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1.
Poult Sci ; 100(4): 100976, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607317

RESUMO

Reproduction performance is one of the most important economic traits for the poultry industry. Intriguingly, apple pectic oligosaccharide (APO) could promote gastrointestinal function and immune function to improve performance; however, literature about APO on reproduction performance in breeders is limited. This study aimed to determine whether APO administration can improve reproduction performance and ovary function of broiler breeders with different egg laying rates. Two hundred and fifty six Arbor Acres broiler breeders (48-week-old) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial design with 2 egg laying rates (average [AR] and low [LR]) and 2 dietary levels of APO (0 and 200 mg/kg APO). Results showed that the LR breeders presented higher egg weight but lower egg laying rate, qualified egg rate, and feed efficiency than the AR breeders (P(laying) < 0.05). Also, the LR breeders had decreased serum Anti-Müllerian hormone, leptin, and antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity) levels than the AR breeders (P(laying) ≤ 0.05). Dietary supplementation with APO improved egg weight, feed efficiency, as well as egg albumen quality (higher albumen height and Haugh unit) (P(APO) < 0.05), and decreased the concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokine levels (interleukin [IL]-1ß, IL-8) in serum (P(APO) ≤ 0.05). The apoptosis rate and pro-apoptosis-related gene expression (caspase 9 and Bax) in the ovary of LR breeders were higher, while the anti-apoptosis-related gene expression (Bcl-2, PCNA) was lower in LR compared with the AR breeders (P(laying) < 0.05). Dietary supplementation with APO decreased the caspase 9 and Bax expression in LR breeders (P(interaction) < 0.05), and increased the Bcl-2 and PCNA expression in the 2 breeders (P(APO) < 0.05). These findings indicate that breeders with a lower egg laying rate exhibit lower antioxidant capacity and high cell apoptosis in the ovary. Dietary supplementation with APO might improve albumen quality and antioxidant capacity, and decrease the inflammatory factors and ovary apoptosis-related genes expression to improve ovary function. Moreover, the effect of APO on decreasing ovarian pro-apoptosis-related gene expression was more pronounced in lower reproductive breeders.

2.
Endocrinology ; 162(3)2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570118

RESUMO

Obesity and related metabolic disorders have become epidemic diseases. Intermittent fasting has been shown to promote adipose tissue angiogenesis and have an anti-obesity feature; however, the mechanisms of how intermittent fasting modulates adipose tissues angiogenesis are poorly understood. We investigated the effect of fasting on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in white adipose tissues (WAT) and the function of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in 1-time fasting and long-term intermittent fasting-induced VEGF expression. In the current study, fasting induced a selective and drastic elevation of VEGF levels in WAT, which did not occur in interscapular brown adipose tissue and liver. The fasting-induced Vegfa expression occurred predominantly in mature adipocytes, but not in the stromal vascular fraction in epididymal WAT and inguinal WAT (iWAT). Furthermore, a single bolus of recombinant mouse FGF21 injection increased VEGF levels in WAT. Long-term intermittent fasting for 16 weeks increased WAT angiogenesis, iWAT browning, and improved insulin resistance and inflammation, but the effect was blunted in FGF21 liver-specific knockout mice. In summary, these data suggest that FGF21 is a potent regulator of VEGF levels in WAT. The interorgan FGF21 signaling-induced WAT angiogenesis by VEGF could be a potential new therapeutic target in combination with obesity-related metabolic disorders.

