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1.
J Immunol Res ; 2021: 6670495, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33860063

RESUMO

At present, liver ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is still a great challenge for clinical liver partial resection and liver transplantation. The innate immunity regulated by liver macrophages orchestrates the cascade of IR inflammation and acts as a bridge. As a specific macrophage subunit of vacuolar ATPase, ATP6V0D2 (V-ATPase D2 subunit) has been shown to promote the formation of autophagolysosome in vitro. Our research fills a gap which has existed in the study of inflammatory stress about the V-ATPase subunit ATP6V0D2 in liver macrophages. We first found that the expression of specific ATP6V0D2 in liver macrophages was upregulated with the induction of inflammatory cascade after liver IR surgery, and knockdown of ATP6V0D2 resulted in increased secretion of proinflammatory factors and chemokines, which enhanced activation of NLRP3 and aggravation of liver injury. Further studies found that the exacerbated activation of NLRP3 was related to the autophagic flux regulated by ATP6V0D2. Knocking down ATP6V0D2 impaired the formation of autophagolysosome and aggravated liver IR injury through nonspecific V-ATPase activation independent of V-ATPase-Notchl-Hesl signal axis. In general, we illustrated that the expression of ATP6V0D2 in liver macrophages was upregulated after liver IR, and by gradually promoting the formation of autophagolysosomes to increase autophagy flux to limit the activation of liver inflammation, this regulation is independent of the Notch1-Hes1 signal axis.

2.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 106(5): 884-891, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33683387

RESUMO

Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for human beings and plants are the current main sources of Se element in Asian diet. Therefore a feasible way to increase people's Se intake is to increase Se content in plants. In this paper, we focus on how the tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum) yield and quality are influenced by the effect of irrigation amount, Se-enriched and high-calcium organic fertilizer and compound fertilizer amount respectively. The results from a two-year experiment show that the combination of Se-enriched organic fertilizer and compound fertilizer can significantly increase the tomato yield comparing with the use of NPK organic or compound fertilizer. It is also shown that by applying more Se-enriched and high-calcium organic fertilizer the contents of Se, Lycopene, Vitamin C (Vc) and soluble sugar in tomato fruit can be increased considerably. It was found that the highest Se content was achieved using 100% Se-enriched organic fertilizer combined with irrigation at 100% in 2016 and 100% Se-enriched organic fertilizer with irrigation at 80% in 2017. Deficit irrigation (80%) can help to increase Water Use Efficiency (WUE) and the Se and VC contents in tomato yield. Therefore in order to improve the Se-enriched tomato yield and quality, it is suggested to apply 100% Se-enriched organic fertilizer and adopt the deficit irrigation at 80%.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum , Selênio , Irrigação Agrícola , Entropia , Fertilização , Fertilizantes , Humanos , Solo
3.
Bull Entomol Res ; 111(3): 371-378, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517919

RESUMO

Much progress has been made in understanding the environmental and hormonal systems regulating winter diapause. However, transcriptional regulation of summer diapause is still largely unknown, making it difficult to understand an all-around regulation profile of seasonal adaptation. To bridge this gap, comparison RNA-seq to profile the transcriptome and to examine differential gene expression profiles between non-diapause, summer diapause, and winter diapause groups were performed. A total number of 113 million reads were generated and assembled into 79,117 unigenes, with 37,492 unigenes categorized into 58 functional gene ontology groups, 25 clusters of orthologous group categories, and 256 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. KEGG analysis mapped 2108 differentially expressed genes to 48 and 67 pathways for summer and winter diapauses, respectively. Enrichment statistics showed that 11 identical pathways similarly overlapped in the top 20 enriched functional groups both related to summer and winter diapauses. We also identified 35 key candidate genes for universal and differential functions related to summer and winter diapause preparation. Furthermore, we identified some genes involved in the signaling and metabolic pathways that may be the key drivers to integrate environmental signals into the summer and winter diapause preparation. The current study provided valuable insights into global molecular mechanisms underpinning diapause preparation.


