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1.
Body Image ; 33: 90-100, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151993

RESUMO

There are a number of studies that have conducted comparisons of body appreciation between males and females. However, findings are largely inconsistent, making it unclear whether there are actual gender differences in body appreciation. With a meta-analytic approach, the current study quantitatively reviewed and synthesized previous findings, published up to May 2019, on gender differences in body appreciation. After searching and screening potential studies in four databases (i.e., PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global), we identified 40 relevant articles published from 2008 to 2019. A random-effects model reveals an overall estimate of gender difference in body appreciation of d = 0.27 (95 % CI: 0.21, 0.33; p <  .001); that is, males generally have a higher level of body appreciation than females, with a small effect size. Survey method, type of sample (cohorts), and age were identified as significant moderators that have contributed to the variability in previous findings. Future research and interventions in body appreciation may consider gender differences in their designs.

2.
J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol ; : 1-13, 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32189525

RESUMO

Objective: Selective or "picky" eating (SE) refers to rejection of a wide range of familiar and unfamiliar foods based on aversions to their sensory properties. When severe, SE can cause symptoms of avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID), including weight loss, nutritional deficiencies, and/or psychosocial impairment. SE is highly prevalent in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to both typical development and other developmental disorders. A possible explanation for the high prevalence of SE in ASD is the effect of core ASD symptoms, repetitive/restrictive behaviors (e.g., rigidity), and sensory sensitivity on feeding behaviors. These traits are found not only in ASD but also in other clinical groups and the general population, albeit often at subclinical levels. Identifying mechanisms of SE across various populations is critical to inform intervention approaches.Methods: In 263 unselected children ages 5-17, 534 unselected college students ages 18-22, 179 children with anxiety/obsessive spectrum disorders ages 5-17, and 185 children with ASD ages 4-17, we explored the unique contributions of sensory (i.e., oral texture and olfactory) sensitivities and rigidity as predictors of self/parent-reported SE.Results: In each sample, rigidity and oral texture sensitivity, controlling for olfactory sensitivity, age, and gender, emerged as significant, independent predictors of SE.Conclusions: This is the first study to highlight the importance of cognitive/behavioral rigidity to SE, and one of the first to illustrate the domain-specificity of the relationship between sensory sensitivity and SE.

3.
Int J Eat Disord ; 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31998999

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Picky eating (PE) is common across the lifespan and related to psychosocial impairment and limited dietary variety. However, research about PE in non-Western countries is limited. Because eating behaviors may differ by culture, operationalizing PE in non-Western countries (e.g., China) is needed. The present study aimed to replicate two previous studies identifying PE profiles in Western countries by using latent profile analysis (LPA) to classify and characterize adults reporting picky eating in a Chinese sample. METHOD: A sample of 1,068 Chinese young adults completed a battery of questionnaires including the adult eating behavior questionnaire (AEBQ). LPA was utilized to identify eating profiles. The three-step approach was used to examine predictors of latent memberships and profile differences on various self-reported measures. RESULTS: The best fit was a four-profile solution, with two picky eating profiles emerging: picky eating and severe picky eating. Compared to those in the other two profiles, participants in the picky eating profile (19.4%) and severe picky eating profile (3.3%) had significantly higher scores on self-reported eating disorder symptoms and psychological distress, and lower scores on self-reported food-related life satisfaction. Relative to the picky eating profile, participants in the severe picky eating profile reported significantly greater self-reported eating disorder symptoms, psychological distress, and food-related dissatisfaction. DISCUSSION: Characterizing PE profiles is an important step toward understanding eating behaviors among Chinese young adults. Identifying various eating profiles has implications for future research related to PE, including the development of diagnostic tools and interventions to address PE in a Chinese context.