3.
Poult Sci ; 100(1): 196-205, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357682

RESUMO

This study was conducted to determine the effects of supplemental dietary benzoic acid on production performance, egg quality, intestinal morphology, and intestinal microbiota of laying hens. A total of seven hundred twenty 45-wk-old Lohman pink-shell laying hens were randomly allocated to 3 dietary treatments: control (CON), diet supplemented with 1,000 mg/kg benzoic acid (BA1), and 2,000 mg/kg benzoic acid (BA2). Each treatment included 10 replicates of 24 hens; laying hens were monitored for 16 wk. Overall, the results indicate that benzoic acid supplementation had no effect on laying rate, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and breaking rate; however, a decrease in egg weight (P < 0.01) was observed in the BA2 group. Albumen height and Haugh unit (HU) were also linearly increased in the BA1 and BA2 groups (linear effect, P < 0.05). An increase in duodenum villus height (V) (quadratic effect, P = 0.041) and crypt depth (C) (linear effect, P = 0.012) was observed in the BA2 group, whereas an increased jejunum C and decreased V/C (quadratic effect, P < 0.05) in the BA1 group. Moreover, an increase in ileum V and C (quadratic effect, P < 0.05) was observed in the BA1 group. Microbial richness and diversity were reduced in the BA2 group (P < 0.01). An increase in the abundance of Clostridia (class), Clostridiales (order), Ruminococcaceae (family), and Lachnospiraceae (family) was noted in the BA1 group, whereas an enrichment of Bacteroides caecicola (species) was observed in the BA2 group. The HU positively correlated with genus Sphaerochaeta and Enorma (r = 0.56, 0.56; P < 0.05) but negatively correlated with Romboutsia, Subdoligranulum, Helicobacter, and Mucispirillum (r = -0.58, -0.49, -0.48; -0.70; P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary supplementation with benzoic acid had no effect on production performance, but it significantly improved egg quality. In addition, 1,000 mg/kg benzoic acid positively modulated intestinal health by improving intestinal morphology and enriching microbial composition.

4.
Endocrinology ; 162(3)2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369618

RESUMO

Obesity and related metabolic disorders have become epidemic diseases. Intermittent fasting has been shown to promote adipose tissue angiogenesis and have an anti-obesity feature; however, the mechanisms of how intermittent fasting modulates adipose tissues angiogenesis are poorly understood. We investigated the effect of fasting on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in white adipose tissues (WAT) and the function of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in 1-time fasting and long-term intermittent fasting-induced VEGF expression. In the current study, fasting induced a selective and drastic elevation of VEGF levels in WAT, which did not occur in interscapular brown adipose tissue and liver. The fasting-induced Vegfa expression occurred predominantly in mature adipocytes, but not in the stromal vascular fraction in epididymal WAT and inguinal WAT (iWAT). Furthermore, a single bolus of recombinant mouse FGF21 injection increased VEGF levels in WAT. Long-term intermittent fasting for 16 weeks increased WAT angiogenesis, iWAT browning, and improved insulin resistance and inflammation, but the effect was blunted in FGF21 liver-specific knockout mice. In summary, these data suggest that FGF21 is a potent regulator of VEGF levels in WAT. The interorgan FGF21 signaling-induced WAT angiogenesis by VEGF could be a potential new therapeutic target in combination with obesity-related metabolic disorders.

5.
Food Funct ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33300903

RESUMO

Selenium (Se) is postulated to protect against inflammation in the gut by attenuating oxidative stress. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of maternal 2-hydroxy-4-methylselenobutanoic acid (HMSeBA), an organic Se source, on the intestinal antioxidant capacity and inflammation level of the offspring and its possible mechanism. Forty-three sows were randomly assigned to receive one of the following three diets during gestation: control diet, sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) supplemented diet or HMSeBA supplemented diet, respectively. Samples were collected from the offspring at birth and weaning. The results showed that maternal HMSeBA supplementation significantly upregulated ileal GPX2 and SePP1 gene expression compared with the control and Na2SeO3 groups, while suppressed the expression of ileal IL-1ß, IL-6 and NF-κB genes in newborn piglets compared with the control group. Moreover, maternal HMSeBA supplementation significantly increased the protein of ileal GPX2 and p-mTOR compared with the control and Na2SeO3 groups, but decreased the ileal p-NF-κB, Beclin-1 and p-ERK proteins in newborn piglets compared with the control group. The weaned piglets of the HMSeBA group had lower serum IL-1ß and IL-6 than the piglets of the control group at 2 h of LPS challenge. In addition, after the LPS challenge, the HMSeBA group had a lower relative abundance of ileal p-NF-κB and Beclin-1 proteins than the control and Na2SeO3 groups. In conclusion, maternal HMSeBA supplementation during gestation can improve the offspring's intestinal antioxidant capacity and reduce the inflammation level by suppressing NF-κB and ERK/Beclin-1 signaling.

