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1.
Orthod Craniofac Res ; 23(3): 323-331, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163667

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this prospective controlled study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the rapid maxillary expander (RME) and face mask treatment using three-dimensional soft-tissue facial characteristics of pre-pubertal Class III children. SETTING AND SAMPLE POPULATION: CLIII and non-CLIII groups, both of 32 white children aged 6-8 years participated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Facial surface images were obtained using stereophotogrammetry at T0 and T1 and were superimposed. Landmark-based and surface-based facial parameters were measured, and group differences were quantified (ANOVA; P ≥ .05). RESULTS: CLIII children had less mid-face prominence, shorter lower facial height and protruded mandible when compared to non-CLIII children at T0. At T1, the differences between the groups were not statistically significant, indicating successful correction. After the RME/face mask treatment, the n-sn and sn-pg distances increased by 1.5 mm and 2.2 mm, respectively. The distance from sn to the n-pg line increased by 1 mm, the n-sn-pg angle decreased by almost 2°. Pogonion moved downward by 2.5 mm and posteriorly by 3 mm. The surface-based measurements between the groups after treatment showed anterior movement in the mid-face region and the upper lip region. The lower lip and chin region moved posteriorly in the CLIII group and anteriorly in the non-CLIII group. CONCLUSIONS: After RME/face mask treatment, the lower facial height increased, the maxilla moved anteriorly, and the mandible moved posteriorly. Consequently, CLIII children reached the respective values of the non-CLIII children, indicating a harmonious facial appearance of CLIII children. The results have been obtained using non-invasive technique.


Assuntos
Má Oclusão de Angle Classe III , Maxila , Cefalometria , Criança , Humanos , Mandíbula , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
Eur J Orthod ; 42(5): 517-524, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748803

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Several studies have highlighted differences in the facial features in a White European population. Genetics appear to have a major influence on normal facial variation, and environmental factors are likely to have minor influences on face shape directly or through epigenetic mechanisms. AIM: The aim of this longitudinal cohort study is to determine the rate of change in midline facial landmarks in three distinct homogenous population groups (Finnish, Latvian, and Welsh) from 12.8 to 15.3 years of age. This age range covers the pubertal growth period for the majority of boys and girls. METHODS: A cohort of children aged 12 were monitored for facial growth in three countries [Finland (n = 60), Latvia (n = 107), and Wales (n = 96)]. Three-dimensional facial surface images were acquired (using either laser or photogrammetric methods) at regular intervals (6-12 months) for 4 years. Ethical approval was granted in each country. Nine midline landmarks were identified and the relative spatial positions of these surface landmarks were measured relative to the mid-endocanthion (men) over a 4-year period. RESULTS: This study reports the children who attended 95 per cent of all scanning sessions (Finland 48 out of 60; Latvia 104 out of 107; Wales 50 out of 96). Considerable facial variation is seen for all countries and sexes. There are clear patterns of growth that show different magnitudes at different age groups for the different country groups, sexes, and facial parameters. The greatest single yearly growth rate (5.4 mm) was seen for Welsh males for men-pogonion distance at 13.6 years of age. Males exhibit greater rates of growth compared to females. These variations in magnitude and timings are likely to be influenced by genetic ancestry as a result of population migration. CONCLUSION: The midline points are a simple and valid method to assess the relative spatial positions of facial surface landmarks. This study confirms previous reports on the subtle differences in facial shapes and sizes of male and female children in different populations and also highlights the magnitudes and timings of growth for various midline landmark distances to the men point.

3.
Elife ; 82019 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31763980

RESUMO

The human face represents a combined set of highly heritable phenotypes, but knowledge on its genetic architecture remains limited, despite the relevance for various fields. A series of genome-wide association studies on 78 facial shape phenotypes quantified from 3-dimensional facial images of 10,115 Europeans identified 24 genetic loci reaching study-wide suggestive association (p < 5 × 10-8), among which 17 were previously unreported. A follow-up multi-ethnic study in additional 7917 individuals confirmed 10 loci including six unreported ones (padjusted < 2.1 × 10-3). A global map of derived polygenic face scores assembled facial features in major continental groups consistent with anthropological knowledge. Analyses of epigenomic datasets from cranial neural crest cells revealed abundant cis-regulatory activities at the face-associated genetic loci. Luciferase reporter assays in neural crest progenitor cells highlighted enhancer activities of several face-associated DNA variants. These results substantially advance our understanding of the genetic basis underlying human facial variation and provide candidates for future in-vivo functional studies.


