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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 418: 126013, 2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102362

RESUMO

Waterborne diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms pose severe threats to human health. ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) hold great potentials as an effective, economical and eco-friendly method for water disinfection, but the exact antimicrobial mechanism of ZnO NPs under visible-light illumination is still not clear. Herein, we investigate the visible-light-driven photocatalytic inactivation mechanism of amino-functionalized hydrophilic ZnO (AH-ZnO) NPs against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in aqueous environment from the perspective of electron transfer theory. The results show that the antibacterial effects of AH-ZnO NPs are dependent on the AH-ZnO NPs concentration and treatment time. The bulk ORP value and released Zn2+ concentration in AH-ZnO NPs solutions increase with AH-ZnO NPs concentration. The SEM and intracellular protein leakage results indicate that AH-ZnO NPs can adhere to S. aureus surface without causing obvious cell membrane disruption. The photoluminescence (PL) intensity and fluorescence lifetime of AH-ZnO NPs are remarkedly decreased after adding S. aureus, which confirms the electron transfer from S. aureus to AH-ZnO NPs. Moreover, the ΔPL intensity is closely correlated with the inactivation efficiency, demonstrating that the interfacial electron transfer in S. aureus/AH-ZnO NPs composites contributes to the antibacterial activity, which is speculated to disrupt the normal respiratory electron transfer chain of S. aureus, thereby causing intracellular ROS generation, cell membrane depolarization and eventually apoptosis-like death.

2.
Int J Pharm ; 604: 120729, 2021 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029666

RESUMO

This study developed a nanocrystals-in-microparticles (NCs/MPs) technology for improving dissolution and oral absorption of poorly soluble drugs. Hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) was selected as a model drug and prepared to be nanocrystals (HCPT-NCs) by acid-alkali based precipitation. The HCPT-NCs were rod like shape with the length of 250 nm and the width of 50 nm. Then, the chitosan and sodium alginate were selected as microparticles matrix to encapsulate the HCPT-NCs. The HCPT-NCs were entrapped in microparticles with a D50 value of 15 µm. The drug loading capacity of microparticles achieved more than 40% (w/w) by NCs/MPs technology. The powder X-ray diffraction showed the crystal structure of HCPT in microparticles was same as nanocrystals, indicating that the preparation of microparticles could not destroy the nanocrystals. The in vitro release demonstrated that microparticles could protect the NCs in gastric fluid and release NCs in intestinal fluid. Furthermore, the oral bioavailability of HCPT in NCs/MPs was improved by 18-fold compared to bulk HCPT and 2.1-fold compared to HCPT-NCs as tested by a rat model. Therefore, NCs/MPs technology is a promising and high effective approach to improve the oral bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs.

3.
Bioelectrochemistry ; 141: 107844, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34052542

RESUMO

Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) are a non-thermal technology that can induce a myriad of biological responses and changes in cellular physiology. nsPEFs have gained significant attention as a novel cancer therapy. However, studies investigating the application of nsPEF in mucinous carcinomas are scarce. In this study, we explored several biological responses in two mucinous colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines, LS 174T and HT-29, to nsPEF treatment. We determined the overall cell survival and viability rates following nsPEF treatment using CCK-8 and colony formation assays. We measured the intracellular effects of nsPEF treatment by analyzing cell cycle distribution, cell apoptosis and mitochondrial potential. We also analyzed mucin production at both mRNA and protein levels. Our results showed that nsPEF treatment significantly reduced mucinous cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. nsPEF treatment increased cell cycles arrest at G0/G1 while the proportion of G2/M cells gradually decreased. Cell apoptosis increased following nsPEF treatment with a clear loss in mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, the protein expression of functional mucin family members decreased after nsPEF treatment. In conclusion, nsPEF treatment reduced MCRC cell viability, cell proliferation, and mucin protein production while promoted apoptosis. Our work is a pilot study that projects some insights into the potential clinical applications of nsPEFs in treating mucinous colorectal carcinoma.