6.
Nutrients ; 13(1)2020 Dec 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375592

RESUMO

Dietary fiber intake during pregnancy may improve offspring intestinal development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of maternal high fiber intake during late gestation on intestinal morphology, microbiota, and intestinal proteome of newborn piglets. Sixteen sows were randomly allocated into two groups receiving the control diet (CD) and high-fiber diet (HFD) from day 90 of gestation to farrowing. Newborn piglets were selected from each litter, named as CON and Fiber group, respectively. Maternal high fiber intake did not markedly improve the birth weight, but increased the body length, the ileal crypt depth and colonic acetate level. In addition, maternal high fiber intake increased the -diversity indices (Observed species, Simpson, and ACE), and the abundance of Acidobacteria and Bacteroidetes at phylum level, significantly increased the abundance of Bradyrhizobium and Phyllobacterium at genus level in the colon of newborn piglets. Moreover, maternal high fiber intake markedly altered the ileal proteome, increasing the abundances of proteins associated with oxidative status, energy metabolism, and immune and inflammatory responses, and decreasing abundances of proteins related to cellular apoptosis, cell structure, and motility. These findings indicated that maternal high fiber intake could alter intestinal morphology, along with the altered intestinal microbiota composition and proteome of offspring.

7.
J Anim Sci ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33201223

RESUMO

Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for animals, and exists in nature in both inorganic and organic forms. Although organic Se is more bioavailable than inorganic Se, there are inconsistent reports on the effect of organic Se on the reproductive performance of sows. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of maternal organic Se (2-hydroxy-4-methylselenobutanoic, HMSeBA) supplementation on reproductive performance and antioxidant capacity of sows, and the long-term effect on the growth performance and antioxidant capacity of their offspring with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. The experimental design used in this study was a CRD, forty-five Landrace × Yorkshire sows were randomly allocated to receive one of the following three diets during gestation: control diet (Control, basal diet, n = 15), Sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) supplemented diet (Na2SeO3, basal diet + 0.3 mg Se/kg Na2SeO3, n = 15), HMSeBA supplemented diet (HMSeBA, basal diet + 0.3 mg Se/kg HMSeBA, n = 15). On day 21 of age, male offspring from each group were injected with LPS or saline (n = 6). As compared to control group, maternal HMSeBA supplementation increased the number of total born piglets, while decreased birth weight (p < 0.05). In the first week of lactation, maternal HMSeBA supplementation increased litter weight gain compared with Na2SeO3 group (p < 0.05) and increased the average daily gain of piglets compared with control group and Na2SeO3 group (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, maternal HMSeBA supplementation decreased piglet birth interval as compared to control group and Na2SeO3 group (p < 0.05). Besides, plasma GSH-Px activity was higher in the HMSeBA group on farrowing 0 min and 90 min, while MDA concentration was lower on farrowing 0 min, 90 min and 135 min, than those in the control group (p < 0.05). In addition, maternal HMSeBA supplementation increased concentration of SELENOP in colostrum compared with control group (p < 0.05). Further study revealed that LPS challenged HMSeBA group had higher GSH-Px and T-AOC, and lower MDA in weaning piglets compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Taken together, maternal HMSeBA supplementation increased the number of total born piglets, shortened duration of farrowing, improved the antioxidant capacities of sows and their offspring, and improved the growth performance of sucking pigs at first week of lactation. Thus, HMSeBA supplementation during gestation has the potentiality to produce more kilogram of meat.