Assuntos
Borboletas/fisiologia , Diapausa de Inseto/fisiologia , RNA-Seq/métodos , Animais , Borboletas/genética , Diapausa de Inseto/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Genes de Insetos , Estações do Ano , Transdução de Sinais , Transcriptoma
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33502161

RESUMO

The end groups' halogenations among the nonfullerene acceptors (NFAs) were a very useful method to fabricate high-performance NFAs-based organic solar cells (OSCs). We report three high-performance NFAs, BTIC-4EO-4F, BTIC-4EO-4Cl, and BTIC-4EO-4Br. They all have a fused benzothiadiazole as the core unit and different dihalogenated end groups (IC-2F, IC-2Cl, and IC-2Br) as the terminal unit. Thanks to the improved intramolecular charge-transfer ability of the brominated NFAs, bromination is more effective than fluorination and chlorination in lowering the energy levels and red-shifting the absorption spectra of the resulting NFAs. When compared with the chlorinated and fluorinated counterparts, the BTIC-4EO-4Br blend films exhibit lower roughness, better phase separation size, and stronger face-on stacking. When blended with poly{[4,8-bis[5-(2-ethylhexyl)-4-fluoro-2-thienyl]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']-dithiophene-2,6-diyl]-alt-[2,5-thiophenediyl[5,7-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4,8-dioxo-4H,8H-benzo[1,2-c:4,5-c']dithiophene-1,3-diyl]]} (PBDB-TF) as the polymer donor material, the BTIC-4EO-4Br-based OSCs exhibit the highest power conversion efficiency (12.41%), with a higher current density and a higher open-circuit voltage than the BTIC-4EO-4Cl-based OSCs (11.29%) and BTIC-4EO-4F-based OSCs (10.64%). These results show that the bromination of the NFAs' electron-withdrawing end groups can also be very effective in constructing high-performance photovoltaic materials.

5.
J Food Sci ; 86(2): 628-634, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462857

RESUMO

In this study, the bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds in insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) and soluble dietary fiber (SDF) derived from hulless barley were evaluated by an in vitro gastrointestinal (GI) digestion model. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents, as well as antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds in IDF and SDF following GI digestion were studied. The results obtained showed an increase in total phenolic and flavonoid contents, as well antioxidant activity compared with undigested extracts. Moreover, the bioaccessibility indexes of phenolic compounds in IDF and SDF were 490.90 ± 3.10% and 1608.79 ± 40.63% respectively, after GI digestion. Similarly, the bioaccessibility indexes of flavonoids in IDF and SDF were 179.20 ± 15.16% and 814.36 ± 26.31%, respectively. Based on our findings, individual phenolic compounds show different stability in the digestion process. The content of ferulic acid has different trends in IDF and SDF during GI digestion. This study could provide a scientific basis for hulless barley DF as valuable food additives. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Hulless barley is a unique cereal with potential health benefits due to high dietary fiber (DF) content and phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds could be linked to DF through chemical bonds. Phenolic compounds in DF can be slowly and continuously released under acidic, alkaline, and enzymatic conditions by in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, which could maintain a higher phenolic concentration in the bloodstream and be beneficial for human health. This study could provide a scientific basis for hulless barley DF as valuable food additives.

6.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 106(5): 715-726, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420800

RESUMO

Selenium is a trace element necessary for the growth of organisms. Moreover, selenium supplementation can improve the immunity and fertility of the body, as well as its ability to resist oxidation, tumors, heavy metals, and pathogenic microorganisms. However, owing to the duality of selenium, excessive selenium supplementation can cause certain toxic effects on the growth and development of the body and may even result in death in severe cases. At present, increasing attention is being paid to the development and utilization of selenium as a micronutrient, but its potential toxicity tends to be neglected. This study systematically reviews recent research on the toxicological effects of selenium, aiming to provide theoretical references for selenium toxicology-related research and theoretical support for the development of selenium-containing drugs, selenium-enriched dietary supplements, and selenium-enriched foods.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Selênio , Oligoelementos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Micronutrientes , Selênio/toxicidade
7.
J Med Virol ; 93(5): 2857-2866, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331654

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is sweeping the world since the end of 2019. The titer change of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 needs to be further clarified, the clinical and preventive value of antibodies still needs to be further investigated. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was established by coating with SARS-CoV-2 recombinant spike protein and used to detect serum immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in coronavirus disease 2019 patients to evaluate the pattern of changes of antibodies. The specificity of the ELISA for detection SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG were 96% (144/150) and 100% (150/150), respectively. The sensitivity of ELISA was 100% (150/150) for IgM, and 99.3% (149/150) for IgG. SARS-CoV-2-SP-IgM and SP-IgG antibodies could be detected on Day 1 of hospitalization in 12.5% patients, and SP-IgM began to decrease after reaching its peak at around 22-28 days, and become negative at Month 3 in 30% patients and negative at Month 7 in 79% of these patients after onset; IgG reached its peak around Day 22-28 and kept at a high level within the longest observation period for 4 months, it dropped very sharply at 7 months. The positive rates of SP-IgM and SP-IgG were higher than those of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction on Day 7 and 4. The established indirect ELISA has good specificity and sensitivity. IgM and IgG against SARS-CoV-2 appeared almost simultaneously in the early stage, and the level of IgG antibodies could not maintain a high plateau in the observation period of 7 months. Our data will help develop the diagnosis and vaccine of SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , /diagnóstico , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , /isolamento & purificação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Integr Plant Biol ; 63(3): 510-527, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331695

