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1.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 172: 103639, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35192932

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Advanced stage malignant mesothelioma (asMM) patients have poor prognosis. Several trials investigated the role of programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) and its ligand 1 (PD-L1) immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in pre-treated asMM. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature of clinical trials testing single-agent anti PD-1/PD-L1 ICIs in pre-treated asMM was performed. Objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) data were extracted. The predictive role of PD-L1 was assessed. RESULTS: We selected 13 studies including 888 patients. ORR and DCR were 18.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 13.9-22.8%) and 55.4% (95% CI: 48.1-62.5%), respectively. Median PFS and OS ranged from 2.1 to 5.9 and from 6.7 to 20.9 months, respectively. ORR according to PD-L1 was 27.0% (95% CI: 18.7-36.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Anti-PD-(L)1 ICIs might be considered a treatment option for chemotherapy-resistant asMM, even if reliable predictive factors are still lacking.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Mesotelioma Maligno , Antígeno B7-H1 , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Mesotelioma Maligno/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1 , Intervalo Livre de Progressão
2.
Eur J Cancer ; 149: 49-60, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Trial designs using multiple primary endpoints (MPEs) are increasing in phase III cancer trials. Our objectives were to describe the incidence of MPEs in recently published phase III trials testing systemic treatments in patients with advanced cancer; the main characteristics of trials adopting MPEs; the presence of mature results for all endpoints in the primary publication; consistency between results of each endpoint and authors' conclusions. METHODS: Articles of randomised phase III trials conducted in patients with advanced cancer, published between 2017 and 2020, were retrieved from PubMed. The main outcome was the proportion of trials with MPEs. In principle, according to regulatory agencies, we considered two distinct cases: (i) MPEs correspond to 'multiple chances' for the success of experimental treatment, needing adjustment for multiplicity, and (ii) a positive result depends on the success in all MPEs ('co-primary' endpoints). RESULTS: Out of 235 eligible trials, 27 trials (12%) adopted MPE, mostly overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). The proportion of trials with MPEs increased over time, from 6% in 2017 to 20% in 2020 (p = 0.025). MPEs were adopted in 16% of for-profit trials versus 4% of non-profit trials (p = 0.006). The proportion of trials adopting MPEs was particularly high with immunotherapy (53%, p < 0.00001). Out of 27 trials with MPEs, 10 (37%) adopted an explicit definition of 'co-primary' endpoints, but only 1/10 declared the positivity of both endpoints critical for interpretation. Most trials (23, 85%) planned correction for multiplicity. Of 21 publications with positive conclusions, only 12 had a statistically significant positive result in both primary endpoints. In four cases (15%), positive conclusions were based on PFS results alone. CONCLUSIONS: Adoption of MPEs in randomised trials in oncology is quite common. Only a minority of trials respect recommendations by regulatory agencies about the adoption of MPEs, definition of 'co-primary' endpoints and correction for multiplicity.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Determinação de Ponto Final , Neoplasias/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Humanos , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Cancer Biother Radiopharm ; 36(5): 391-396, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769088