5.
Obes Surg ; 30(2): 603-611, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Weight loss after bariatric surgery is largely predicted by adherence to diet and lifestyle changes. There is no validated measure of self-reported adherence to a range of behaviors including self-monitoring, portion control, healthy food choice, and awareness of hunger and satiety. OBJECTIVES: The goal of the present study was to develop and provide initial evidence for the validity of the Weight Management Skills Questionnaire, a measure of adherence to these changes, by identifying its factor structure and relating the total score and subscale scores to baseline BMI, weight change during a preoperative education program, dysregulated eating, and binge eating disorder (BED). SETTING: University hospital, USA. METHODS: Four hundred twenty-two bariatric surgery candidates responded the WMSQ and measures of eating behavior. Weight collected at the beginning, midpoint, and end of the presurgical program was used to compute percent total weight loss (%TWL) prior to surgery. Hierarchical factor analysis was used to explore the factor structure of the WMSQ while allowing the items to load onto a single general factor reflecting overall adherence to behavioral weight management. RESULTS: The WMSQ has three interpretable subfactors, with all items loading onto the general factor. All scales were unrelated to starting BMI; total score and subfactors measuring general and bariatric-specific weight management skills were associated with %TWL. The scale measuring hunger/satiety responsiveness was negatively related to dysregulated eating/BED. CONCLUSIONS: The WMSQ may be a useful tool in future research exploring the key weight management skills associated with successful weight loss before and after bariatric surgery.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794677

RESUMO

Objectives: In clinical trials of pediatric trichotillomania (TTM), three instruments are typically employed to rate TTM severity: (1) the Massachusetts General Hospital Hair Pulling Scale (MGH-HPS), (2) the National Institute of Mental Health Trichotillomania Severity Scale (NIMH-TSS), and (3) the Trichotillomania Scale for Children (TSC). These instruments lack standardized definitions of treatment response, which lead researchers to determine their own definitions of response post hoc and potentially inflate results. We performed a meta-analysis to provide empirically determined accuracy measures for percentage reduction cut points in these three instruments. Methods: MEDLINE was searched for TTM clinical trials. A total of 67 studies were initially identified, but only 5 were clinical trials focused on TTM in pediatric populations and therefore were included in this meta-analysis (n = 180). A Clinical Global Impressions Improvement score ≤2 was used to define clinical response. Receiver operating characteristic principles were employed to determine accuracy measures for percentage reduction cut points on each one of the instruments. Meta-DiSc software was employed to provide pooled accuracy measures for each cut point for each instrument. The Youden Index and the distance to corner methods were used to determine the optimal cut point. Results: The optimal cut points to determine treatment response were a 45% reduction on the MGH-HPS (Youden Index 0.40, distance to corner 0.20), a 35% reduction on the NIMH-TSS (Youden Index 0.42, distance to corner 0.17), a 25% reduction on the TSC child version (TSC-C; Youden Index 0.40, distance to corner 0.18), and a 45% (distance to corner 0.30) or 50% reduction (Youden Index 0.33) on the TSC parent version (TSC-P). The TSC-C had less discriminative ability at determining response in younger children in comparison to older children; no age-related differences were observed on the TSC-P. Conclusions: This study provides empirically determined cut points of treatment response on three instruments that rate TTM severity. These data-driven cut points will benefit future research on pediatric TTM.

7.
Assessment ; : 1073191119864642, 2019 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328547

RESUMO

The current study examined the factor structure, measurement reliability, measurement invariance across genders, and latent gender mean differences, of a new Chinese translation of the Adult Eating Behavior Questionnaire (C-AEBQ) in a Chinese young adult sample (n = 1,068, 52.57% women). The associations between the appetitive traits assessed by the AEBQ and body mass index were also explored. The previously established eight-factor model of the AEBQ was supported in the present sample. The C-AEBQ had strong measurement invariance between genders. Cronbach's alpha estimates of the eight subscales of the C-AEBQ ranged from 0.76 to 0.97, and the test-retest reliability coefficients of the subscales ranged from 0.50 to 0.77. The C-AEBQ had adequate convergent and divergent validity, as supported by the theoretically expected correlations between C-AEBQ and the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire. Furthermore, Satiety Responsiveness, Slowness in Eating, and Food Fussiness were inversely associated with body mass index. Overall, the C-AEBQ appears to be a psychometrically sound instrument as a comprehensive measure for appetitive traits for Chinese young adults.