4.
Pain Res Manag ; 2021: 5584997, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34055119

RESUMO

Background: The number of patients with musculoskeletal pain, which seriously affects people's quality of life, has increased. Traditional Chinese exercises are accepted and practiced to strengthen the body. Objective: This study aims to explore the efficacy of traditional Chinese exercises for the treatment of musculoskeletal pain. Methods: A comprehensive search of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) related to traditional Chinese exercises on patients with musculoskeletal pain was completed using PubMed, SinoMed, CNKI, VIP, and Wanfang Med Online databases. All RCTs published until February 2021 were considered. Two researchers independently screened the literature according to the predesigned inclusion and exclusion criteria, and data was extracted and assessed for their risk of bias via the Cochrane collaboration tool. Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan5.2 and Rx64 4.0.2 software. Results: A total of 45 RCT studies with 3178 patients were included. Traditional Chinese exercises were able to effectively alleviate patients with musculoskeletal pain (MD = -1.54, 95% confidence interval (-1.88, -1.19), P < 0.01). Among them, the Yi Jin Jing exercise was superior to other exercises, while Wu Qin Xi showed no significant effects. Besides, traditional Chinese exercises had significant positive effects on the dysfunction and stiffness of the waist and knee joints. Traditional Chinese exercises could effectively relieve the clinical symptoms of patients with musculoskeletal pain. Particularly, the Yi Jin Jing exercise presented the most significant positive effect on pain reduction.

5.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 181, 2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical value of color and power doppler sonography (CPDS) when combined it with 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy (DMSA) in assessment of acute pyelonephritis (APN) in infants. METHODS: A total of 79 children with APN admitted to our hospital from June 2016 to Jan 2019 were enrolled, including 52 boys and 27 girls, age range 1 month to 3 years old. All cases followed the diagnostic criteria for acute pyelonephritis and excluded anatomical abnormalities of urinary system. All 79 patients were examined by urinary ultrasonography (US), CPDS, and DMSA within 48 h of fever and analyzed the clinical value of combining the two methods in the assessment of APN in infants. RESULTS: Among 79 children, urinary ultrasonography revealed 2 cases of renal cortical echo changes, both located in the upper pole of the kidney, 24 cases of kidney enlargement, and 1 case of left kidney shrinkage. Ninety-five kidneys were shown to be diseased with DMSA, while 105 kidneys abnormal by CPDS. The sensitivity of CPDS was 69.4%, and the specificity was 38.1%. In children younger than 6 months, the sensitivity of CPDS was 56.9%, which was 84.2% in childeren between 6 months to 1 year, and 94.4% from 1 to 3 years old, respectively. The corresponding specificity of CPDS was 44.1, 26.7, and 35.7%. There was no significant correlation between CPDS levels and DMSA positive results. The abnormal rate of intermediate part in the kidneys was significantly lower than that in the upper and lower poles. Children with abnormal CPDS have a greater risk of renal scarring(p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Abnormalities detected by CPDS in a cohort of infants with APN poorly correlated with DMSA findings. But the sensitivity of CPDS is highly age-related, it can be used as a non-invasive helpful tool for early diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis in infants older than 6 months old.

6.
J Health Commun ; 26(3): 204-213, 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33899682

RESUMO

Exclusive breastfeeding brings tremendous benefits to the mother and the baby but simultaneously poses great challenges. Research has been limited regarding the effectiveness of persuasive messages to promote exclusive breastfeeding, which leaves us with little understanding of how to enhance the exclusive breastfeeding rates. Guided by the message tailoring literature, this research employed a 2 (self- vs. other-oriented benefits) X 2 (short- vs. long-term benefits) X 2 (acknowledgment of disadvantages: yes vs. no) plus a no-message control condition between-subject factorial design and recruited 521 pregnant women to test the effectiveness of the persuasive messages. A significant interaction between perceived short- and long-term benefits of exclusive breastfeeding and participants' time orientation was yielded. Additionally, a three-way interaction emerged among the three message manipulations, which shed light on future research on message tailoring. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

7.
Future Oncol ; 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906370

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to analyze the correlations between NAT1 and clinicopathological features of and prognosis in colorectal cancer (CRC). RNA sequencing data and clinical information were retrieved from The Cancer Genome Atlas database. Wilcoxon test, logistic regression and Kaplan-Meier method were used to estimate the association between NAT1 and prognosis in CRC. In vitro experiments were conducted to confirm the role of NAT1. NAT1 is significantly less expressed in CRC and independently associated with poor prognosis in CRC patients. The authors further confirmed that expression of NAT1 was significantly lower in SW116 colon cancer cells than in NCM460 cells. Overexpressed NAT1 obviously inhibited the growth of CRC cells by downregulating phosphorylation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. NAT1 may be a potential therapeutic target for CRC.

