting As oral bioavailability. Results are useful to better understand the role of gut bacteria in affecting As metabolism and the health risks of As-contaminated soils.

7.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(5): 3430-3441, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600162

RESUMO

Electrotrophs play an important role in biogeochemical cycles, but the effects of long-term fertilization on electrotrophic communities in paddy soils remain unclear. Here, we explored the responses of electrotrophic communities in paddy soil-based microcosms to different long-term fertilization practices using microbial electrosynthesis systems (MESs), high-throughput quantitative PCR, and 16s rRNA gene-based Illumina sequencing techniques. Compared to the case in the unfertilized soil (CK), applications of only manure (M); only chemical nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium fertilizers (NPK); and M plus NPK (MNPK) clearly changed the electrotrophic bacterial community structure. The Streptomyces genus of the Actinobacteria phylum was the dominant electrotroph in the CK, M, and MNPK soils. The latter two soils also favored Truepera of Deinococcus-Thermus or Arenimonas and Thioalkalispira of Proteobacteria. Furthermore, Pseudomonas of Proteobacteria and Bacillus of Firmicutes were major electrotrophs in the NPK soil. These electrotrophs consumed biocathodic currents coupled with nitrate reduction and recovered 18-38% of electrons via dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA). The increased abundances of the nrfA gene for DNRA induced by electrical potential further supported that the electrotrophs enhanced DNRA for all soils. These expand our knowledge about the diversity of electrotrophs and their roles in N cycle in paddy soils and highlight the importance of fertilization in shaping electrotrophic communities.

8.
Mol Biol Evol ; 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592098

RESUMO

Herbicides are one of the most widely used chemicals in agriculture. While they are known to be harmful to non-target organisms, the effects of herbicides on the composition and functioning of soil microbial communities remain unclear. Here we show that application of three widely used herbicides-glyphosate, glufosinate and dicamba-increase the prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in soil microbiomes without clear changes in the abundance, diversity and composition of bacterial communities. Mechanistically, these results could be explained by a positive selection for more tolerant genotypes that acquired several mutations in previously well-characterized herbicide and antibiotic resistance genes. Moreover, herbicide exposure increased cell membrane permeability and conjugation frequency of multidrug resistance plasmids, promoting ARG movement between bacteria. A similar pattern was found in agricultural soils across eleven provinces in China, where herbicide application, and the levels of glyphosate residues in soils, were associated with increased ARG and MGE abundances relative to herbicide-free control sites. Together, our results show that herbicide application can enrich ARGs and MGEs by changing the genetic composition of soil microbiomes, potentially contributing to the global antimicrobial resistance problem in agricultural environments.

9.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(1): 423-432, 2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332973

RESUMO

Applying organic fertilizers has been well documented to facilitate the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in soil ecosystems. However, the role of soil fauna in this process has been seldom addressed, which hampers our ability to predict the fate of and to manage the spread of ARGs. Here, using high-throughput quantitative polymerase chain reaction (HT-qPCR), we examined the effect of long-term (5-, 8-, and 10-year) fertilization treatments (control, inorganic fertilizers, and mixed fertilizers) on the transfer of ARGs between soil, nematodes, and earthworms. We found distinct fates for ARGs in the nematodes and earthworms, with the former having higher enriched levels of ARGs than the latter. Fertilization impacted the number and abundance of ARGs in soil, and fertilization duration altered the composition of ARGs. Shared ARGs among soil, nematodes, and earthworm guts supported by a fast expectation-maximization microbial source tracking analysis demonstrated the trophic transfer potential of ARGs through this short soil food chain. The transfer of ARGs was reduced by fertilization duration, which was mainly ascribed to the reduction of ARGs in the earthworm gut microbiota. This study identified the transfer of ARGs in the soil-nematode-earthworm food chain as a potential mechanism for a wider dissemination of ARGs in the soil ecosystem.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Solo , Animais , Antibacterianos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Fertilização , Genes Bacterianos , Esterco , Microbiologia do Solo
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 752: 141874, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889284