8.
Clin Transl Med ; 10(6): e195, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33135359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There has been a significant increase, to epidemic levels, of obese and overweight women of reproductive age, causing impairments to reproductive health. Time-restricted feeding (TRF) including isocaloric intake has shown to be preventive of obesity-related disorders. However, its therapeutic ability to improve the reproductive function of female remains largely unknown. METHODS: Here, we investigated the ability of TRF to improve the reproductive function in wild-type and liver-specific FGF21 knockout female mice. To study fertility, a continuous and a short-term fertility test, gonadotropin releasing-hormone (GnRH), and Kisspeptin test were performed. Immortalized GnRH neuron was used to examine the direct role of liver fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) on GnRH secretion. RESULTS: We found that TRF rescues female mice from bodyweight gain and glucose intolerance, as well as ovarian follicle loss and dysfunction of estrus cyclicity induced by high-fat diet. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of the TRF regimen on the reproductive performance were also observed in mice fed both chow and high-fat diet. However, those beneficial effects of TRF on metabolism and reproduction were absent in liver-specific FGF21 knockout mice. In vitro, FGF21 directly acted on GnRH neurons to modulate GnRH secretion via extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK1/2 ) pathway. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, time-restricted feeding improves the reproductive function of female mice and liver FGF21 signaling plays a key role in GnRH neuron activity in female mice.

9.
Anim Nutr ; 6(3): 278-287, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33005761

RESUMO

We investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with Bacillus subtilis PB6 (B. subtilis PB6) during late gestation and lactation on sow reproductive performance, antioxidant indices, and gut microbiota. A total of 32 healthy Landrace × Yorkshire sows on d 90 of gestation were randomly assigned to 2 groups, with 16 replicates per group, receiving basal diet (CON) or the basal diet + 0.2% B. subtilis PB6, containing 4.0 × 108 CFU/kg of feed (BS). The litter sizes (total born) and numbers of piglets born alive were larger in the BS group (P < 0.01), whereas the weights of piglets born alive and the piglet birth intervals were lower in the BS group (P < 0.05). Although the litter weights and piglet bodyweights (after cross-fostering) were lower after BS treatment (P < 0.05), the litter sizes, litter weights, lactation survival rate, and litter weight gains at weaning were higher in BS group (P < 0.05). The concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the sow sera at parturition were lower in the BS group (P < 0.01). The serum total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) at parturition and the serum catalase (CAT) concentrations on d 21 of lactation were higher in the BS group (P < 0.05). Dietary supplementation with B. subtilis PB6 (P < 0.05) reduced the serum endotoxin concentrations in the sows and the serum cortisol concentrations of the piglets at d 14 of lactation. The α-diversity indices of microbial were higher in the CON group (P < 0.05). At the phylum level, B. subtilis PB6 supplementation increased the relative abundances of Gemmatimonadete and Acidobacteria (both P < 0.01) and reduced those of Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria (both P < 0.05). At the genus level, B. subtilis PB6 supplementation increased the relative abundance of Ruminococcaceae_UCG-013 cc (P < 0.05) and reduced that of Streptococcus (P < 0.05). This study demonstrated that adding 4.0 × 108 CFU/kg B. subtilis PB6 to sows' feed during late gestation and lactation could shorten piglet birth intervals, enhance the growth performance of suckling piglets, and improve the gut health of sows during late gestation.

10.
Anim Nutr ; 6(3): 288-292, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33005762

RESUMO

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary live yeast (LY) supplementation during late gestation and lactation on reproductive performance, colostrum and milk composition, blood biochemical and immunological parameters of sows. A total of 40 multiparous sows were randomly fed either the control (CON) diet or the CON diet supplemented with LY at 1 g/kg from d 90 of gestation to weaning. Results showed that the number of stillborn piglets and low BW piglets were significantly decreased in the LY-supplemented sows compared with sows in the CON group (P < 0.05). Moreover, the concentrations of protein, lactose and solids-not-fat were increased in the colostrum of LY-supplemented sows (P < 0.05). Interestingly, the plasma activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GGT) at d 1 of lactation and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) at weaning day were decreased by feeding LY diet (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, sows fed LY diet had higher plasma concentration of immunoglobulin G compared with sows fed CON diet at d 1 of lactation (P < 0.05). In conclusion, LY supplementation in maternal diets decreased the number of stillborn piglets and low BW piglets, improved colostrum quality and health status of sows.