RESUMO

Global warming poses a serious threat to crops. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs)/CPKs play vital roles in plant stress responses, but their exact roles in plant thermotolerance remains elusive. Here, we explored the roles of heat-induced ZmCDPK7 in thermotolerance in maize. ZmCDPK7-overexpressing maize plants displayed higher thermotolerance, photosynthetic rates, and antioxidant enzyme activity but lower H2 O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents than wild-type plants under heat stress. ZmCDPK7-knockdown plants displayed the opposite patterns. ZmCDPK7 is attached to the plasma membrane but can translocate to the cytosol under heat stress. ZmCDPK7 interacts with the small heat shock protein sHSP17.4, phosphorylates sHSP17.4 at Ser-44 and the respiratory burst oxidase homolog RBOHB at Ser-99, and upregulates their expression. Site-directed mutagenesis of sHSP17.4 to generate a Ser-44-Ala substitution reduced ZmCDPK7's enhancement of catalase activity but enhanced ZmCDPK7's suppression of MDA accumulation in heat-stressed maize protoplasts. sHSP17.4, ZmCDPK7, and RBOHB were less strongly upregulated in response to heat stress in the abscisic acid-deficient mutant vp5 versus the wild type. Pretreatment with an RBOH inhibitor suppressed sHSP17.4 and ZmCDPK7 expression. Therefore, abscisic acid-induced ZmCDPK7 functions both upstream and downstream of RBOH and participates in thermotolerance in maize by mediating the phosphorylation of sHSP17.4, which might be essential for its chaperone function.

9.
Vet Microbiol ; 252: 108929, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254057

RESUMO

Porcine circovirus type 2 is the main pathogen of porcine circovirus disease, which has caused enormous economic losses to the pig industry worldwide. The PKR signaling pathway is important for the cellular antiviral response, but its role in the process of PCV2 infection is unknown. In this study, we first found that dsRNA was produced and that PKR was activated in PCV2 infection. However, interestingly, the activation of PKR was inhibited when the Cap protein was exogenously expressed in PAMs, and this inhibition was reversed by the expression of DNAJC7. The interaction between Cap and DNAJC7 was confirmed by laser confocal microscopy, coimmunoprecipitation and GST pull-down, and it was found that PCV2 infection or the expression of Cap protein could induce DNAJC7 to migrate to the nucleus and release P58IPK, an inhibitor of PKR activation. Downregulating the expression of DNAJC7 by a specific inhibitor or recombinant lentivirus-mediated shRNA, inhibited the replication of the PCV2 genome and the production of virions, which was consistent with the increase of DNAJC7 expression in multiple tissues of weaned piglets infected with PCV2. These data indicate that although PKR was activated by PCV2 infection, the activation was inhibited by Cap through an interaction with DNAJC7. These results help to understand the molecular mechanism of immune escape after PCV2 infection.

10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5814, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199693

RESUMO

In organic electronics, an aromatic fused ring is a basic unit that provides π-electrons to construct semiconductors and governs the device performance. The main challenge in developing new π-skeletons for tuning the material properties is the limitation of the available chemical approach. Herein, we successfully synthesize two pentacyclic siloxy-bridged π-conjugated isomers to investigate the synergistic effects of Si and O atoms on the geometric and electronic influence of π-units in organic electronics. Notably, the synthesis routes for both isomers possess several advantages over the previous approaches for delivering conventional aromatic fused-rings, such as environmentally benign tin-free synthesis and few synthetic steps. To explore their potential application as photovoltaic materials, two isomeric acceptor-donor-acceptor type acceptors based on these two isomers were developed, showing a decent device efficiency of 10%, which indicates the great potential of this SiO-bridged ladder-type unit for the development of new high-performance semiconductor materials.