RESUMO

Soil fauna takes an active part in accelerating turnover of nutrients in terrestrial ecosystems. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) has been widely characterized, however, whether anammox is active in earthworm gut and the effect of earthworm on anammox in soil remain unknown. In this study, the activity, abundance and community of anammox bacteria in earthworm guts and soils from microcosms were determined using a 15N-tracing technique, quantitative PCR, and anammox bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Results showed that anammox rates in guts ranged between 5.81 and 14.19 nmol N g-1 dw gut content h-1, which were significantly (P < 0.01) higher than that in their surrounding soils during 30 day incubation. On the contrary, abundances of hzsB genes encoding subunit B hydrazine synthase in guts were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those in their surrounding soils. Anammox rates, denitrification N2 production rates and hzsB genes in soils with earthworms were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those in control soils. Anammox bacterial compositions differed significantly (P < 0.05) between gut and soil, and earthworm altered anammox bacterial communities in soils. Brocadia, Kuenenia and abundant unclassified anammox bacteria were detected in collected soils and gut contents, in which Brocadia was only detected in guts. These results suggested that microbes in earthworm gut increase, but present of earthworm reduces anammox and denitrification associated N loss by altering the anammox bacterial community compositions in soils.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Oligoquetos , Anaerobiose , Animais , Ecossistema , Oxirredução , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(2): 1004-1014, 2021 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356195

RESUMO

The rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) has become an increasingly serious threat to public health. Previous studies illustrate the antibiotic-like effect of many substances. However, whether and how commonly used or existing non-antibiotic metalloids (e.g., selenate) would enhance ARG spread remains poorly known. Here, we tracked the long-term operation of a bioreactor continuously fed with selenate for more than 1000 days. Metagenomic sequencing identified 191 different ARGs, of which the total abundance increased significantly after the amendment of selenate. Network analyses showed that ARGs resisting multiple drugs had very similar co-occurrence patterns, implying a potentially larger health risk. Host classification not only indicated multidrug-resistant species but also distinguished the mechanism of ARG enrichment for vertical transfer and horizontal gene transfer. Genome reconstruction of an ARG host suggested that selenate and its bioreduction product selenite could stimulate the overproduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species, which was confirmed by the direct measurement. Bacterial membrane permeability, type IV pilus formation, and DNA repair and recombination were also enhanced, together facilitating the horizontal acquirement of ARGs. Overall, this study for the first time highlights the ARG emergence and dissemination induced by a non-antibiotic metalloid and identifies ARG as a factor to consider in selenate bioremediation.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Metaloides , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Ácido Selênico
12.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 737, 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33277584

RESUMO

Cyanobacterial blooms are a global ecological problem that directly threatens human health and crop safety. Cyanobacteria have toxic effects on aquatic microorganisms, which could drive the selection for resistance genes. The effect of cyanobacterial blooms on the dispersal and abundance of antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs) of concern to human health remains poorly known. We herein investigated the effect of cyanobacterial blooms on ARG composition in Lake Taihu, China. The numbers and relative abundances of total ARGs increased obviously during a Planktothrix bloom. More pathogenic microorganisms were present during this bloom than during a Planktothrix bloom or during the non-bloom period. Microcosmic experiments using additional aquatic ecosystems (an urban river and Lake West) found that a coculture of Microcystis aeruginosa and Planktothrix agardhii increased the richness of the bacterial community, because its phycosphere provided a richer microniche for bacterial colonization and growth. Antibiotic-resistance bacteria were naturally in a rich position, successfully increasing the momentum for the emergence and spread of ARGs. These results demonstrate that cyanobacterial blooms are a crucial driver of ARG diffusion and enrichment in freshwater, thus providing a reference for the ecology and evolution of ARGs and ARBs and for better assessing and managing water quality.