Assuntos
Face/anatomia & histologia , Loci Gênicos/genética , Desenvolvimento Maxilofacial/genética , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Adulto , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos , Padronização Corporal/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Ontologia Genética , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
4.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0221197, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661502

RESUMO

Classification of facial traits (e.g., lip shape) is an important area of medical research, for example, in determining associations between lip traits and genetic variants which may lead to a cleft lip. In clinical situations, classification of facial traits is usually performed subjectively directly on the individual or recorded later from a three-dimensional image, which is time consuming and prone to operator errors. The present study proposes, for the first time, an automatic approach for the classification and categorisation of lip area traits. Our approach uses novel three-dimensional geometric features based on surface curvatures measured along geodesic paths between anthropometric landmarks. Different combinations of geodesic features are analysed and compared. The effect of automatically identified categories on the face is visualised using a partial least squares method. The method was applied to the classification and categorisation of six lip shape traits (philtrum, Cupid's bow, lip contours, lip-chin, and lower lip tone) in a large sample of 4747 faces of normal British Western European descents. The proposed method demonstrates correct automatic classification rate of up to 90%.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Lábio/patologia , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Adolescente , Fenda Labial/genética , Fenda Labial/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
5.
Eur J Orthod ; 41(3): 250-257, 2019 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30102316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Since a high prevalence of back anomalies has been reported among subjects with crossbite, the aim was to assess the degree of back symmetry among subjects with (crossbite) and without (control) unilateral functional crossbite during the pre-pubertal growth phase. METHODS: A group of 70 subjects (36 boys, 34 girls; 6.8 ± 1.2 years) in the primary or mixed dentition phase were included. Clinical assessment of head posture, shoulder, scapula and hip height were performed with the subject standing, and differences between the left and right side greater than 5 mm recorded. Asymmetry of the scapula and trunk prominence greater than 8 mm was recorded along with the prominence of thoracic and lumbar paravertebral musculature during the forward-bending test. Back symmetry was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively on colour deviation maps of superimposed mirrored three-dimensional back scans at a tolerance level of 2 mm. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed between the groups regarding the frequency of clinically assessed back anomalies. The percentage of back symmetry was slightly lower in the crossbite than that in the control group (71.4 ± 13.3% and 79.2 ± 12.1%, respectively). A significant association (P < 0.05) was seen between scapula plane inclination (OR = 3.41) and scapula prominence inequalities (OR = 3.29) and unilateral functional crossbite, while hip height inequalities (OR = 0.94) were more frequent in the control group. No associations were detected between the side of crossbite and side of prominence of back parameters. LIMITATIONS: The use of different thresholds for clinical (5-8 mm) and three-dimensional (2 mm) symmetry assessment. CONCLUSIONS: Although some degree of back asymmetry was detected in the crossbite group during the pre-pubertal growth phase, this asymmetry does not appear to be clinically relevant.


Assuntos
Dorso/patologia , Má Oclusão , Postura , Criança , Dentição Mista , Feminino , Cabeça , Quadril , Humanos , Masculino , Escápula , Ombro
6.
Front Genet ; 9: 554, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30510565

RESUMO

Introduction: The human face is a complex trait displaying a strong genetic component as illustrated by various studies on facial heritability. Most of these start from sparse descriptions of facial shape using a limited set of landmarks. Subsequently, facial features are preselected as univariate measurements or principal components and the heritability is estimated for each of these features separately. However, none of these studies investigated multivariate facial features, nor the co-heritability between different facial features. Here we report a spatially dense multivariate analysis of facial heritability and co-heritability starting from data from fathers and their children available within ALSPAC. Additionally, we provide an elaborate overview of related craniofacial heritability studies. Methods: In total, 3D facial images of 762 father-offspring pairs were retained after quality control. An anthropometric mask was applied to these images to establish spatially dense quasi-landmark configurations. Partial least squares regression was performed and the (co-)heritability for all quasi-landmarks (∼7160) was computed as twice the regression coefficient. Subsequently, these were used as input to a hierarchical facial segmentation, resulting in the definition of facial modules that are internally integrated through the biological mechanisms of inheritance. Finally, multivariate heritability estimates were obtained for each of the resulting modules. Results: Nearly all modular estimates reached statistical significance under 1,000,000 permutations and after multiple testing correction (p ≤ 1.3889 × 10-3), displaying low to high heritability scores. Particular facial areas showing the greatest heritability were similar for both sons and daughters. However, higher estimates were obtained in the former. These areas included the global face, upper facial part (encompassing the nasion, zygomas and forehead) and nose, with values reaching 82% in boys and 72% in girls. The lower parts of the face only showed low to moderate levels of heritability. Conclusion: In this work, we refrain from reducing facial variation to a series of individual measurements and analyze the heritability and co-heritability from spatially dense landmark configurations at multiple levels of organization. Finally, a multivariate estimation of heritability for global-to-local facial segments is reported. Knowledge of the genetic determination of facial shape is useful in the identification of genetic variants that underlie normal-range facial variation.