8.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(18): 21087-21096, 2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33908764

RESUMO

The bottom-up construction of enzyme-based artificial cells is generating increasing interest, but achieving artificial cells for "all artificial modules" remains challenging in synthetic biology. Here, we introduce a fully synthetic cell system by integration of biomimetic nanozymes into giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs). To mimic native peroxidase for free radical generation by taking advantage of Fenton catalysis reactions, we designed and prepared a de novo artificial nanozyme composed of ferritin heavy-chain scaffold protein and catalytic Fe3O4 nanoparticles as the active center. As two examples in bioapplications, we showed this nanozyme-powered GUV system not only mimics intracellular oxidative stress pathways but also induces tumor cell death by sensing and responding to external chemical signals. Specifically, we recreated intracellular biochemical events, including DNA damage and lipid peroxidation, in the compartmentalized GUVs by taking advantage of nanozyme induction of defined catalytic reactions. Additionally, the GUV system also actively induced DNA double-strand breakage and lipid damage of tumor cells, in response to the high expression of H2O2 within the tumor microenvironment. This concept-of-proof study offers a promising option for defining catalysis in biological systems and gives new insights into the de novo creation of artificial cells in a fully synthetic manner.

9.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 512, 2021 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33726744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical activity has many health benefits for children and adolescents. However, the prevalence of physical inactivity in school-aged children and adolescents remains high in China. Many factors impact the levels of moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among students. This study investigated the factors associated with students' MVPA levels and the determinants of changes in their MVPA behaviour. METHODS: This is a longitudinal study with a 12-month follow-up. The study samples were obtained from 2016 and 2017 Physical Activity and Fitness in China-The Youth Study, and they included 1597 students (aged 9-18 years) from 31 primary, junior high, and high schools in Ningxia Province. Factors related to the individual (Age, Sex, BMI and attitude to PA), school (school exercise facility, PE class, teacher support, PA time and PA environment) and neighbourhood (free skill training, sport events, sport organization, sport facility) factors were measured via questionnaire at baseline and after 12 months. Multiple logistic regression was performed to examine the factors that impact students' MVPA level and the determinants of changes in students' MVPA behaviour. RESULTS: There was no difference in students' MVPA levels between 2016 and 2017. Boys were more physically active than girls at baseline (RR 1.55, 95% CI 1.10, 2.20). Neighbourhood factors associated students' MVPA levels were significant, but all of these factors (neighbourhood sport events, organizations, facilities, etc.) were removed from the longitudinal model. Individual and school factors were important for students' MVPA maintenance and positive development (e.g., gender, attitude, school PE class and PA time). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, both neighbourhood and school factors may affect students' MVPA, but school appears to plays a more critical role in maintaining and promoting students' MVPA levels. In addition, individual factors may be more important than school and neighbourhood factors in influencing students' MVPA levels. Our research demonstrates that students' attitudes towards PA and school factors should be considered targets for future intervention programmes to promote MVPA. More education programmes may help enhance students' attitudes towards PA, but more studies with large samples and objective assessments are needed to explore the determinants of MVPA.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Educação Física e Treinamento , Adolescente , Criança , China , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes
10.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 23(3): 279-282, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691922

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical features of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children with neurogenic bladder (NB), and to provide a reference for its early diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: Clinical data were collected from 26 children with NB and urinary tract infection who were admitted to the Department of Pediatric Nephrology from January 2014 to December 2019. According to the presence or absence of VUR, the children were divided into a VUR group with 11 children and a non-VUR group with 15 children. Clinical features were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: Compared with the non-VUR group, the VUR group had a significantly higher proportion of children with non-Escherichia coli urinary tract infection, hydronephrosis (the severity of hydronephrosis increased with the grade of VUR), abnormal 99mTc-DMSA renal scanning findings, elevated ratios of urinary albumin, urinary IgG and urinary transferrin to creatinine, increased residual urine volume, and increased detrusor leak point pressure (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: When NB children have the clinical manifestations of non-Escherichia coli urinary tract infection, hydronephrosis, abnormal 99mTc-DMSA renal scanning findings, glomerular proteinuria, increased bladder residual urine volume, and high detrusor leak point pressure, such children may already have VUR, and so diagnosis and intervention should be performed as early as possible.