RESUMO

Background: The retrospective studies that have so far described the outcomes of the sequential use of life-prolonging agents (LPAs) did not include metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients who received radium-223 (223Ra) as part of their treatment. Consequently, it is not known whether including 223Ra in the therapeutic sequence has an impact on cumulative survival. The aim of this study was to evaluate this impact by comparing the cumulative overall survival (OS) in two series of mCRPC patients sequentially treated with two or three LPAs after first-line docetaxel (DOC), including 223Ra and not. Materials and Methods: The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of mCRPC patients with bone involvement alone who received two or three LPAs (including 223Ra) after first-line DOC. The control group was a contemporary series of mCRPC patients with bone involvement alone treated with sequences of two or three LPAs other than 223Ra after first-line DOC. Results: Median cumulative OS was 40.6 months in the 223Ra group of 78 patients and 36.2 months in the non-223Ra group of 186 patients (p = 0.08). OS outcomes were significantly influenced by the number of treatment lines, and baseline Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (PS) and prostate-specific antigen levels. Conclusions: To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first study designed to evaluate the impact of introducing 223Ra in the treatment sequences for mCRPC patients, and the results show that its use does not negatively affect cumulative OS.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ósseas/terapia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/terapia , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/uso terapêutico , Rádio (Elemento)/uso terapêutico , Acetato de Abiraterona/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Benzamidas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Terapia Combinada , Docetaxel/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitrilas/administração & dosagem , Feniltioidantoína/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Taxoides/administração & dosagem
4.
Eur J Cancer ; 146: 145-154, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine differentiation has been extensively associated with worse prognosis and to mechanisms of therapy resistance in several epithelial cancers. A high prevalence of neuroendocrine differentiation was recently described in V600EBRAF-mutated (BRAFmt) metastatic colorectal cancers (mCRCs) but no data are available about its prognostic impact in this setting. METHODS: We assessed synaptophysin immunohistochemical expression in a multi-institutional series of 159 BRAFmt mCRCs with matched clinical and pathological information. Tumours were dichotomized as synaptophysin high and low. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests. RESULTS: Thirty-five tumours (22.0%) showed any level of positivity for synaptophysin, and 18 (11.3%) were characterized by positivity in at least 20% of tumour cells. Four cases resulted 100% synaptophysin positive. The histotype of synaptophysin-positive tumours (i.e. ≥20%) was not otherwise specified in 11 cases (61.1%) and mucinous adenocarcinoma in 4 cases (22.2%). Four cases were DNA mismatch repair deficient (22.2%) and 7 (38.9%) were characterized by a high number of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes. At multivariate analysis, high synaptophysin expression was a negative independent prognostic factor for both PFS (HR = 2.00, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21-3.33, p = 0.006) and OS (HR = 2.27, 95% CI 1.35-3.85, p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Among BRAFmt mCRCs, synaptophysin-positive tumours are characterized by worse PFS and OS. Further studies should investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in the acquisition of the neuroendocrine phenotype to identify novel-targeted treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/patologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Mutação , Sinaptofisina/genética , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/genética , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/imunologia , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
5.
Future Oncol ; 17(7): 807-815, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33508980

RESUMO

Background: Radium 223 (RA223) is currently administered as part of a therapeutic sequence with the other life-prolonging agents (LPAs) for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Patients & methods: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of patients who had received at least three LPAs including RA223. Results: Median overall survival (OS) from the start of first-line treatment was 39.8 months, with the patients who completed all six planned courses of RA223 having a longer OS than those who did not (53.2 vs 29.5 months; p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Our study confirms the activity of RA223 regardless of the treatment line in which it is administered and suggests that patient selection plays a central role in maximizing this activity.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Ósseas/terapia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/terapia , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/administração & dosagem , Rádio (Elemento)/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Ósseas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Seguimentos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Seleção de Pacientes , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Recenti Prog Med ; 111(12): 740-748, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33362171

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Medical records are a relevant source for real-world evidence. We introduced patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in clinical practice, demonstrating a significant quality-of-life improvement, compared to usual visit. In this secondary analysis, we describe the agreement between patients' and physicians' reports of 5 symptoms. Our hypothesis was that adoption of PROs questionnaire could significantly improve the agreement. METHODS: Eligible patients were receiving active anti-cancer treatment. Patients in the control group underwent usual visits (group A), while patients of group B, before each visit, filled a PROs paper questionnaire, to provide information about symptoms and toxicities. No specific instructions were provided to physicians to integrate such information in medical records. Agreement between patient and physician evaluations was assessed by Cohen's κ, calculating under-reporting as proportion of toxicities reported by patients but not recorded by physicians. RESULTS: 211 patients (412 visits) have been analyzed. For all symptoms, Cohen's κ was better for group B: emesis (0.25 group A vs. 0.36 group B), diarrhea (0.16 vs. 0.57), constipation (0.07 vs. 0.28), pain (0.22 vs. 0.42), fatigue (0.03 vs. 0.08). For all symptoms, although under-reporting was relevant in both groups, it was lower for group B: emesis (75.49% vs. 60.0%, p=0.031), diarrhea (82.89% vs. 50.0%, p<0.001), constipation (92.11% vs. 69.57%, p<0.001), pain (59.57% vs. 42.31%, p=0.01), fatigue (82.11% vs. 64.10%, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Adoption of paper PROs allowed a significant reduction in under-reporting of symptoms, but agreement remained suboptimal. Direct integration of electronic PROs could minimize the issue of under-reporting of medical records, increasing their accuracy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Constipação Intestinal , Diarreia , Fadiga , Humanos , Registros Médicos , Neoplasias/terapia , Dor , Vômito
7.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 47(11): 2633-2638, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249345