7.
Front Genet ; 9: 462, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30386375

RESUMO

Historically, craniofacial genetic research has understandably focused on identifying the causes of craniofacial anomalies and it has only been within the last 10 years, that there has been a drive to detail the biological basis of normal-range facial variation. This initiative has been facilitated by the availability of low-cost hi-resolution three-dimensional systems which have the ability to capture the facial details of thousands of individuals quickly and accurately. Simultaneous advances in genotyping technology have enabled the exploration of genetic influences on facial phenotypes, both in the present day and across human history. There are several important reasons for exploring the genetics of normal-range variation in facial morphology.     - Disentangling the environmental factors and relative parental biological contributions to heritable traits can help to answer the age-old question "why we look the way that we do?"     - Understanding the etiology of craniofacial anomalies; e.g., unaffected family members of individuals with non-syndromic cleft lip/palate (nsCL/P) have been shown to differ in terms of normal-range facial variation to the general population suggesting an etiological link between facial morphology and nsCL/P.     - Many factors such as ancestry, sex, eye/hair color as well as distinctive facial features (such as, shape of the chin, cheeks, eyes, forehead, lips, and nose) can be identified or estimated using an individual's genetic data, with potential applications in healthcare and forensics.     - Improved understanding of historical selection and adaptation relating to facial phenotypes, for example, skin pigmentation and geographical latitude.     - Highlighting what is known about shared facial traits, medical conditions and genes.

8.
PLoS Genet ; 14(8): e1007501, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30067744

RESUMO

There is increasing evidence that genetic risk variants for non-syndromic cleft lip/palate (nsCL/P) are also associated with normal-range variation in facial morphology. However, previous analyses are mostly limited to candidate SNPs and findings have not been consistently replicated. Here, we used polygenic risk scores (PRS) to test for genetic overlap between nsCL/P and seven biologically relevant facial phenotypes. Where evidence was found of genetic overlap, we used bidirectional Mendelian randomization (MR) to test the hypothesis that genetic liability to nsCL/P is causally related to implicated facial phenotypes. Across 5,804 individuals of European ancestry from two studies, we found strong evidence, using PRS, of genetic overlap between nsCL/P and philtrum width; a 1 S.D. increase in nsCL/P PRS was associated with a 0.10 mm decrease in philtrum width (95% C.I. 0.054, 0.146; P = 2x10-5). Follow-up MR analyses supported a causal relationship; genetic variants for nsCL/P homogeneously cause decreased philtrum width. In addition to the primary analysis, we also identified two novel risk loci for philtrum width at 5q22.2 and 7p15.2 in our Genome-wide Association Study (GWAS) of 6,136 individuals. Our results support a liability threshold model of inheritance for nsCL/P, related to abnormalities in development of the philtrum.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial/genética , Fissura Palatina/genética , Lábio/anormalidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Herança Multifatorial , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
9.
Bio Protoc ; 7(13)2017 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28748203

RESUMO

T cell receptor (TCR) recognition of foreign peptide fragments, presented by peptide major histocompatibility complex (pMHC), governs T-cell mediated protection against pathogens and cancer. Many factors govern T-cell sensitivity, including the affinity of the TCR-pMHC interaction and the stability of pMHC on the surface of antigen presenting cells. These factors are particularly relevant for the peptide vaccination field, in which more stable pMHC interactions could enable more effective protection against disease. Here, we discuss a method for the determination of pMHC stability that we have used to investigate HIV immune escape, T-cell sensitivity to cancer antigens and mechanisms leading to autoimmunity.