Assuntos
Bexiga Urinaria Neurogênica , Infecções Urinárias , Refluxo Vesicoureteral , Criança , Creatinina , Humanos , Lactente , Cintilografia , Bexiga Urinaria Neurogênica/etiologia , Infecções Urinárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções Urinárias/etiologia , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/diagnóstico , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/diagnóstico por imagem
11.
Neuroimage Clin ; 30: 102594, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662707

RESUMO

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common retina disease associated with cognitive impairment in older adults. The mechanism(s) that account for the link between AMD and cognitive decline remain unclear. Here we aim to shed light on this issue by investigating whether relationships between cognition and white matter in the brain differ by AMD status. In a direct group comparison of brain connectometry maps from diffusion weighted images, AMD patients showed significantly weaker quantitative anisotropy (QA) than healthy controls, predominantly in the splenium and left optic radiation. The QA of these tracts, however, did not correlate with the visual acuity measure, indicating that this group effect is not directly driven by visual loss. The AMD and control groups did not differ significantly in cognitive performance.Across all participants, better cognitive performance (e.g. verbal fluency) is associated with stronger connectivity strength in white matter tracts including the splenium and the left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus/inferior longitudinal fasciculus. However, there were significant interactions between group and cognitive performance (verbal fluency, memory), suggesting that the relation between QA and cognitive performance was weaker in AMD patients than in controls.This may be explained by unmeasured determinants of performance that are more common or impactful in AMD or by a recruitment bias whereby the AMD group had higher cognitive reserve. In general, our findings suggest that neural degeneration in the brain might occur in parallel to AMD in the eyes, although the participants studied here do not (yet) exhibit overt cognitive declines per standard assessments.

12.
Health Commun ; : 1-12, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522300

RESUMO

Despite mixed findings in the literature, health information seeking is considered as a promising antecedent of health behavior and outcome. However, little research has been conducted to identify factors that explain the health information seeking-health behavior relationship. In the contexts of breast, cervical, and prostate cancer screening, this research utilized recently collected Health Information National Trends Survey data (HINTS 5 Cycle 1) to examine whether, among the population at risk of cancer, previous cancer information seeking influenced cancer screening via perceptions of risk and efficacy, desired uncertainty, and worry. The results indicated that previous cancer information seeking had a direct effect on cancer screening. Across the three cancer screening behaviors, desired uncertainty mediated the relationship between previous cancer information seeking and screening behavior. Worry about getting cancer moderated and mediated the relationship between cancer information seeking and cervical cancer screening. Moreover, desired uncertainty and perceived susceptibility respectively interacted with previous cancer information seeking to influence breast cancer screening. Perceptions of risk and efficacy had limited effects on cancer screening. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

13.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(3): 1446-1455, 2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33442981

RESUMO

Food, energy, and water (FEW) systems have been recognized as an issue of critical global importance. Understanding the mechanisms that govern the FEW nexus is essential to develop solutions and avoid humanitarian crises of displacement, famine, and disease. The U.S. and China are the world's leading economies. Although the two nations are shaped by fundamentally different political and economic systems, they share FEW trajectories in several complementary ways. These realities place the U.S. and China in unique positions to engage in problem definition, dialogue, actions, and transdisciplinary convergence of research to achieve productive solutions addressing FEW challenges. By comparing the nexus and functions of the FEW systems in the two nations, this perspective aims to facilitate collaborative innovations that reduce disciplinary silos, mitigate FEW challenges, and enhance environmental sustainability. The review of experiences and challenges facing the U.S. and China also offers valuable insights for other nations seeking to achieve sustainable development goals.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos , Água , China , Alimentos , Estados Unidos
14.
Adv Mater ; 33(9): e2006570, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480459

RESUMO

Development of enzyme mimics for the scavenging of excessive mitochondrial superoxide (O2 •- ) can serve as an effective strategy in the treatment of many diseases. Here, protein reconstruction technology and nanotechnology is taken advantage of to biomimetically create an artificial hybrid nanozyme. These nanozymes consist of ferritin-heavy-chain-based protein as the enzyme scaffold and a metal nanoparticle core as the enzyme active center. This artificial cascade nanozyme possesses superoxide dismutase- and catalase-like activities and also targets mitochondria by overcoming multiple biological barriers. Using cardiac ischemia-reperfusion animal models, the protective advantages of the hybrid nanozymes are demonstrated in vivo during mitochondrial oxidative injury and in the recovery of heart functionality following infarction via systemic delivery and localized release from adhesive hydrogels (i.e., cardiac patch), respectively. This study illustrates a de novo design strategy in the development of enzyme mimics and provides a promising therapeutic option for alleviating oxidative damage in regenerative medicine.