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the fracture risk and survival outcomes in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) who received sequentially abiraterone acetate (AA) and radium 223 [223Ra]RaCl2 in the daily clinical practice. MATERIALS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of mCRPC patients who received [223Ra]RaCl2 immediately after progressing during an AA treatment line in everyday clinical practice. RESULTS: We reviewed data of a consecutive series of 94 mCRPC patients. Most of the patients (85.1%) received [223Ra]RaCl2 as second- or third-line treatment. [223Ra]RaCl2 treatment was well-tolerated; there were only four cases of grade 3 anaemia, two cases of grade 3 leukopenia and one case of grade 3 neutropenia. The overall fracture rate is 2.1%; one fracture was recorded during the course of [223Ra]RaCl2 treatment, and one was recorded 1 month after its end. The fractures both occurred at metastatic sites. Median OS from [223Ra]RaCl2 start was more than 14 months regardless of the treatment line when [223Ra]RaCl2 was administered. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study show that the treatment with [223Ra]RaCl2 immediately after AA was active and safe with a very low risk of a fracture. Thus, the present observational report makes a valuable contribution to the current debate concerning the risks and benefits of including [223Ra]RaCl2 in the therapeutic algorithm.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração , Rádio (Elemento) , Acetato de Abiraterona/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Rádio (Elemento)/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 146: 102877, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this study, our aim was to describe quality of life (QoL) prevalence and heterogeneity in QoL reporting in colorectal cancer phase III trials. METHODS: We included all phase III trials evaluating anticancer drugs in colorectal cancer patients published between 2012 and 2018 by 11 major journals. RESULTS: Out of the 67 publications identified, in 41 (61.2 %) QoL was not listed among endpoints. Out of 26 primary publications of trials including QoL among endpoints, QoL results were not reported in 10 (38.5 %). Overall, no QoL data were available in 51/67 (76.1 %) primary publications. In particular, in the metastatic setting, QoL data were not available in 12/18 (66.7 %) trials with primary endpoint overall survival, and in 20/29 (69.0 %) trials with other primary endpoints. CONCLUSIONS: QoL was absent in a high proportion of recently published phase III trials in colorectal cancer, even in trials of second or further lines, where attention to QoL should be particularly high.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Colo/psicologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Humanos , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Lung Cancer ; 139: 47-54, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734586