10.
PLoS One ; 11(9): e0162250, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27584156

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Facial phenotype is influenced by genes and environment; however, little is known about their relative contributions to normal facial morphology. The aim of this study was to assess the relative genetic and environmental contributions to facial morphological variation using a three-dimensional (3D) population-based approach and the classical twin study design. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 3D facial images of 1380 female twins from the TwinsUK Registry database were used. All faces were landmarked, by manually placing 37 landmark points, and Procrustes registered. Three groups of traits were extracted and analysed: 19 principal components (uPC) and 23 principal components (sPC), derived from the unscaled and scaled landmark configurations respectively, and 1275 linear distances measured between 51 landmarks (37 manually identified and 14 automatically calculated). The intraclass correlation coefficients, rMZ and rDZ, broad-sense heritability (h2), common (c2) and unique (e2) environment contributions were calculated for all traits for the monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins. RESULTS: Heritability of 13 uPC and 17 sPC reached statistical significance, with h2 ranging from 38.8% to 78.5% in the former and 30.5% to 84.8% in the latter group. Also, 1222 distances showed evidence of genetic control. Common environment contributed to one PC in both groups and 53 linear distances (4.3%). Unique environment contributed to 17 uPC and 20 sPC and 1245 distances. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic factors can explain more than 70% of the phenotypic facial variation in facial size, nose (width, prominence and height), lips prominence and inter-ocular distance. A few traits have shown potential dominant genetic influence: the prominence and height of the nose, the lower lip prominence in relation to the chin and upper lip philtrum length. Environmental contribution to facial variation seems to be the greatest for the mandibular ramus height and horizontal facial asymmetry.


Assuntos
Face/anatomia & histologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Componente Principal , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMJ Open ; 5(9): e009027, 2015 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26351193

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between the prevalence of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and face shape morphology in a large cohort of 15-year-old children. DESIGN: Observational longitudinal cohort study SETTING: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), South West of England. PARTICIPANTS: Three-dimensional surface laser scans were taken for 4784 white British children from the ALSPAC during a follow-up clinic. A total of 1724 children with sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and 1862 healthy children were identified via parents' report of sleep disordered symptoms for their children. We excluded from the original cohort all children identified as having congenital abnormalities, diagnoses associated with poor growth and children with adenoidectomy and/or tonsillectomy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Parents in the ALSPAC reported sleep disordered symptoms (snoring, mouth breathing and apnoea) for their children at 6, 18, 30, 42, 57, 69 and 81 months. Average facial shells were created for children with and without SDB in order to explore surface differences. RESULTS: Differences in facial measurements were found between the children with and without SDB throughout early childhood. The mean differences included an increase in face height in SDB children of 0.3 mm (95% CI -0.52 to -0.05); a decrease in mandibular prominence of 0.9° (95% CI -1.30 to -0.42) in SDB children; and a decrease in nose prominence and width of 0.12 mm (95% CI 0.00 to 0.24) and 0.72 mm (95% CI -0.10 to -0.25), respectively, in SDB children. The odds of children exhibiting symptoms of SDB increased significantly with respect to increased face height and mandible angle, but reduced with increased nose width and prominence. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of a long face, reduced nose prominence and width, and a retrognathic mandible may be diagnostic facial features of SBD that may warrant a referral to specialists for the evaluation of other clinical symptoms of SDB.


Assuntos
Face/anatomia & histologia , Respiração Bucal/complicações , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/complicações , Ronco/complicações , Análise de Variância , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Respiração Bucal/diagnóstico , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/diagnóstico , Ronco/diagnóstico , Reino Unido
12.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 18(3): 306-13, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25869010

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to compare facial 3D analysis to DNA testing in twin zygosity determinations. Facial 3D images of 106 pairs of young adult Lithuanian twins were taken with a stereophotogrammetric device (3dMD, Atlanta, Georgia) and zygosity was determined according to similarity of facial form. Statistical pattern recognition methodology was used for classification. The results showed that in 75% to 90% of the cases, zygosity determinations were similar to DNA-based results. There were 81 different classification scenarios, including 3 groups, 3 features, 3 different scaling methods, and 3 threshold levels. It appeared that coincidence with 0.5 mm tolerance is the most suitable feature for classification. Also, leaving out scaling improves results in most cases. Scaling was expected to equalize the magnitude of differences and therefore lead to better recognition performance. Still, better classification features and a more effective scaling method or classification in different facial areas could further improve the results. In most of the cases, male pair zygosity recognition was at a higher level compared with females. Erroneously classified twin pairs appear to be obvious outliers in the sample. In particular, faces of young dizygotic (DZ) twins may be so similar that it is very hard to define a feature that would help classify the pair as DZ. Correspondingly, monozygotic (MZ) twins may have faces with quite different shapes. Such anomalous twin pairs are interesting exceptions, but they form a considerable portion in both zygosity groups.


