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1.
Evol Psychol ; 19(1): 1474704920986866, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33487056

RESUMO

Cyclical fluctuations of the ovarian hormones estrogen (E2) and progesterone (PROG) have multiple effects on reproduction and development. However, little is known about the roles of E2 and PROG in women's social behaviors. Here, based on evolutionary theory suggesting social sensitivity and inhibition ability are conductive to maintaining social relationships, we provide evidence for the association between menstrual phases and social orientation. In Study 1, 78 women provided saliva samples and reported their intensity of behavioral activation/inhibition system (BAS/BIS) and interpersonal sensitivity at either of two phases of the menstrual cycle: late follicular phase (FP), and mid-luteal phase (LP). A significant between-subject association emerged, revealing that women with higher PROG levels reported higher levels of social feedback sensitivity, and women with relatively high PROG levels showed a positive association between their E2 levels and inhibitory response. In Study 2, 30 women reported their interpersonal anxiety and finished the social value orientation (SVO) measures at both late FP and mid-LP. A significant within-person effect emerged: women in the mid-LP, which is characterized by higher PROG levels, reported higher levels of interpersonal anxiety and SVO. In sum, these findings revealed that women's social orientation could fluctuate naturally with ovarian hormones across the menstrual cycle.

2.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 14: 568399, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33304251

RESUMO

Hormonal changes across the menstrual cycle have been shown to influence reward-related motivation and impulsive behaviors. Here, with the aim of examining the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive control of impulsivity, we compared event-related monetary delay discounting task behavior and concurrent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) revealed brain activity as well as resting state (rs)-fMRI activity, between women in the mid-luteal phase (LP) and women in the late follicular phase (FP). The behavioral data were analyzed and related to neural activation data. In the delay discounting task, women in the late FP were more responsive to short-term rewards (i.e., showed a greater discount rate) than women in the mid-LP, while also showing greater activity in the dorsal striatum (DS). Discount rate (transformed k) correlated with functional connectivity between the DS and dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), consistent with previous findings indicating that DS-dlPFC circuitry may regulate impulsivity. Our rs-fMRI data further showed that the right dlPFC was significantly more active in the mid-LP than in late FP, and this effect was sensitive to absolute and relative estradiol levels during the mid-LP. DS-dlPFC functional connectivity magnitude correlated negatively with psychometric impulsivity scores during the late FP, consistent with our behavioral data and further indicating that relative estradiol levels may play an important role in augmenting cognitive control. These findings provide new insight into the treatment of conditions characterized by hyper-impulsivity, such as obsessive compulsive disorder, Parkinson disease, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. In conclusion, our results suggest that cyclical gonadal hormones affect cognitive control of impulsive behavior in a periodic manner, possibility via DS-dlPFC circuitry.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237032, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790683

RESUMO

The behavioral activation system (BAS) and the behavioral inhibition system (BIS) have been proposed to relate to stable traits that predict inter-individual differences in motivation. Prior reports point dopamine (DA) pathways, mainly including ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra (SN), implicate in subserving reward-related functions associated with BAS and inhibitory functions related with BIS. However, as an important factor that affects DA releasing, it remains an open question whether the ovarian hormones may also be related to BIS/BAS. Here, to investigate effects of the estradiol (E2) and progesterone (PROG) on BIS/BAS and related DA pathways, we employed a BIS/BAS scale and the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the late follicular phase (FP) and the mid-luteal phase (LP). On the behavioral level, when women had high PROG levels, their E2 levels were found positively correlated with BIS scores, but those women whose PROG levels were low, their E2 levels were negative correlation with BIS scores. On the neural level, we demonstrated BAS was related with the VTA pathway, included brain reward regions of nucleus accumbens (NAc) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Meanwhile, the BIS was correlated with the SN-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) pathway. ROI-based resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) analyses further revealed that, RSFC between the SN and dlPFC was modulated by ovarian hormones. With higher PROG levels, increased E2 levels among women were accompanied by stronger RSFC of the SN-dlPFC, but when PROG levels were low, E2 levels were negatively correlated with the SN-dlPFC RSFC. These findings revealed a combined enhancement effect of E2 and PROG on BIS, and the SN-dlPFC pathway was mainly involved in this process.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Dopamina/fisiologia , Inibição Psicológica , Motivação/fisiologia , Ovário/fisiologia , Adulto , Afeto/fisiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/fisiologia , Estradiol/fisiologia , Feminino , Neuroimagem Funcional , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Progesterona/fisiologia , Psicofisiologia , Substância Negra/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Negra/fisiologia , Área Tegmentar Ventral/diagnóstico por imagem , Área Tegmentar Ventral/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Neuroreport ; 31(10): 717-723, 2020 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453019