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We previously reported that quality of life (QoL) is not included among trial endpoints and QoL results are underreported in a significant proportion of phase III oncology trials. Here we describe QoL adoption, reporting and methodology of QoL analysis in lung cancer trials. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We selected all primary publications of lung cancer phase III trials assessing anticancer drugs published between 2012 and 2018 by 11 major journals. RESULTS: 122 publications were included. In 39 (32.0%) publications, QoL was not listed among endpoints: in 10/17 (58.8%) early stage/locally advanced NSCLC, in 15/54 (27.8%) first-line of advanced NSCLC; in 10/41 (24.4%) second and further lines of advanced NSCLC, in 4/10 (40.0%) SCLC. Proportion of trials not including QoL was similar over time: 32.9% publications in 2012-2015 vs. 30.6% in 2016-2018. Out of 83 trials including QoL among endpoints, QoL results were absent in 36 primary publications (43.4%). Proportion of trials without QoL results in primary publication increased over time (30.6% 2012-2015 vs. 61.8% 2016-2018, p = 0.005). Overall, QoL data were not available in 75/122 (61.5%) primary publications, due to the absent endpoint or unpublished results. QoL data were lacking in 48/68 (70.6%) publications of trials with overall survival as primary endpoint, 27/54 (50.0%) with other primary endpoints and 28/54 (51.9%) publications with a positive result. For trials including QoL among endpoints but lacking QoL results in primary publication, probability of secondary publication was 6.3%, 30.1% and 49.8% after 1, 2 and 3 years respectively, without evidence of improvement comparing 2012-2015 vs. 2016-2018. CONCLUSION: QoL is not assessed or published in many phase III lung cancer trials, a setting where QoL value should be highly considered, due to high symptom burden and generally limited life expectancy. Timely inclusion of results in primary publications is worsening in recent years.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
11.
In Vivo ; 33(6): 2021-2026, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Double diagnosis of lung cancer (LC) and ovarian cancer (OC) is rare. Here, we describe patients with synchronous/metachronous LC and OC to identify common clinical and pathological patterns. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Clinical, pathological and molecular data of patients diagnosed and treated at 30 European Institutions from 2008 to 2018 were retrieved and analysed. Whenever tissue was available, centralized pathology revision was performed. RESULTS: A total of 19 cases were found; one was excluded at pathology revision. Most LCs were adenocarcinomas (15/18) and most OCs were high-grade serous (15/18) carcinomas. Of the 9 patients analysed, 7 carried oncogene-addicted LC (4 EGFR, 1 B-RAF and 2 ALK) and five out of 7 carried BRCA mutations. One patient with a germline-BRCA1 mutation received olaparib, resulting in a durable response of both malignancies. Median overall survival was 33 months. CONCLUSION: In our series, most synchronous/metachronous LCs and OCs showed genetic alterations. Further analyses with wide NGS panel could shed light on the biological mechanisms driving their occurrence.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Carcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma/genética , Carcinoma/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Ftalazinas/uso terapêutico , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Br J Cancer ; 121(7): 593-599, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: V600EBRAF mutated metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is a subtype (10%) with overall poor prognosis, but the clinical experience suggests a great heterogeneity in survival. It is still unexplored the real distribution of traditional and innovative biomarkers among V600EBRAF mutated mCRC and which is their role in the improvement of clinical prediction of survival outcomes. METHODS: Data and tissue specimens from 155 V600EBRAF mutated mCRC patients treated at eight Italian Units of Oncology were collected. Specimens were analysed by means of immunohistochemistry profiling performed on tissue microarrays. Primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). RESULTS: CDX2 loss conferred worse OS (HR = 1.72, 95%CI 1.03-2.86, p = 0.036), as well as high CK7 expression (HR = 2.17, 95%CI 1.10-4.29, p = 0.026). According to Consensus Molecular Subtypes (CMS), CMS1 patients had better OS compared to CMS2-3/CMS4 (HR = 0.37, 95%CI 0.19-0.71, p = 0.003). Samples showing less TILs had worse OS (HR = 1.72, 95%CI 1.16-2.56, p = 0.007). Progression-free survival analyses led to similar results. At multivariate analysis, CK7 and CMS subgrouping retained their significant correlation with OS. CONCLUSION: The present study provides new evidence on how several well-established biomarkers perform in a homogenousV600EBRAF mutated mCRC population, with important and independent information added to standard clinical prognosticators. These data could be useful to inform further translational research, for patients' stratification in clinical trials and in routine clinical practice to better estimate patients' prognosis.