11.
Adv Mater ; 32(45): e2003471, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029855

RESUMO

As a common feature in a majority of malignant tumors, hypoxia has become the Achilles' heel of photodynamic therapy (PDT). The development of type-I photosensitizers that show hypoxia-tolerant PDT efficiency provides a straightforward way to address this issue. However, type-I PDT materials have rarely been discovered. Herein, a π-conjugated molecule with A-D-A configuration, COi6-4Cl, is reported. The H2 O-dispersible nanoparticle of COi6-4Cl can be activated by an 880 nm laser, and displays hypoxia-tolerant type I/II combined PDT capability, and more notably, a high NIR-II fluorescence with a quantum yield over 5%. Moreover, COi6-4Cl shows a negligible photothermal conversion effect. The non-radiative decay of COi6-4Cl is suppressed in the dispersed and aggregated state due to the restricted molecular vibrations and distinct intermolecular steric hindrance induced by its four bulky side chains. These features make COi6-4Cl a distinguished single-NIR-wavelength-activated phototheranostic material, which performs well in NIR-II fluorescence-guided PDT treatment and shows an enhanced in vivo anti-tumor efficiency over the clinically approved Chlorin e6, by the equal stresses on hypoxia-tolerant anti-tumor therapy and deep-penetration imaging. Therefore, the great potential of COi6-4Cl in precise PDT cancer therapy against hypoxia challenges is demonstrated.

12.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 40(10): 1380-1389, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33118508

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical value of individualized pharmaceutical services for patients receiving vancomycin for severe infections and establish clinical monitoring procedures during vancomycin treatment. METHODS: Data were collected from patients with severe infections who received vancomycin treatment with individualized pharmacy services (test group, 144 cases) or without such services (control group, 884 cases) between January, 2017 and December, 2018. Using propensity score matching, the patients in the two groups with comparable baseline data were selected for inclusion in the study (62 in each group), and the efficacy, safety and economic indicators were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: The curative effects of the treatment did not differ significantly between the two groups, with the overall response rates of 95.16% in the test group and 91.94% in the control group (P > 0.05). The percentage of neutrophils before vancomycin treatment and calcitonin level after the treatment differed significantly between the two groups (P < 0.05). No significant difference was found in the incidence of adverse events associated with the treatment between the test and control groups (8.06% vs 9.68%, P > 0.05); a significant difference in creatinine level was noted between the two groups after vancomycin treatment (P < 0.05). The number of days of medication, the cost of vancomycin and its proportion in the total expenses differed significantly between the two groups (P < 0.05). Cost-effectiveness analysis showed a better cost-effectiveness in the test group than in the control group (50052.78 vs 57601.23). The intensity of vancomycin use was also lower in the test group than in the control group (0.11 vs 0.36). CONCLUSIONS: The participation of clinical pharmacists during the treatment can improve the clinical benefits of vancomycin in patients with severe infections.


Assuntos
Infecções , Assistência Farmacêutica , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Infecções/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vancomicina/uso terapêutico
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095512

RESUMO

To elevate the performance of polymer solar cells (PSC) processed by non-halogenated solvents, a dissymmetric fused-ring acceptor BTIC-2Cl-γCF3 with chlorine and trifluoromethyl end groups has been designed and synthesized. X-ray crystallographic data suggests that BTIC-2Cl-γCF3 has a 3D network packing structure as a result of H- and J-aggregations between adjacent molecules, which will strengthen its charge transport as an acceptor material. When PBDB-TF was used as a donor, the toluene-processed binary device realized a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 16.31 %, which improved to 17.12 % when PC71ThBM was added as the third component. Its efficiency of over 17 % is currently the highest among polymer solar cells processed by non-halogenated solvents. Compared to its symmetric counterparts BTIC-4Cl and BTIC-CF3 -γ, the dissymmetric BTIC-2Cl-γCF3 integrates their merits, and has optimized the molecular aggregations with excellent storage and photo-stability, and also extending the maximum absorption peak in film to 852 nm. The devices exhibit good transparency indicating a potential utilization in semi-transparent building integrated photovoltaics (ST-BIPV).