Assuntos
Cefalometria , DNA/genética , Face/anatomia & histologia , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Imageamento Tridimensional , Gêmeos Dizigóticos/genética , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/genética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos , Estudos de Coortes , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Humanos , Lituânia , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
13.
Eur J Orthod ; 37(4): 379-85, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25336564

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to characterize facial and jaw morphology of children with Class III malocclusion in early mixed dentition. METHODS: This study was conducted on 7- to 8-year-old Caucasian children, 48 children with Class III malocclusion and 91 children with normal occlusion. Surface images of faces and study casts were obtained using laser scanning. Two average facial templates were constructed for the males and females in the control group. The facial images were superimposed on the corresponding average templates. Facial parameters, palatal volumes, and gingival surface areas were measured and group differences were quantified. The analysis of variance was used for statistical evaluation of the measured parameters. RESULTS: The results revealed shorter lower face height (P < 0.001), concave facial profile (P < 0.001), retruded maxilla (P < 0.001), protruded mandible (P < 0.001), retrusive mid-face restricted area (P < 0.001), reduced gingival surface area of the maxilla (P = 0.013), and reduced maxilla/mandible gingival surface area ratio (P < 0.001) in the Class III group compared to the control group. There were no differences between the groups in upper face height, restricted areas of the upper and lower face, palatal volume, and gingival surface area of the mandible (P > 0.05). LIMITATIONS: Regardless of the fact that the prevalence of Class III malocclusion is rather small, the sample size could be larger. CONCLUSIONS: Class III subjects show clinically relevant facial and jaws characteristics in pre-pubertal growth period. A comprehensive diagnosis should include transverse dimension analysis.


Assuntos
Cefalometria/métodos , Dentição Mista , Face/patologia , Ossos Faciais/patologia , Má Oclusão de Angle Classe III/patologia , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos/patologia , Criança , Queixo/patologia , Modelos Dentários , Feminino , Gengiva/patologia , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Lasers , Masculino , Mandíbula/patologia , Maxila/patologia , Nariz/patologia , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Palato/patologia , Retrognatismo/patologia , Dimensão Vertical
14.
Eur J Orthod ; 36(5): 506-11, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25257926

RESUMO

Three-dimensional (3D) imaging technology has been widely used to analyse facial morphology and has revealed an influence of some medical conditions on craniofacial growth and morphology. The aim of the study is to investigate whether craniofacial morphology is different in atopic Caucasian children compared with controls. Study design included observational longitudinal cohort study. Atopy was diagnosed via skin-prick tests performed at 7.5 years of age. The cohort was followed to 15 years of age as part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). A total of 734 atopic and 2829 controls were identified. 3D laser surface facial scans were obtained at 15 years of age. Twenty-one reproducible facial landmarks (x, y, z co-ordinates) were identified on each facial scan. Inter-landmark distances and average facial shells for atopic and non-atopic children were compared with explore differences in face shape between the groups. Both total anterior face height (pg-g, pg-men) and mid-face height (Is-men, sn-men, n-sn) were longer (0.6 and 0.4mm respectively) in atopic children when compared with non-atopic children. No facial differences were detected in the transverse and antero-posterior relationships. Small but statistically significant differences were detected in the total and mid-face height between atopic and non-atopic children. No differences were detected in the transverse and antero-posterior relationships.


Assuntos
Cefalometria/métodos , Dermatite Atópica/patologia , Face , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos/patologia , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Lasers , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Testes Cutâneos , Dimensão Vertical
15.
Proc Biol Sci ; 281(1792)2014 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25122232

RESUMO

The idea that symmetry in facial traits is associated with attractiveness because it reliably indicates good physiological health, particularly to potential sexual partners, has generated an extensive literature on the evolution of human mate choice. However, large-scale tests of this hypothesis using direct or longitudinal assessments of physiological health are lacking. Here, we investigate relationships between facial fluctuating asymmetry (FA) and detailed individual health histories in a sample (n = 4732) derived from a large longitudinal study (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children) in South West England. Facial FA was assessed using geometric morphometric analysis of facial landmark configurations derived from three-dimensional facial scans taken at 15 years of age. Facial FA was not associated with longitudinal measures of childhood health. However, there was a very small negative association between facial FA and IQ that remained significant after correcting for a positive allometric relationship between FA and face size. Overall, this study does not support the idea that facial symmetry acts as a reliable cue to physiological health. Consequently, if preferences for facial symmetry do represent an evolved adaptation, then they probably function not to provide marginal fitness benefits by choosing between relatively healthy individuals on the basis of small differences in FA, but rather evolved to motivate avoidance of markers of substantial developmental disturbance and significant pathology.