11.
J Anim Sci ; 98(10)2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125478

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary soluble fiber (SF) or insoluble fiber (ISF) intake in late gestation on litter performance, milk composition, immune function, and redox status of sows around parturition. A total of 60 Yorkshire sows were randomly assigned into three dietary treatments: normal level of dietary fiber (CON, 16.16% dietary fiber with 1.78% soluble fiber and 14.38% insoluble fiber), high insoluble fiber (ISF, 30.12% dietary fiber with 2.97% soluble fiber and 27.15% insoluble fiber), and high soluble fiber (SF, 30.15% dietary fiber with 4.57% soluble fiber and 25.58% insoluble fiber). Digestible energy and crude protein intake were comparable among treatments via adjusting feed intake from day 90 of gestation to parturition. After parturition, all sows were fed the same lactation diet. Results showed that litter performance of sows was not markedly affected by maternal fiber intake. However, sows fed ISF or SF diet had increased concentration of plasma mmunoglobulin G at day 107 (P < 0.05) and parturition (P < 0.01), and the SF diet had a tendency to increase fat content in both colostrum and milk relative to the CON diet. Furthermore, sows fed ISF diet had increased glutathione peroxidase activity (P < 0.05) at day 107, but decreased the plasma level of malondialdehyde at parturition (P < 0.05). High maternal SF intake tended to decrease the number of weaned piglets due to the increased preweaning mortality, as compared with sows fed the ISF diet. In conclusion, high fiber intake in late gestation may improve immune function and redox status, but differentially influenced the milk composition and preweaning mortality.

12.
Adipocyte ; 9(1): 523-534, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876525

RESUMO

Adipose tissue inflammation plays an important role in the regulation of glucose and lipids metabolism. It is unknown whether Ursolic acid (UA) could regulate adipose tissue inflammation, though it can regulate inflammation in many other tissues. In this study, 3T3-L1 adipocytes, DIO mice and lean mice were treated with UA or vehicle. Gene expression of inflammatory factors, chemokines and immune markers in adipocytes and adipose tissue, cytokines in cell culture medium and serum, and inflammation regulatory pathways in adipocytes were detected. Results showed that UA increased the expression of interleukins and chemokines, but not TNFα, in both adipocytes and adipose tissue. IL6 and MCP1 levels in the cell culture medium and mouse serum were induced by UA treatment. Cd14 expression level and number of CD14+ monocytes were higher in UA treated adipose tissue than those in the control group. Glucose tolerance test was impaired by UA treatment in DIO mice. Mechanistically, UA induced the expression of Tlr4 and the phosphorylation levels of ERK and NFκB in adipocytes. In conclusion, our study indicated that short-term UA administration could induce CD14+ monocytes infiltration by increasing the production of interleukins and chemokines in mouse adipose tissue, which might further impair glucose tolerance test.