8.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 15(8): 1374-1379, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eleven percent of households in the United States experience food insecurity, which is a lack of access to adequate, desirable food for a healthy lifestyle. Although food insecurity is associated with increased risk of obesity and nonadherence to dietary management of chronic diseases such as diabetes, the correlates of food insecurity have not yet been studied in a bariatric surgery population. OBJECTIVES: To replicate, in a bariatric sample, previous findings that food insecurity is related to eating pathology and to test the hypothesis that this relationship is mediated by depressive symptoms. SETTING: University hospital, United States. METHODS: Two hundred forty bariatric surgery candidates responded to self-report measures of food insecurity and mood, night-eating, and binge-eating symptoms. The sample was 74% female and 71% white, with a mean age of 41.09 (11.84) years. Based on responses to the United States Department of Agriculture Adult Food Security Survey Model, 15.8% were categorized as food insecure and 25.8% as marginally food secure. Multiple regression models with bootstrapping for confidence interval estimates were used to explore mediation hypotheses. RESULTS: Food insecurity was positively associated with symptoms of night eating and binge eating, and these relationships were cross-sectionally mediated by depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Food insecure bariatric candidates may be at increased risk of poorer postoperative outcomes because of lack of access to needed food and the detrimental mental health impact of this lack of access.

9.
Public Health Nutr ; 22(15): 2756-2765, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213214

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence and demographic characteristics of food insecurity in a presurgical bariatric population. To date there has been no research on food insecurity in a presurgical bariatric population. DESIGN: Participants completed the ten-item adult food security survey module created by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), with additional questions related to food shopping behaviours and perceived affordability of post-bariatric supplements. USDA scoring guidelines were used to classify participants as food secure, marginally food secure and food insecure. SETTING: Academic medical centre bariatric surgery clinic in Central Pennsylvania, USA. PARTICIPANTS: Adult bariatric surgery candidates (n 174). RESULTS: There was a prevalence of 17·8 % for food insecurity and 27·6 % for marginal food security. Food insecurity was associated with younger age, higher BMI, non-White race/ethnicity, having less than a college education, living in an urban area, receiving Medicaid/Medicare and participating in nutrition assistance programmes. Food-insecure participants endorsed food shopping behaviours that could interfere with postsurgical dietary adherence and perceived post-bariatric supplies as unaffordable or inaccessible. CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight the importance of screening bariatric surgical patients for food insecurity. Further study of this important problem within the bariatric population should address effects of food insecurity and related shopping behaviours on postsurgical outcomes and inform the development of programmes to better assist these high-risk patients.

10.
Eat Behav ; 33: 78-84, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005684

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to translate, modify, and validate the Adult Picky Eating Questionnaire (APEQ) for use in China. METHODS: Based on standard procedures, the APEQ was translated into Chinese. Four items were added in the final Chinese version of the APEQ (C-APEQ). For testing the psychometric properties of the C-APEQ, a total of 1069 participants (17-24 years; 52.57% women) were recruited from two universities in mainland China. RESULTS: Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis supported the previous four-factor structure of the APEQ. Findings also showed that the C-APEQ had adequate internal consistency (α = 0.874) and test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.778). The C-APEQ demonstrated strong measurement invariance across gender. Furthermore, the C-APEQ composite score presented positive and significant correlations with eating disturbance, psychological distress, and psychological inflexibility. It also showed a negative and significant correlation with food-related life satisfaction. CONCLUSION: Findings suggested that the Chinese version of the APEQ demonstrated sound psychometric properties. Thus, the C-APEQ can be a useful tool in future studies to accurately assess picky eating among adult population and explore the relationships between picky eating and other physical and psychological outcomes in a Chinese context.