Assuntos
Assimetria Facial/epidemiologia , Desenvolvimento Humano , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Saúde , Humanos , Inteligência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Morbidade
16.
Eur J Orthod ; 36(4): 373-80, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25074563

RESUMO

Respiratory activity may have an influence on craniofacial development and interact with genetic and environmental factors. It has been suggested that certain medical conditions such as asthma have an influence on face shape. The aim of the study is to investigate whether facial shape is different in individuals diagnosed as having asthma compared with controls. Study design included observational longitudinal cohort study. Asthma was defined as reported wheezing diagnosed at age 7 years and 6 months. The cohort was followed to 15 years of age as part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. A total of 418 asthmatics and 3010 controls were identified. Three-dimensional laser surface facial scans were obtained. Twenty-one reproducible facial landmarks (x, y, z co-ordinates) were identified. Average facial shells were created for asthmatic and non-asthmatic males and females to explore surface differences. The inter-ala distance was 0.4mm wider (95% CI) and mid-face height was 0.4mm (95% CI) shorter in asthmatic females when compared with non-asthmatic females. No facial differences were detected in male subjects. Small but statistically significant differences were detected in mid-face height and inter-ala width between asthmatic and non-asthmatic females. No differences were detected in males. The lack of detection of any facial differences in males may be explained by significant facial variation as a result of achieving different stages of facial growth due to pubertal changes, which may mask any underlying condition effect.


Assuntos
Asma/patologia , Face , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos/patologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Cefalometria/métodos , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Olho/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Lasers , Lábio/patologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Desenvolvimento Maxilofacial/fisiologia , Cartilagens Nasais/patologia , Nariz/patologia , Dimensão Vertical
17.
Eur J Orthod ; 36(2): 125-32, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21795753

RESUMO

Laser scanning is a non-invasive method for three-dimensional assessment of facial morphology and symmetry. The aim of this study was to quantify facial symmetry in healthy adolescents and explore if there is any gender difference. Facial scans of 270 subjects, 123 males and 147 females (aged 15.3 ± 0.1 years, range 14.6-15.6), were randomly selected from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Facial scans were processed and analysed using in-house developed subroutines for commercial software. The surface matching between the original face and its mirror image was measured for the whole face, upper, middle, and lower facial thirds. In addition, 3 angular and 14 linear parameters were measured. The percentage of symmetry of the whole face was significantly lower in males (53.49 ± 10.73 per cent) than in females (58.50 ± 10.27 per cent; P < 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference in the amount of symmetry among facial thirds within each gender (P > 0.05). Average values of linear parameters were less than 1 mm and did not differ significantly between genders (P > 0.05). One angular parameter showed slight lip line asymmetry in both genders. Faces of male 15-year-old adolescents were less symmetric than those of females, but the difference in the amount of symmetry, albeit statistically significant, may not be clinically relevant. Upper, middle, and lower thirds of the face did not differ in the amount of three-dimensional symmetry. Angular and linear parameters of facial symmetry did not show any gender difference.


Assuntos
Face/anatomia & histologia , Adolescente , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos/anatomia & histologia , Cefalometria/métodos , Assimetria Facial/diagnóstico , Assimetria Facial/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Lasers , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais , Software
18.
Eur J Orthod ; 36(5): 497-505, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23041935