15.
Mol Med Rep ; 23(1)2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179087

RESUMO

The H19 long non­coding RNA is involved in the development of tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer. However, the relationship between H19 and the metastatic potential and treatment options for tamoxifen­resistant (TAMR) breast cancer is not completely understood. Curcumin inhibits cellular proliferation, migration and invasiveness in several cancer types, including pancreatic cancer, breast cancer and chronic myeloid leukemia. The present study aimed to investigate the role of H19 in MCF­7/TAMR cell epithelial­mesenchymal transition (EMT), migration and invasiveness, and to assess the ability of curcumin to inhibit H19­mediated effects. Reverse transcription­quantitative PCR and western blot analysis were conducted to detect the gene or protein expression. Cell Counting Kit­8, wound healing and Transwell invasion assays were performed to estimate the capabilities of cell viability, invasion and migration. H19 overexpression enhanced MCF­7/TAMR cell EMT, invasion and migration by upregulating Snail. Furthermore, curcumin notably decreased the expression levels of epithelial marker E­cadherin and markedly increased the expression levels of mesenchymal marker N­cadherin in MCF­7/TAMR cells compared with the control group. In addition, following treatment with curcumin for 48 h, H19 expression was decreased in a dose­dependent manner. Moreover, curcumin treatment for 48 h significantly attenuated H19­induced alterations in N­cadherin and E­cadherin expression levels. Curcumin also prevented H19­induced invasion and migration. The present study indicated that H19 may serve as a promoting factor of EMT, invasion and migration in MCF­7/TAMR cells, suggesting that curcumin may prevent H19­associated metastasis. Therefore, curcumin may serve as a promising therapeutic drug for patients with TAMR breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Curcumina/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Tamoxifeno/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células MCF-7
16.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 519582, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33282882

RESUMO

Background: Factors influencing the kidney function of patients after renal transplantation include both recipient-related factors and donor-related factors. To gain a better understanding of these factors and to improve clinical decision-making, we performed a retrospective study of southwestern Chinese people receiving kidney transplantation. Methods: In this retrospective analysis, a total of 2,462 recipients receiving allogeneic kidney transplantation in West China Hospital of Sichuan University from December 13, 2008 to January 10, 2018 were included. Data on recipient and donor characteristics were extracted from the Transplant Center Database and stratified by discrete time points after kidney transplantation. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out on the study variables, and kidney function of postoperative patients was monitored using cystatin C (CysC) as the outcome indicator. Results: From the univariate analysis, several factors showed statistically significant short-term impact on kidney function based on CysC after kidney transplantation, including age, ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), and HLA A-B-DR-DQ loci mismatch. Gender of recipients and gender-consistency between donors and recipients revealed both short-term and long-term influence. Younger donors had significantly better medium-and-long-term influence on kidney function. From the multivariate logistic regression analysis, recipient gender, ethnicity, BMI, and donor age were independent factors affecting postoperative CysC recovery at discrete time points. Conclusion: Several factors of recipients related to renal function after kidney transplantation, such as gender, ethnicity, BMI and donor's age should be paid more attention to. Moreover, female and non-Han recipients decreased the risk of poor outcome during postoperative kidney function recovery while large BMI of recipients and higher donor age increased the risk. It is useful to predict the postoperative renal function earlier according to corresponding factors, and improve the patient's quality of life.

17.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2020: 6056383, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33381220

RESUMO

The motor-imagery brain-computer interface system (MI-BCI) has a board prospect for development. However, long calibration time and lack of enough MI commands limit its use in practice. In order to enlarge the command set, we add the combinations of traditional MI commands as new commands into the command set. We also design an algorithm based on transfer learning so as to decrease the calibration time for collecting EEG signal and training model. We create feature extractor based on data from traditional commands and transfer patterns through the data from new commands. Through the comparison of the average accuracy between our algorithm and traditional algorithms and the visualization of spatial patterns in our algorithm, we find that the accuracy of our algorithm is much higher than traditional algorithms, especially as for the low-quality datasets. Besides, the visualization of spatial patterns is meaningful. The algorithm based on transfer learning takes the advantage of the information from source data. We enlarge the command set while shortening the calibration time, which is of significant importance to the MI-BCI application.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33178323