14.
Foods ; 9(11)2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158083

RESUMO

Fertilisation of cereal crops with nitrogen (N) has increased in the last five decades. In particular, the fertilisation of wheat crops increased by nearly one order of magnitude from 1961 to 2010, from 9.84 to 93.8 kg N ha-1 y-1. We hypothesized that this intensification of N fertilisation would increase the content of allergenic proteins in wheat which could likely be associated with the increased pathology of coeliac disease in human populations. An increase in the per capita intake of gliadin proteins, the group of gluten proteins principally responsible for the development of coeliac disease, would be the responsible factor. We conducted a global meta-analysis of available reports that supported our hypothesis: wheat plants growing in soils receiving higher doses of N fertilizer have higher total gluten, total gliadin, α/ß-gliadin, γ-gliadin and ω-gliadin contents and higher gliadin transcription in their grain. We thereafter calculated the per capita annual average intake of gliadins from wheat and derived foods and found that it increased from 1961 to 2010 from approximately 2.4 to 3.8 kg y-1 per capita (+1.4 ± 0.18 kg y-1 per capita, mean ± SE), i.e., increased by 58 ± 7.5%. Finally, we found that this increase was positively correlated with the increase in the rates of coeliac disease in all the available studies with temporal series of coeliac disease. The impacts and damage of over-fertilisation have been observed at an environmental scale (e.g., eutrophication and acid rain), but a potential direct effect of over-fertilisation is thus also possible on human health (coeliac disease).

15.
Sci Total Environ ; 755(Pt 2): 142702, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049532

RESUMO

Environmental selection of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) is considered to be caused by antibiotic or metal residues, frequently used in livestock. In this study we examined three commercial poultry farms to correlate the co-occurrence patterns of antibiotic and metal residues to the presence of ARGs. We quantified 283 ARGs, 12 mobile genetic elements (MGEs), 49 targeted antibiotics, 7 heavy metals and sequenced 16S rRNA genes. The abundance and type of ARG were significantly enriched in manure while soil harbored the most diverse bacterial community. Procrustes analysis displayed significant correlations between ARGs/MGEs and the microbiome. Cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) were responsible for a majority of positive correlations to ARGs when compared to antibiotics. Integrons and transposons co-occurred with ARGs corresponding to 9 classes of antibiotics, especially Class1 integrase intI-1LC. Redundancy analysis (RDA) and Variance partitioning analysis (VPA) showed that antibiotics, metals, MGEs and bacteria explain solely 0.7%, 5.7%, 12.4%, and 21.9% of variances of ARGs in the microbial community, respectively. These results suggested that bacterial composition and horizontal gene transfer were the major factors shaping the composition of ARGs; Metals had a bigger effect on ARG profile than detected antibiotics in this study.

16.
ISME J ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028975

RESUMO

Cropping systems have fertilized soils for decades with undetermined consequences for the productivity and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. One of the critical unknowns is the role of soil biodiversity in controlling crop production after decades of fertilization. This knowledge gap limits our capacity to assess how changes in soil biodiversity could alter crop production and soil health in changing environments. Here, we used multitrophic ecological networks to investigate the importance of soil biodiversity, in particular, the biodiversity of key-stone taxa in controlling soil functioning and wheat production in a 35-year field fertilization experiment. We found strong and positive associations between soil functional genes, crop production and the biodiversity of key-stone phylotypes; soils supporting a larger number of key-stone nematode, bacteria and fungi phylotypes yielded the highest wheat production. These key-stone phylotypes were also positively associated with plant growth (phototrophic bacteria, nitrogen fixers) and multiple functional genes related to nutrient cycling. The retrieved information on the genomes clustered with key-stone bacterial phylotypes indicated that the key-stone taxa had higher gene copies of oxidoreductases (participating most biogeochemical cycles of ecosystems and linking to microbial energetics) and 71 essential functional genes associated with carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur cycling. Altogether, our work highlights the fundamental role of the biodiversity of key-stone phylotypes in maintaining soil functioning and crop production after several decades of fertilization, and provides a list of key-stone phylotypes linking to crop production and soil nutrient cycling, which could give science-based guidance for sustainable food production.