Assuntos
Psicometria/métodos , Traduções , Adolescente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , China , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tradução , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
11.
Int J Eat Disord ; 52(4): 402-409, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30632634

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify potential presentations of avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) in a pediatric eating disorder partial hospitalization program (PHP) based on the nature of the eating restriction leading to core symptoms of ARFID. METHOD: A retrospective chart review of 83 patients ages 8-17 admitted to a PHP and diagnosed with ARFID. Charts were independently reviewed by two coders, with high inter-rater agreement (κ = 0.77). Distinct categories were identified and groups were compared on demographics, anthropometrics, comorbid psychopathology, and core ARFID symptoms. RESULTS: We identified cases characterized by predominantly selective eating based on aversions to the sensory properties of foods, lack of interest in eating/low appetite, and fear of aversive consequences from eating. We also distinguished a subset of patients with eating restrictions consistent with both selectivity and limited interest/appetite. The four primary ARFID presentation groups differed on core ARFID criteria, symptom trajectory and illness duration, mood and medical comorbidities, age, gender, and parent-reported symptoms of psychopathology. DISCUSSION: The present findings suggest that there are diagnostically meaningful ARFID subtypes that can be differentiated based on the nature of their eating restrictions, as well as other demographic, illness history features, and psychiatric comorbidity. As treatments for youth with ARFID are developed and refined, it will be important to take into consideration not only demographic differences, but also the variability in symptoms, as this might require distinct interventions and levels of care. Additionally, differing mechanisms that maintain different types of eating restrictions might necessitate unique psychological and psychiatric interventions.


Assuntos
Medicina do Adolescente/métodos , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Int J Eat Disord ; 52(4): 367-377, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30636013

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) has existed since the publication of DSM-5 in 2013, research on the descriptive psychopathology of treatment-seeking patients with formal ARFID diagnoses is sparse, and limited to tertiary eating disorder-focused treatment settings where most patients present with weight loss/malnutrition. In these settings, the selective/neophobic symptom presentation is rare compared to other primary eating restrictions. We aimed provide initial descriptive psychopathology of ARFID primary selective/neophobic symptom presentation in an outpatient setting, and to explore the prevalence of the core ARFID symptoms and clinical differences among patients meeting criteria based on weight/nutritional symptoms versus psychosocial impairment only. METHOD: We reviewed the charts of 22 consecutive outpatients diagnosed with ARFID caused by selective/neophobic eating, and describe symptoms, impairment, illness trajectory, and demographic features. Patients who met ARFID criteria because of weight loss/nutritional problems were compared to those who met for psychosocial impairment only on demographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: Patients were predominantly male (81.8%) and school-aged (4-11 years). 81.8% had no weight/nutritional symptoms documented by a medical provider. All met criteria for significant psychosocial impairment. There were few differences between patients who did versus did not meet weight loss/nutritional criteria for ARFID; they differed only in age and in the presence of appetite disturbances consistent with another proposed presentation of ARFID. DISCUSSION: These results provide novel data on the clinical characteristics of individuals who present with a primary presentation of selective/neophobic ARFID, including support for psychosocial impairment as sufficient for fulfilling ARFID criterion A.


Assuntos
Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Appetite ; 134: 40-49, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30543837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Orthorexia nervosa (ON) is characterized by obsessions about eating healthily and rigid adherence to a perceived healthy diet. This study uses the Eating Habits Questionnaire to investigate the relationship of ON symptoms with self-reported food intake, eating-related impairment, obsessive compulsive disorder symptoms (OCD), gender, and BMI while controlling for other eating disordered symptoms. The aim of this study is to provide further evidence for the construct of ON as distinct from other forms of disordered eating. METHODS: The sample consisted of 449 adults recruited on Amazon's Mechanical Turk. Self-reported symptoms of currently recognized eating disorders (anorexia and bulimia nervosa, AN/BN, avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder, ARFID) were statistically controlled in correlational analyses and MANCOVA exploring the relationship of ON domains to comorbidity, eating behavior, gender, and weight. RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analysis supported a three-factor solution for the EHQ, with factors representing normative healthy eating behaviors ("behaviors"), positive feelings associated with healthy eating ("feelings"), and interference/problems from rigid healthy eating ("problems"). Overall ON symptoms were more strongly related to AN/BN than to ARFID. Of the subscales, only Problems was related to other eating disorder symptomatology. Controlling for other eating disorder symptoms, overall ON symptomatology was not related to clinical impairment from eating or OCD, although it was related to higher self-reported intake of fruits/vegetables and lower intake of discretionary foods. When other eating disordered symptoms and ON domains were statistically controlled, Problems was related to clinical eating impairment, OCD symptoms, and higher intake of both fruits/vegetables and discretionary foods. CONCLUSIONS: The Problems scale of the EHQ appears to capture disordered eating symptomatology that is distinct from other eating disorders and from normative healthy eating behaviors, consistent with descriptions of ON.