13.
Food Funct ; 11(9): 7748-7761, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794529

RESUMO

Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element in humans and sows, having a biological function mediated in part by its incorporation into selenoproteins. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of maternal 2-hydroxy-4-methylselenobutanoic acid (HMSeBA), an organic Se source, on reproductive performance, antioxidant capacity and inflammatory status of sows and their offspring. Forty-three Landrace × Yorkshire sows were randomly allocated to receive one of the following three diets during gestation: control diet (control, basal diet, n = 15), sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) supplemented diet (Na2SeO3, basal diet + Na2SeO3 at 0.3 mg Se per kg, n = 13), and HMSeBA supplemented diet (HMSeBA, basal diet + HMSeBA at 0.3 mg Se per kg, n = 15). Blood samples of sows and piglets, placentas and piglet liver samples were analyzed for selenium status, antioxidant capacity and inflammatory cytokines. Results showed that, as compared to the control group, HMSeBA supplementation increased the number of born alive piglets and plasma concentrations of total selenium and selenoprotein P in both sows and piglets. Besides, the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the blood of sows, umbilical cord and piglets, placentas and piglets' liver were increased by dietary HMSeBA supplementation as compared to the control group, while malondialdehyde concentration (p < 0.05) was decreased in the blood of sows, umbilical cord and newborn piglets. In addition, maternal HMSeBA intake during gestation up-regulated antioxidant-related selenoprotein gene expression in the placenta (GPx2, GPx3, p < 0.05) and in the liver of newborn piglets (GPx1, GPx2, GPx3, TXNRD2, p < 0.05). Moreover, as compared to the control group, sows and newborn piglets in the Na2SeO3 and HMSeBA groups had a lower serum interleukin-6 (p < 0.05) concentration, and placentas in the HMSeBA group had lower IL-1ß, IL-6 and IL-8 gene expression (p < 0.05). In conclusion, maternal supplementation of HMSeBA during pregnancy improved antioxidant capacities and reduced the inflammation level in mater, placenta, and fetus. This finding may highlight the important role of selenoproteins (especially GPXs) in preventing negative consequences of over-production of free radicals and inflammatory cytokines during gestation and at births.

14.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 104(6): 1896-1903, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748473

RESUMO

Silymarin has been shown to be a multiple-functional plant extract having antioxidant, hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, antihypertensive, antidiabetic and anti-obesity effects. In recent years, the galactagogue effects of silymarin in animals and humans have also been revealed. This research was conducted to test whether dietary inclusion of silymarin during transition and lactation could impact reproductive performance of sows and to explore the underlying mechanisms. From day 108 of gestation to weaning, sows were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatment of silymarin (40 g/day) or not and were designated as control group (CGP, n = 55) or treatment group (TGP, n = 55). The results showed that piglets' average daily gain and average weaning weight were higher in TGP than CGP sows. In comparison with the CGP sows, the TGP sows had higher serum concentrations of catalase (CAT) on day 18 of lactation and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) on day 7 of lactation. The TGP sows had lower concentration of TNF-α on day 7 of lactation and significantly lower concentration of IL-1ß on day 18 of lactation than CGP sows. There was significantly higher serum concentration of PRL on day 7 of lactation in sows consuming silymarin than sows from the CGP group. On day 18 of lactation, the protein and urea contents in milk were significantly increased while the serum urea concentration was significantly decreased in TGP sows. In summary, our results indicate that silymarin supplementation during transition and lactation can increase circulating concentrations of PRL transiently, reduce oxidative stress, increase feed intake and enhance protein metabolism, thereby significantly increasing milk yield of sows and subsequently improving growth performance of their offsprings.

15.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-12, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600501

RESUMO

To investigate the effects of dietary fibre on follicular atresia in pigs fed a high-fat diet, we fed thirty-two prepubescent gilts a basal diet (CON) or a CON diet supplemented with 300 g/d dietary fibre (fibre), 240 g/d soya oil (SO) or both (fibre + SO). At the 19th day of the 4th oestrus cycle, gilts fed the SO diet showed 112 % more atretic follicles and greater expression of the apoptotic markers, Bax and caspase-3, and these effects were reversed by the fibre diet. The abundance of SCFA-producing microbes was decreased by the SO diet, but this effect was reversed by fibre treatment. Concentrations of serotonin and melatonin in the serum and follicular fluid were increased by the fibre diet. Overall, dietary fibre protected against high fat feeding-induced follicular atresia at least partly via gut microbiota-related serotonin-melatonin synthesis. These results provide insight into preventing negative effects on fertility in humans consuming a high-energy diet.