RESUMO

Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the effect of Wuqinxi after one session and 12-week intervention on hand dexterity in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods: Forty-six elderly participants with mild-to-moderate PD were randomly assigned to the groups trained with Wuqinxi (n = 23) or stretching (n = 23). All participants practiced 60 min session of either of these exercises, 2 sessions a week for 12 weeks in standing position. The score of Purdue Pegboard Test (PPT) and time for Soda Pop Test (SPT) were performed to assess hand dexterity and motor function along assessing the 39 items of Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire before and after 12-week interventions. In addition, the PPT scores were compared before vs. after one session of either of these two exercise modes. Results: Single session with either Wuqinxi or stretching exercise tended to improve PPT scores in PD patients. Furthermore, the improved SPT time was significant (P < 0.01) following 12-week training interventions with Wuqinxi (-1.32 ± 0.38 sec) or stretching (-0.89 ± 0.16 sec), which showed no group difference (P=0.734). However, only the participants in Wuqinxi group significantly improved the PPT scores of the dominant hand (+0.61 ± 1.34), both hand (+1.83 ± 3.13) and assemble (+2.04 ± 3.44) performance after 12-week training intervention. In parallel with improved hand dexterity and motor function, 12-week Wuqinxi training also significantly improved the patient's emotional wellbeing. Conclusion: The Wuqinxi intervention could be safely and effectively applied to improve hand dexterity following single-session exercise or 12-week training, which were accompanied by improved quality of life in patients with mild-to-moderate PD.

19.
PeerJ ; 8: e10046, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024649

RESUMO

Chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) has been used to understand photosynthesis and its response to climate change, particularly with satellite-based data. However, it remains unclear how the ChlF ratio and photosynthesis are linked at the leaf level under drought stress. Here, we examined the link between ChlF ratio and photosynthesis at the leaf level by measuring photosynthetic traits, such as net CO2 assimilation rate (An), the maximum carboxylation rate of Rubisco (Vcmax), the maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax), stomatal conductance (gs) and total chlorophyll content (Chlt). The ChlF ratio of the leaf level such as maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) is based on fluorescence kinetics. ChlF intensity ratio (LD685/LD740) based on spectrum analysis was obtained. We found that a combination of the stomatal limitation, non-stomatal limitation, and Chlt regulated leaf photosynthesis under drought stress, while Jmax and Chlt governed the ChlF ratio. A significant link between the ChlF ratio and An was found under drought stress while no significant correlation in the control, which indicated that drought stress strengthens the link between the ChlF ratio and photosynthetic traits. These results suggest that the ChlF ratio can be a powerful tool to track photosynthetic traits of terrestrial ecosystems under drought stress.

20.
Theor Appl Genet ; 2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068118

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: A minor QTL for grain weight in rice, qTGW1.2b, was fine-mapped. Its casual gene OsVQ4 was confirmed through CRISPR/Cas9-targeted mutagenesis, exhibiting an effect that was larger than the original QTL effect. The CRISPR/Cas system exhibits a great potential for rice improvement, but the application was severely hindered due to insufficient target genes, especial the lack of validated genes underlying quantitative trait loci having small effects. In this study, a minor QTL for grain weight, qTGW1.2b, was fine-mapped into a 44.0 kb region using seven sets of near isogenic lines (NILs) developed from the indica rice cross (Zhenshan 97)3/Milyang 46, followed by validation of the causal gene using CRISPR/Cas9-targeted mutagenesis. In the NIL populations, 1000-grain weight of the Zhenshan 97 homozygous lines decreased by 0.9-2.0% compared with the Milyang 46 homozygous lines. A gene encoding VQ-motif protein, OsVQ4, was identified as the candidate gene based on parental sequence differences. The effect of OsVQ4 was confirmed by creating CRISPR/Cas9 knockout lines, whose 1000-grain weight decreased by 2.8-9.8% compared with the wild-type transgenic line and the recipient. These results indicate that applying genome editing system could create novel alleles with large phenotypic variation at minor QTLs, which is an effective way to validate causal genes of minor QTLs. Our study establishes a strategy for cloning minor QTLs, which could also be used to identify a large number of potential target genes for the application of CRISPR/Cas system.

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