14.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 55(11): 3088-3095, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plastic bronchitis (PB) is a rare, variable, and potentially fatal disease. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in treating children with PB. METHODS: In total, 15 children with PB, between 2012 and 2020, were enrolled in our study. Within 12 hours of admission, FOB and BAL were performed and reviewed under local anesthesia and sedation. Before and after FOB, clinical findings and chest imaging were evaluated. RESULTS: Regarding the onset of symptoms before FOB, all cases had prominent cough for 7.00 ± 4.55 days, and 14 had persistent high fever. In total, 13 cases had complete obstruction from bronchial casts, consistent with consolidated lesions; 2 had partial airway obstruction. Within 3 days, complete resolution was revealed in nine cases. Overall, six cases underwent repeated FOB (range, 2-3 times) for persistent atelectasis and airway obstruction. Except for two cases with type 2 PB, cast histology confirmed type 1 PB for all cases. Only eight children had minor intra- and post-procedure complications. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for Mycoplasma pneumoniae in sputum and BAL samples were positive in 13 cases. Next-generation sequencing of the BAL samples was positive for adenovirus and Human parainfluenza virus in one case, respectively. During 1 month to 7 years of follow-up, no patient developed PB recurrence, asthmatic attacks, or chronic cough. CONCLUSIONS: Early FOB and BAL were effective in alleviating clinical findings, atelectasis, and airway obstruction. Serial FOB could be performed in patients with recurrent symptoms.

15.
Environ Pollut ; 267: 115402, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858436

RESUMO

Ambient ultrafine particles (UFPs: particles of diameter less than 100 nm) cause significant adverse health effects. As people spend most time indoors, the outdoor-to-indoor transport of UFPs plays a critical role in the accuracy of personal exposure assessments. Herein, a strategy was proposed to measure and analyze the infiltration factor (Finf) of UFPs, an important parameter quantifying the fraction of ambient air pollutants that travel inside and remain suspended indoors. Ninety-three measurements were conducted in 11 residential rooms in all seasons in Beijing, China, to investigate Finf of UFPs and its associated influencing factors. A multilevel regression model incorporating eight possible factors that influence infiltration was developed to predict Finf and FinfSOA (defined as the ratio of indoor to outdoor UFP concentrations without indoor sources, but with indoor secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation). It was found that the air change rate was the most important factor and coagulation was considerable, while the influence of SOA formation was much smaller than that of other factors. Our regression model accurately predicted daily-average Finf. The annually-averaged Finf of UFPs was 0.66 ± 0.10, which is higher than that of PM2.5 and PM10, demonstrating the importance of controlling indoor UFPs of outdoor origin.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Pequim , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise
16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(25): 28329-28336, 2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483967

RESUMO

In this work, three new nonfullerene acceptors (BT6IC-BO-4Cl, BT6IC-HD-4Cl, and BT6IC-OD-4Cl), which comprise a central fused benzothiadiazole core and two dichlorinated end groups and substituted with different branched alkyl chains [2-butyloctyl (BO), longer 2-hexyldecyl (HD), and 2-octyldodecyl (OD)], are successfully designed and prepared. The influences of the branched alkyl chain with different lengths on the electronic/optoelectronic property, electrochemistry, and photovoltaic performance are systematically investigated. It has been revealed that BT6IC-HD-4Cl, which had the medium alkyl chain (2-hexyldecyl) length, has the best photovoltaic performance when using PDBT-TF as the electron donor. The BT6IC-HD-4Cl-based device shows an impressive power conversion efficiency of 14.90%, much higher than BT6IC-BO-4Cl (14.45%)- and BT6IC-OD-4Cl (9.60%)-based devices. All these evidence shows that the subtle changes in the alkyl substituent of these high-performance chlorinated acceptors can have a big impact on the structural order and molecular packing of the resultant nonfullerene acceptors and ultimately on the photovoltaic performance of the final solar devices.

17.
Vet Med Sci ; 2020 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is recognized as virulent porcine pathogen and has been linked to porcine circovirus diseases (PCVD). However, there remain many unknowns regarding the spread and epidemic growth of PCV2. METHODS: To assess the genetic diversity of PCV2 in the southern China, a total of 92 sequences of PCV2 strains from this region were retrieved from GenBank and were subjected to amino acid variation and phylogenetic analyses together with 28 representative sequences, based on the sequence of the ORF2 gene, from different swine-producing countries. RESULTS: All 92 PCV2 strains shared between 93.7% and 100% sequence similarity and could be divided into four genotypes (PCV2a, PCV2b, PCV2d and PCV2h), of which PCV2d had surpassed PCV2b and became the most prevalent PCV2 genotype in this region. Alignment of the deduced amino acid sequences of the capsid protein revealed that the obtained PCV2 strains possess two major heterogenic regions/hypervariable regions (positions 52-68 and 185-191), which were within or close to the epitopic regions in the capsid (Cap) protein. Meanwhile, the 92 PCV2 sequences also show evidence of at least five unique recombination events. CONCLUSION: The data in this study indicate that the PCV2 strains in the southern China are undergoing constant genetic variation and that the predominant strain and its antigenic epitopes in this area have been gradually changing in recent years.