16.
Theriogenology ; 154: 181-189, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622198

RESUMO

In order to study the effect of l-arginine on testicular development in boars and its underlying mechanism, thirty 30-day-old Duroc boars (7.0 ± 0.3 kg) were randomly allocated to either a basal diet (CON, n = 15) or a 0.8% arginine diet (ARG, n = 15). Blood samples were collected and weight measurements were done regularly to every pig during the experimental period. Testes were collected for histological and proteomic analysis from 150-day-old boars. Results showed that dietary supplementation with arginine significantly increased testicular weight, the number of spermatogonia, and the height of the seminiferous epithelium (P < 0.05). The serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were also significantly increased in the ARG group (P < 0.05). A total of 154 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified, 76 of them were upregulated and 78 were downregulated. Mainly enriched metabolic pathways were the mTOR and Wnt signaling pathways. Functional annotation suggested that 18 DEPs were related to male reproduction. Western blotting results further validated the results from proteomics. This study may provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms by which arginine promotes male testicular development.

17.
Br J Nutr ; 124(8): 797-808, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436488

RESUMO

Bile acids (BA) have emerged as signalling molecules regulating intestinal physiology. The importance of intestinal microbiota in production of secondary BA, for example, lithocholic acid (LCA) which impairs enterocyte proliferation and permeability, triggered us to determine the effects of oral probiotics on intestinal BA metabolism. Piglets were weaned at 28 d of age and allocated into control (CON, n 14) or probiotic (PRO, n 14) group fed 50 mg of Lactobacillus plantarum daily, and gut microbiota and BA profile were determined. To test the potential interaction of LCA with bacteria endotoxins in inducing damage of enterocytes, IPEC-J2 cells were treated with LCA, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LCA + LPS and expressions of genes related to inflammation, antioxidant capacity and nutrient transport were determined. Compared with the CON group, the PRO group showed lower total LCA level in the ileum and higher relative abundance of the Lactobacillus genus in faeces. In contrast, the relative abundances of Bacteroides, Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1, Parabacteroides and Ruminococcus_1, important bacteria genera in BA biotransformation, were all lower in the PRO than in the CON group. Moreover, PRO piglets had lower postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1 level, while higher glucose level than CON piglets. Co-administration of LPS and LCA led to down-regulated expression of glucose and peptide transporter genes in IPEC-J2 cells. Altogether, oral L. plantarum altered BA profile probably by modulating relative abundances of gut microbial genera that play key roles in BA metabolism and might consequently impact glucose homoeostasis. The detrimental effect of LCA on nutrient transport in enterocytes might be aggravated under LPS challenge.

18.
J Anim Sci Biotechnol ; 11: 47, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32426131

RESUMO

Background: This study aimed to investigate the impacts of guar gum and cellulose as the source of dietary fiber during gestation on the reproductive performance of sows. Methods: A total of 210 sows (parities 3-6) were randomly allocated into six diets (n = 35) throughout gestation to feed graded levels of dietary fiber (DF), including a corn-soybean meal-based control diet with no wheat bran inclusion (CON, 12.5% DF), a wheat bran-rich diet (DF1, 17.4% DF), and another 4 diets (DF2, 17.7% DF; DF3, 18.1% DF; DF4, 18.4% DF; DF5, 18.8% DF) in which wheat bran were equally substituted by 1%, 2%, 3% and 4% purified FIBER MIX (guar gum and cellulose, 1:4). All sows received similar DE and other nutrients throughout gestation. Results: DF treatment during gestation resulted in normal fecal score (1 to 5 with 1 = dry and 5 = watery) in sows compared with those received the CON diet (P <  0.05). The number of total born piglets had a tendency to be affected by dietary treatment (P = 0.07), and correlation analysis revealed a linear response of total born to dietary fiber levels during gestation (P < 0.01). Sows received the DF2, DF3, and DF5 diets during gestation had a greater ADFI during lactation compared with those in the CON group (P < 0.05) without affecting the daily body weight gain of suckling piglets. Gut microbiota compositions were dramatically changed by the gestation stage and some of those were changed by DF inclusion. Fecal acetate, propionate, and butyrate of sows were markedly increased in late gestation, and butyrate contents in feces of gestating sows were significantly affected by DF levels (P < 0.01). Serum concentrations of pro-inflammatory TNF-α were decreased and anti-inflammatory IL-10 was increased on day 30 of gestation by DF levels (P < 0.05). Conclusions: In summary, increasing dietary fiber levels by guar gum and cellulose during gestation improved the reproductive performance of sows, which might be related to changes in immunity and gut microbiota of sows.