RESUMO

The brain's default mode network (DMN) has become closely associated with self-referential mental activity, particularly in the resting-state. Prior reports point that the sex hormones are potent modulators of brain plasticity and functional connectivity. However, it is uncertain whether changes in ovarian hormones, as occur during the monthly menstrual cycle, substantially affects the functional connectivity of DMN. Here, we employed a Self-Awareness Scale (SAS) and the resting-state functional MRI in the late follicular phase and the mid-luteal phase to investigate the effect of the estradiol (E2) and progesterone on the SAS and DMN. On the behavioral level, increased progesterone facilitated women's other-focused attention. The regions of interest-based resting-state functional connectivity analyses continued to demonstrate a negative correlation of the relative progesterone and the medial prefrontal cortex-inferior temporal gyrus (mPFC-ITG) functional connectivity, and a facilitated effect of relative E2 on the mPFC-inferior parietal lobule functional connectivity in the DMN. Furthermore, as a core hub of the 'theory of mind', the functional connectivity between the ITG and thalamus was found negatively correlated with the relative E2. Meanwhile, the mid-luteal phase, which had significantly lower relative E2 levels, was indicated had stronger ITG-thalamus functional connectivity during the resting state. These results demonstrated an opposite effect of E2 and progesterone on the DMN and the other-focused preference in the mid-luteal phase, extended previous evidence of the potentially adaptive psychological effects of ovarian hormones on mapping self and others in the brain networks.

5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(39): 9702-9707, 2018 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30201711

RESUMO

Human foragers are obligately group-living, and their high dependence on mutual aid is believed to have characterized our species' social evolution. It was therefore a central adaptive problem for our ancestors to avoid damaging the willingness of other group members to render them assistance. Cognitively, this requires a predictive map of the degree to which others would devalue the individual based on each of various possible acts. With such a map, an individual can avoid socially costly behaviors by anticipating how much audience devaluation a potential action (e.g., stealing) would cause and weigh this against the action's direct payoff (e.g., acquiring). The shame system manifests all of the functional properties required to solve this adaptive problem, with the aversive intensity of shame encoding the social cost. Previous data from three Western(ized) societies indicated that the shame evoked when the individual anticipates committing various acts closely tracks the magnitude of devaluation expressed by audiences in response to those acts. Here we report data supporting the broader claim that shame is a basic part of human biology. We conducted an experiment among 899 participants in 15 small-scale communities scattered around the world. Despite widely varying languages, cultures, and subsistence modes, shame in each community closely tracked the devaluation of local audiences (mean r = +0.84). The fact that the same pattern is encountered in such mutually remote communities suggests that shame's match to audience devaluation is a design feature crafted by selection and not a product of cultural contact or convergent cultural evolution.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Vergonha , Cultura , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Características de Residência , Comportamento Social
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(33): 8322-8327, 2018 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30068602

RESUMO

Becoming valuable to fellow group members so that one would attract assistance in times of need is a major adaptive problem. To solve it, the individual needs a predictive map of the degree to which others value different acts so that, in choosing how to act, the payoff arising from others' valuation of a potential action (e.g., showing bandmates that one is a skilled forager by pursuing a hard-to-acquire prey item) can be added to the direct payoff of the action (e.g., gaining the nutrients of the prey captured). The pride system seems to incorporate all of the elements necessary to solve this adaptive problem. Importantly, data from western(-ized), educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic (WEIRD) societies indicate close quantitative correspondences between pride and the valuations of audiences. Do those results generalize beyond industrial mass societies? To find out, we conducted an experiment among 567 participants in 10 small-scale societies scattered across Central and South America, Africa, and Asia: (i) Bosawás Reserve, Nicaragua; (ii) Cotopaxi, Ecuador; (iii) Drâa-Tafilalet, Morocco; (iv) Enugu, Nigeria; (v) Le Morne, Mauritius; (vi) La Gaulette, Mauritius; (vii) Tuva, Russia; (viii) Shaanxi and Henan, China; (ix) farming communities in Japan; and (x) fishing communities in Japan. Despite widely varying languages, cultures, and subsistence modes, pride in each community closely tracked the valuation of audiences locally (mean r = +0.66) and even across communities (mean r = +0.29). This suggests that the pride system not only develops the same functional architecture everywhere but also operates with a substantial degree of universality in its content.