17.
Environ Microbiol ; 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996254

RESUMO

Plants harbour highly diverse mycobiomes which sustain essential functions for host health and productivity. However, ecological processes that govern the plant-mycobiome assembly, interactions and their impact on ecosystem functions remain poorly known. Here we characterized the ecological role and community assembly of both abundant and rare fungal taxa along the soil-plant continuums (rhizosphere, phyllosphere and endosphere) in the maize-wheat/barley rotation system under different fertilization practices at two contrasting sites. Our results indicate that mycobiome assembly is shaped predominantly by compartment niche and host species rather than by environmental factors. Moreover, crop-associated fungal communities are dominated by few abundant taxa mainly belonging to Sordariomycetes and Dothideomycetes, while the majority of diversity within mycobiomes are represented by rare taxa. For plant compartments, the abundant sub-community is mainly determined by stochastic processes. In contrast, the rare sub-community is more sensitive to host selection and mainly governed by deterministic processes. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that rare taxa play an important role in fungal co-occurrence network and ecosystem functioning like crop yield and soil enzyme activities. These results significantly advance our understanding of crop mycobiome assembly and highlight the key role of rare taxa in sustaining the stability of crop mycobiomes and ecosystem functions.

18.
ISME J ; 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963346

RESUMO

Antibiotic-resistant pathogens pose a significant threat to human health. Several dispersal mechanisms have been described, but transport of both microbes and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) via atmospheric particles has received little attention as a pathway for global dissemination. These atmospheric particles can return to the Earth's surface via rain or snowfall, and thus promote long-distance spread of ARGs. However, the diversity and abundance of ARGs in fresh snow has not been studied and their potential correlation with particulate air pollution is not well explored. Here, we characterized ARGs in 44 samples of fresh snow from major cities in China, three in North America, and one in Europe, spanning a gradient from pristine to heavily anthropogenically influenced ecosystems. High-throughput qPCR analysis of ARGs and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) provided strong indications that dissemination of ARGs in fresh snow could be exacerbated by air pollution, severely increasing the health risks of both air pollution and ARGs. We showed that snowfall did effectively spread ARGs from point sources over the Earth surface. Together our findings urge for better pollution control to reduce the risk of global dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes.

19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(17): 10754-10762, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816468

RESUMO

The effects of pharmaceuticals as emerging contaminants in soil on the gut microbiome and antibiotic resistome in nontarget soil fauna are largely elusive. In this study, we explored the composition of the bacterial community and the presence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the gut of the model soil collembolan (Folsomia candida) upon antiepileptic drug carbamazepine (CBZ) and antibiotic tetracycline (TC) exposure. Results showed that, individually or in combination, exposure to TC or CBZ significantly altered the gut community structure of F. candida, causing some enrichment of the bacteria associated with xenobiotic metabolism, such as Arthrobacter, Achromobacter, Gordonia, and Shinella. More importantly, oral exposure to the nonantibiotic drug CBZ enhanced the abundance and diversity of ARGs in the gut of F. candida, especially for the beta-lactams and multidrug resistance genes. Our results revealed that the most likely hosts of ARGs in the gut of F. candida were Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. The significant positive correlation between mobile genetic elements (MGEs) and ARGs indicated the potential risk of ARGs transmission in the gut of F. candida. Overall, the nonantibiotic CBZ is likely to disturb the gut microbiota of nontarget soil fauna such as collembolans, thereby enhancing the dissemination of ARGs.

20.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(17): 10460-10471, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32786576

RESUMO

Food supply has been the central issue of human development for millennia and has become increasingly critical in an urbanizing world. However, the environmental footprints and associated mitigation strategies of food consumption have rarely been comprehensively characterized at urban or regional scales. Here, we analyze the water, carbon, reactive nitrogen, and phosphorus footprints of food consumption in Chinese urban regions and demonstrate how such information can help to formulate tailored mitigation strategies. The results show that in three of the largest urban regions of China, 44-93% of the four footprints are embodied in transboundary food supply. The size of the footprints and the effectiveness of mitigation measures in food supply chain vary across the environmental footprints and urban regions. However, targeting agriculture and food processing sectors in Hebei, Shandong, and Henan provinces can reduce these footprints by up to 47%. Our findings show that the analysis of the environmental footprints along the transboundary food supply chains could inform individualized and effective mitigation targets and strategies.

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