19.
J Anim Sci ; 98(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152634

RESUMO

Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of exogenous catalase (CAT) in the diet of weaned piglets on growth performance, oxidative capacity, and hepatic apoptosis after challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In experiment 1, 72 weaned piglets [Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire, 6.90 ± 0.01 kg body weight (BW), 21 d of age] were randomly assigned to be fed either a basal diet (CON group) or a basal diet supplemented with 2,000 mg/kg CAT (CAT group; dietary CAT activity, 120 U/kg) for 35 d. Blood samples were collected on day 21 and day 35. At the end of this experiment, 12 pigs were selected from each of the CON and CAT groups, and six pigs were injected with LPS (50 µg/kg BW), while the remaining six pigs were injected with an equal amount of sterile saline, resulting in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments (experiment 2). Blood samples and rectal temperature data were collected 0 and 4 h after challenge, and liver samples were obtained after evisceration. The gain-to-feed ratio was higher (P < 0.05) in piglets in the CAT group than in those in the CON group from day 1 to 35. Catalase and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activities were higher (P < 0.05), whereas malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were lower (P < 0.05), in piglets in the CAT group than in those in the CON group at day 35. During challenge, rectal temperature and liver MDA and H2O2 concentrations increased significantly (P < 0.05), whereas plasma CAT and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and liver CAT activity decreased markedly (P < 0.05), in LPS-challenged piglets 4 h post-challenge. Increased CAT activity and decreased MDA concentration were observed in the plasma and liver of piglets in the CAT group 4 h post-challenge (P < 0.05). Dietary CAT supplementation markedly suppressed the LPS-induced decrease in plasma GSH-Px activity and liver CAT activity to levels observed in the CON group (P < 0.05) as well as significantly decreasing the concentration and mRNA expression of caspase-3 and caspase-9 (P < 0.05). LPS-induced liver injury was also attenuated by dietary CAT supplementation, as demonstrated by a decrease in liver caspase-3 mRNA expression (P < 0.05). Overall, dietary supplementation with 2,000 mg/kg exogenous CAT (dietary CAT activity, 120 U/kg) improves growth performance and has a beneficial effect on antioxidant capacity in weaned piglets; alleviates oxidative stress and reduces liver damage by suppressing hepatic apoptosis in LPS-challenged piglets.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Catalase/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Suínos/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catalase/sangue , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desmame
20.
Theriogenology ; 148: 103-111, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171969

RESUMO

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) has been newly demonstrated to play a great role in promoting fat accumulation, providing a potential to target FSH for controlling fat accumulation and treating obesity. A short, 13-amino acid of FSHß (FSHß13AA) was indentified to be the FSH receptor-binding epitope in both humans and mice. By conservation analysis, we found such FSHß13AA is highly conserved across species. Accordingly, we designed a new FSH antigen by synthesizing a tandem of FSHß13AA (LVYKDPARPNIQK) and then conjugating it to ovalbumin (FSHß13AA-T-OVA). Then, we tested its efficacy in suppressing fat accumulation in both ovariectomized and intact mouse models. Vaccination with this novel antigen emulsified in mild adjuvant, Specol, was highly effective in preventing ovariectomy-induced body weight gain and fat accumulation in mice (P < 0.01). Mechanistically, FSH vaccination treatment inhibited lipid biosynthesis by inactivating PPARγ adipogenic signaling pathway and simultaneously enhanced adipocyte themogenesis via upregulating UCP1 expression in both visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues. Moreover, injection of this novel FSH vaccine also substantially reduced (P < 0.05) fat accumulation in both intact male and female mice. These actions result from the specific binding of the generated antibody to the ß-subunit to block its action, rather than lowering the circulating levels of FSH, as evidenced by nearly no alterations in serum FSH levels in mice following FSH vaccination. Overall, we developed a novel FSH antigen and vaccine, and demonstrated it is highly efficacious in suppressing fat accumulation.

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