Assuntos
Fator de Transcrição CDX2/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Queratina-7/metabolismo , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise de Variância , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição CDX2/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Genes MCC , Humanos , Queratina-20/metabolismo , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Análise Serial de Tecidos
13.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 17(5): 332-347.e2, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416754

RESUMO

Quality of life (QoL) is not included among the end points in many studies, and QoL results are underreported in many phase 3 oncology trials. We performed a systematic review to describe QoL prevalence and heterogeneity in QoL reporting in recently published prostate cancer phase 3 trials. A PubMed search was performed to identify primary publications of randomized phase 3 trials testing anticancer drugs in prostate cancer, issued between 2012 and 2018. We analyzed QoL inclusion among end points, presence of QoL results, and methodology of QoL analysis. Seventy-two publications were identified (15 early-stage, 20 advanced hormone-sensitive, and 37 castration-resistant prostate cancer [CRPC]). QoL was not listed among study end points in 23 studies (31.9%) (40.0% early stage, 40.0% advanced hormone sensitive, and 24.3% CRPC). QoL results were absent in 15 (30.6%) of 49 primary publications of trials that included QoL among end points. Overall, as a result of absent end point or unpublished results, QoL data were lacking in 38 (52.8%) primary publications (53.3% early stage, 55.0% in advanced hormone sensitive, and 51.4% in CRPC). The most commonly used QoL tools were Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate (FACT-P) (21, 53.8%) and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) (14, 35.9%); most common methods of analysis were mean changes or mean scores (28, 71.8%), time to deterioration (14, 35.9%), and proportion of patients with response (10, 25.6%). In conclusion, QoL data are lacking in a not negligible proportion of recently published phase 3 trials in prostate cancer, although the presence of QoL results is better in positive trials, especially in CRPC. The methodology of QoL analysis is heterogeneous for type of instruments, analysis, and presentation of results.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/psicologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
14.
Support Care Cancer ; 27(12): 4697-4704, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30949832

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are the gold standard to describe subjective symptoms. Nurses can be successfully involved in collecting symptom information, because of their direct relationship with the patient. In order to improve clinical management of outpatients receiving active anti-cancer treatment, we introduced in routine clinical practice an assessment of patient-reported symptoms and toxicities, starting from January 2018. Our hypothesis was that this could help to better control symptoms, improving patients' quality of life (QoL). METHODS: Eligible patients were receiving an active anti-cancer treatment, as outpatients. Patients included in the control group (treated in 2017) underwent "usual" visits (group A), while patients treated in 2018, before each visit received a questionnaire by a dedicated nurse, in order to provide information about symptoms and toxicities (group B). Primary objective was the comparison of QoL changes, measured by EORTC QLQ-C30. RESULTS: A total of 211 patients have been analyzed (119 group A; 92 group B). After 1 month, mean change from baseline of global QoL was - 1.68 in group A and + 2.54 in group B (p = 0.004, effect size 0.20). Group B showed significantly better mean changes for fatigue, pain, and appetite loss. Proportion of patients obtaining a clinically significant improvement in global QoL score was higher in group B (32.6%) compared to group A (19.3%, p = 0.04). Patients' satisfaction with questionnaire was high. CONCLUSION: Introduction of PROs in clinical practice, thanks to an active role of nurses, was feasible, produced high patients' satisfaction and a significant QoL improvement, compared to the traditional modality of visit.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/terapia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anorexia/etiologia , Fadiga/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias/psicologia , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Dor/etiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Drugs Context ; 8: 212577, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31024634

RESUMO

For many years, sorafenib has been the only approved systemic treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). For over a decade, randomized controlled trials exploring the efficacy of new drugs both in first- and second-line treatment have failed to prove any survival benefit. However, in the past few years, several advances have been made especially in pretreated patients; phase III trials of regorafenib, cabozantinib, and ramucirumab in patients with elevated α-fetoprotein have demonstrated efficacy in patients progressing after or intolerant to sorafenib. In addition, early phase I and II trials have shown promising results of immunotherapy alone or in combination with tyrosine-kinase inhibitors or monoclonal antibodies in the same setting of patients. In this review, we will discuss the evidence on second-line options for HCC, focusing on the latest results that are currently refining the treatment scenario.