Assuntos
Cognição , Emoções , Comportamento Social , Comparação Transcultural , Humanos , Sociedades
7.
Front Psychol ; 7: 546, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27148151

RESUMO

In the current study, we conducted a behavioral experiment to test the mate coping effect and a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment to test the neural basis involved in the social learning process of mate copying. In the behavioral experiment, participants were asked to rate the attractiveness of isolated opposite-sex (potential mates) facial photographs, then shown the targets associating with a neutral-faced model with textual cues indicating the models' attitude (interested vs. not-interested) toward the potential mates, and then asked to re-evaluate the potential mates' attractiveness. Using a similar procedure as the behavioral experiment, participants were scanned while observing the compound images in the fMRI experiment. The mate copying effect was confirmed in the behavioral experiment -greater increase in attractiveness ratings was observed for opposite-sex photographs in the interested than in the not-interested condition. The fMRI results showed that the dorsolateral prefrontal gyrus (DLPFC) was significantly active in the comparison of interested > not-interested condition, suggesting that a cognitive integration and selection function may be involved when participants process information from conditions related to mate copying.

8.
PLoS One ; 9(9): e106407, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25180577

RESUMO

The present study examined women's attentional bias toward ornamental objects in relation to their menstrual phase as well as to motivations of intersexual courtship or intrasexual competition. In Experiment 1, 33 healthy heterosexual women were tested in a bias-assessment visual cuing task twice: once on a high-fertility day (during the ovulatory phase) and once on a low-fertility day (during the luteal phase). They paid greater attention to pictures of ornamental objects than to pictures of non-ornamental objects near ovulation, but not during the luteal phase, suggesting an ornamental bias during the high-fertility phase. In Experiment 2, before the visual cuing task, 40 participants viewed 10 same-sex or opposite-sex facial photographs with either high or low attractiveness as priming tasks to activate the intrasexual competition or intersexual courtship motives. Results showed that women's ornamental bias was dependent on the interaction of menstrual phase and mating motive. Specifically, the ornamental bias was observed on the high-fertility day when the subjects were primed with high-attractive same-sex images (intrasexual competition) and was observed on the low-fertility day when they were primed with high-attractive opposite-sex photographs (intersexual courtship). In conclusion, the present findings confirm the hypothesis that, during the high-fertility phase, women have an attentional bias toward ornamental objects and further support the hypothesis that the ornamental bias is driven by intrasexual competition motivation near ovulation, but driven by intersexual courtship motivation during the luteal phase.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo , Corte , Fase Luteal/fisiologia , Ovulação/fisiologia , Adulto , Atenção , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Reação , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 9(3): e90493, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24594644

RESUMO

Attractiveness judgment in the context of mate preferences is thought to reflect an assessment of mate quality in relation to an absolute scale of genetic fitness and a relative scale of self-similarity. In this study, subjects judged the attractiveness and trustworthiness of faces in composite images that were manipulated to produce self-similar (self-resemblance) and dissimilar (other-resemblance) images. Males differentiated between self- and other-resemblance as well as among different degrees of self-resemblance in their attractiveness ratings; females did not. Specifically, in Experiment 1, using a morphing technique, we created previously unseen face images possessing different degrees (0%, 30%, 40%, or 50%) of incorporation of the subject's images (different degrees of self-resemblance) and found that males preferred images that were closer to average (0%) rather than more self-similar, whereas females showed no preference for any degree of self-similarity. In Experiment 2, we added a pro-social question about trustworthiness. We replicated the Experiment 1 attractiveness rating results and further found that males differentiated between self- and other-resemblance for the same degree of composites; women did not. Both males and females showed a similar preference for self-resemblances when judging trustworthiness. In conclusion, only males factored self-resemblance into their attractiveness ratings of opposite-sex individuals in a manner consistent with cues of reproductive fitness, although both sexes favored self-resemblance when judging trustworthiness.


Assuntos
Beleza , Sinais (Psicologia) , Discriminação Psicológica/fisiologia , Face/anatomia & histologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Confiança/psicologia , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
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