RESUMO

To investigate the feasibility of facial laser scanning in pre-school children and to demonstrate landmark-independent three-dimensional (3D) analyses for assessment of facial deformity in 5-year-old children with repaired non-syndromic unilateral cleft lip and/or cleft palate (UCL/P). Faces of twelve 5-year-old children with UCL/P (recruited from university hospitals in Cardiff and Swansea, UK) and 35 age-matched healthy children (recruited from a primary school in Cardiff) were laser scanned. Cleft deformity was assessed by comparing individual faces against the age and gender-matched average face of healthy children. Facial asymmetry was quantified by comparing original faces with their mirror images. All facial scans had good quality. In a group of six children with isolated cleft palate coincidence with the average norm ranged from 18.8 to 26.4 per cent. There was no statistically significant difference in facial asymmetry when compared with healthy children (P > 0.05). In a group of six children with UCL with or without cleft palate coincidence with the average norm ranged from 14.8 to 29.8 per cent. Forehead, midface and mandibular deficiencies were a consistent finding, ranging from 4 to 10mm. The amount of 3D facial asymmetry was higher in this group (P < 0.05). Facial laser scanning can be a suitable method for 3D assessment of facial morphology in pre-school children, provided children are well prepared. Landmark-independent methods of 3D analyses can contribute to understanding and quantification of facial soft tissue cleft deformity and be useful in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial/cirurgia , Fissura Palatina/cirurgia , Face , Assimetria Facial/diagnóstico , Lasers , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cefalometria/métodos , Pré-Escolar , Fenda Labial/patologia , Fissura Palatina/patologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Testa/patologia , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Masculino , Mandíbula/patologia
19.
Eur J Orthod ; 36(2): 133-9, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22492465

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate facial morphology in 25 Class III and 46 non-Class III children aged 5-6 years using three-dimensional (3D) laser imaging; 3D facial images were obtained, two average facial templates were constructed for the non-Class III male and female groups, each individual face was superimposed on the corresponding average template and group comparisons were evaluated (facial height, facial convexity, mandibular position and facial surface morphology). Differences between parameters were evaluated by using an analysis of variance and colour deviation maps. The results showed that Class III children had less mid-face prominence and a concave facial profile when compared to non-Class III children (P = 0.002 and P = 0.018). The position of the pg point in the z-axis just failed to reach statistical significance when comparing the two groups (P = 0.051). A vertical analysis showed no statistical significance between the groups, when evaluating middle (n-sn) and lower (sn-pg) facial height. Coincidence of the Class III faces to normal templates with a tolerance set as 0.5 mm was low (less than 30%). The soft tissue characteristics of a Class III face differ significantly from the non-Class III face in the mid-face region and in the facial profile. A 3D laser imaging method evaluated and identified morphological characteristics of Class III children in deciduous dentition, which could in the future become an important diagnostic tool in small children. The most important clinical advantage of this study is the non-invasiveness of the method.


Assuntos
Face/patologia , Má Oclusão de Angle Classe III/patologia , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos/patologia , Cefalometria/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Lasers , Masculino , Mandíbula/patologia
20.
Eur J Orthod ; 36(4): 431-5, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24062380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Facial asymmetry is very common in adult class III patients; however, the degree of facial asymmetry in growing class III subjects has been poorly investigated. Therefore, the aim was to assess the degree of facial asymmetry of growing class III subjects and to compare it with a sample of growing subjects without malocclusion, recorded using a three-dimensional laser scanning method and classified according to the dentition phase. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A group of 156 Caucasian subjects, 52 with class III malocclusion (28 females and 24 males) and 104 without malocclusion (control, 51 females and 53 males), with an overall mean age 6.7±1.4 years (range 4.3-10.3 years), were included. The subjects were further subdivided according to the presence of either primary or early/intermediate mixed dentitions. Facial asymmetry was assessed on three-dimensional surface facial images obtained using a laser scanning device in terms of mirrored face distances and percentages of asymmetry. Multivariate analyses were used to assess the differences among class III and control groups. RESULTS: Complete facial symmetry was not seen in any subject. No significant differences of facial asymmetry were observed between the class III and control groups, neither in the primary nor in the early/intermediate mixed dentition phases. LIMITATIONS: No conclusions about longitudinal changes in the degree of facial asymmetry among class III subjects could be drawn from the present cross-sectional study. CONCLUSIONS: Based on three-dimensional facial asymmetry analysis, class III subjects do not show clinically relevant facial asymmetry, at least during the pre-pubertal growth period.


Assuntos
Face/anormalidades , Assimetria Facial/congênito , Hiperplasia/patologia , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Má Oclusão de Angle Classe III/patologia , Cefalometria/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Dentição Mista , Face/patologia , Assimetria Facial/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Lasers , Masculino , Desenvolvimento Maxilofacial/fisiologia , Puberdade/fisiologia , Dente Decíduo
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