18.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 7(9): 1903784, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32382488

RESUMO

The concept of bromination for organic solar cells has received little attention. However, the electron withdrawing ability and noncovalent interactions of bromine are similar to those of fluorine and chlorine atoms. A tetra-brominated non-fullerene acceptor, designated as BTIC-4Br, has been recently developed by introducing bromine atoms onto the end-capping group of 2-(3-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-ylidene) malononitrile and displayed a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 12%. To further improve its photovoltaic performance, the acceptor is optimized either by introducing a longer alkyl chain to the core or by modulating the numbers of bromine substituents. After changing each end-group to a single bromine, the BTIC-2Br-m-based devices exhibit an outstanding PCE of 16.11% with an elevated open-circuit voltage of V oc = 0.88 V, one of the highest PCEs reported among brominated non-fullerene acceptors. This significant improvement can be attributed to the higher light harvesting efficiency, optimized morphology, and higher exciton quenching efficiencies of the di-brominated acceptor. These results demonstrate that the substitution of bromine onto the terminal group of non-fullerene acceptors results in high-efficiency organic semiconductors, and promotes the use of the halogen-substituted strategy for polymer solar cell applications.

19.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(24): 27405-27415, 2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450683

RESUMO

Developing scalable processing methods with low material waste is still one of the remaining challenges for organic photovoltaics (OPVs) to become a practical renewable energy source. Here, we report the first study on printing active layers of OPVs containing non-fullerene acceptors (NFAs) by electrospray (ES). The properties of the solvent significantly influence the interfacial morphology of ES-printed organic thin-films, and solvent engineering is essential to facilitate the formation of efficient active-layer films. We introduce low-vapor-pressure non-halogen solvent o-xylene (OXY) into the high vapor pressure solvent of chloroform to form a binary solvent system with appropriate evaporation time, electric conductivity, and solubility. The characteristic times of the ES process using binary solvents are quantified to provide insights into the dynamic formation of thin films. A longer droplet evaporation time with decent solubility collectively decrease the roughness and domain size of the polymer/NFA blend films, thus increase the photocurrent and fill factor of the ES-printed OPV devices. The ES-printed active layers show enhanced crystallinity and phase separation of NFA molecules than the spin-coated films. The champion cell with an ES-printed PTB7-Th:FOIC active layer exhibits a power conversion efficiency of 9.45%, which is on par with the spin-coated cells and is among the highest of spray-deposited organic solar cells to date. This work demonstrates that ES is an effective method to prepare OPVs on NFAs.

20.
Biosci Rep ; 40(6)2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32452516

RESUMO

Our previous study showed that feeding mice with vitamin D deficiency diet markedly alleviated high-fat-diet-induced overweight, hyperinsulinemia, and hepatic lipid accumulation. Moreover, vitamin D deficiency up-regulated the expression of uncoupling protein 3 (Ucp3) in white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). The present study aimed to further investigate the effects of vitamin D and vitamin D receptor (Vdr) on Ucp1-3 (Ucps) expression in brown adipocyte and the mechanism involved in it. Rat primary brown adipocytes were separated and purified. The effects of the 1,25(OH)2D3 (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3; the hormonal form of vitamin D) and Vdr system on Ucps expression in brown adipocytes were investigated in basal condition and activated condition by isoproterenol (ISO) and triiodothyronine (T3). Ucps expression levels were significantly down-regulated by 1,25(OH)2D3 in the activated brown adipocyte. Vdr silencing reversed the down-regulation of Ucps by 1,25(OH)2D3, whereas Vdr overexpression strengthened the down-regulation effects. Hairless protein did express in brown adipocyte and was localized in cell nuclei. 1,25(OH)2D3 increased Hairless protein expression in the cell nuclei. Hairless (Hr) silencing notably elevated Ucps expression in activated condition induced by ISO and T3. Moreover, immunoprecipitation results revealed that Vdr could interact with Hairless, which might contribute to decreasing expression of Vdr target gene Ucps. These data suggest that vitamin D suppresses expression of Ucps in brown adipocyte in a Vdr-dependent manner and the corepressor Hairless protein probably plays a role in the down-regulation.

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