16.
Onco Targets Ther ; 11: 7353-7368, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30425524

RESUMO

The new-generation hormonal agent enzalutamide has been approved for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), in both post- and predocetaxel setting, due to the significant improvement in overall survival. More recently, enzalutamide also showed impressive results in the treatment of men with nonmetastatic CRPC. Unfortunately, not all patients with CRPC are responsive to enzalutamide, and even in responders, benefits are limited by the development of drug resistance. Adaptive resistance of metastatic prostate cancer to enzalutamide treatment can be due to the activation of both androgen receptor (AR)-dependent pathways (expression of constitutively active AR splice variants, AR point mutations, gene amplification and overexpression) and mechanisms independent of AR signaling pathway (altered steroidogenesis, upregulation of the glucocorticoid receptor, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, neuroendocrine transformation, autophagy and activation of the immune system). In this review, we focus on resistance mechanisms to enzalutamide, exploring how we could overcome them through novel therapeutic options.

17.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 69: 215-223, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30096699

RESUMO

In the last few years, immune checkpoint inhibitors have been extensively investigated in renal cell carcinoma and led to remarkable results. Radiation therapy may increase the activity of immune modulating agents through different mechanisms, priming the immune system, recruiting immune cells to the tumor environment, and altering the immunosuppressive effects of the tumor microenvironment. Preclinical studies reported increased loco-regional control when radiation is combined with immune-checkpoint blockade. Moreover, increased systemic disease control has been demonstrated when local radiation is combined with both anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors. Actually, several trials are ongoing testing the activity of radiation therapy in combination with different immune-modulating agents for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. The aim of this paper is to focus on the biological rationale of adding radiation therapy to immune-modulating agents in renal cell carcinoma and to review the currently available clinical evidence about the combination of radiotherapy and immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/radioterapia , Radioterapia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Prognóstico
18.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 129: 124-132, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30097230

RESUMO

Immunotherapy represents a new hope for patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma (UC). However, to date, only one of two randomized studies showed a clear survival advantage with these treatments. Aimed to investigate the role of immune-checkpoint inhibitors in patients with platinum progressed metastatic UC we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials to evaluate the efficacy and activity, in terms of Overall Survival (OS) and Objective Response Rate (ORR). Immune checkpoint inhibitors have showed to improve OS compared to chemotherapy in unselected patients (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.69-0.93, p = 0.003), while the difference was not significant in patients selected for PD-L1 expression (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.48-1.09, p = 0.12). Pooled probability of response was 0.18 (95% CI 0.16-0.20) in unselected patients and 0.27 (95% CI 0.25-0.32) in PD-L1 selected patients. Immunotherapy results in a significant survival advantage in PD-L1 unselected patients suggesting that PD-L1 expression may not be a reliable marker in previously platinum treated patients.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Urológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Urológicas/secundário , Humanos
20.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 16(4): 318-324, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29866495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neutropenia is a common side effect associated with docetaxel use. We retrospectively investigated the association between chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and survival in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients receiving first-line docetaxel. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients treated with first-line docetaxel, with known neutrophils value 10 days after first administration, were included in this retrospective analysis. Neutropenia was categorized in Grade 0 to 1 (G0-1), Grade 2 to 3 (G2-3), and Grade 4 (G4). Outcome measures were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Eighty patients were analyzed. Median PFS was 5.4 months in patients with G0-1 neutropenia, 6.9 months with G2-3 neutropenia (hazard ratio [HR] vs. G0-1, 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.35-1.35; P = .27) and 9.5 months with G4 neutropenia (HR vs. G0-1, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.16-0.57; P < .0001). Median OS was 11.6 months in patients with G0-1 neutropenia, 25.5 months in patients with G2-3 neutropenia (HR vs. G0-1, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.16-0.80; P = .012) and 39.3 months in patients with G4 neutropenia (HR vs. G0-1, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.09-0.41; P < .0001). In multivariate analysis, the occurrence of severe neutropenia showed a statistically significant association with OS (HR G4 vs. G0-1, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.03-0.67; P = .013; HR G2-3 vs. G0-1, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.11-1.57; P = .20) and PFS (HR G4 vs. G0-1, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.09-0.86; P = .03; HR G2-3 vs. G0-1, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.38-2.96; P = .90). CONCLUSION: Docetaxel-induced neutropenia is associated with better survival of mCRPC.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Docetaxel/administração & dosagem , Neutropenia/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Docetaxel/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
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