14.
Eur Eat Disord Rev ; 27(1): 97-104, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30039633

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to validate the Adult Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (AEBQ), a measure of food approach and avoidant traits, for use in bariatric surgery candidates. Participants were 337 bariatric surgery candidates in the Mid-Atlantic United States. Confirmatory factor analysis suggested that one item did not load onto its original factor. A 34-item, eight-factor model had better fit than a seven-factor model; dropping the Hunger factor, as previously suggested, did not improve fit. The factors had good internal consistency and showed convergent/divergent validity with an existing measure of food approach traits. The emotional overeating scale was positively correlated with BMI at programme entry, whereas the slow eating scale was negatively correlated with baseline weight. The AEBQ scales had the same pattern of intercorrelations and similar means to those of two previously published samples. The AEBQ is a valid measure of appetitive traits in bariatric candidates.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
15.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 15(1): 109, 2018 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30400944

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Research has indicated that adult picky eating (PE) is associated with elevated psychosocial impairment and limited dietary variety and fruit and vegetable intake; however, research operationalizing PE behaviors is limited. Previous research identified a PE profile in children, marked by high food avoidance (satiety responsiveness, fussiness, and slow eating) and low food approach (food enjoyment and responsiveness) appetitive traits. The present study aimed to replicate a similar latent eating behavior profile in an adult sample. METHODS: A sample of 1339 US adults recruited through Amazon's MTurk completed an online survey that included a modified self-report version of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ-A). Latent profile analysis was employed to identify eating profiles using the CEBQ-A subscales, ANCOVAs were employed to examine profile differences on various self-report measures, and eating profiles were compared across BMI classifications. RESULTS: Analyses converged on a four-profile solution, and a picky eater profile that closely resembled the past child profile emerged. Participants in the picky eater profile (18.1%) scored higher on measures of adult PE and social eating anxiety compared to all other profiles, scored higher on eating-related impairment and depression than moderate eating profiles, and were more likely to be of normal weight. DISCUSSION: A distinct adult PE profile was observed, indicating childhood PE and appetitive behaviors may carry over into adulthood. Research identifying meaningful groups of picky eaters will help to shed light on the conditions under which picky eating is a risk factor for significant psychosocial impairment or distress, or weight-related problems.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/complicações , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/psicologia , Dieta/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/complicações , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
16.
Appetite ; 128: 333-339, 2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29928938

RESUMO

This study explores the relationships among anxiety, sensitivity to sensory stimuli, and picky eating (PE). An earlier study in 95 children ages 5-10 found that sensory sensitivity fully mediated the relationship between anxiety and picky eating. We replicated this finding in a sample of 158 children, ages 8-17, and in 813 young adult college students. As in the previous child sample, the relationship between anxiety and picky eating appears to be mediated by sensory sensitivity. This relationship extends into adolescence and young adulthood and holds even in a sample of children with obsessive-compulsive-spectrum and anxiety disorders. However, there may be developmental differences in the relationship between sensory sensitivity and PE; the magnitude of this relationship was significantly greater for children than young adults. Although there was a trend towards a stronger relationship in a subsample of young adults with high anxiety, the effect was still smaller than that observed in children, suggesting that this difference is developmental and not completely driven by higher anxiety in the child sample. Sensory sensitivity is a candidate mechanism of picky eating, although the cross-sectional nature of this study means that we cannot address whether it is an etiological or maintaining mechanism, or both. Implications for behavioral treatment of picky eating in clinically anxious and non-clinical samples are discussed.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Eat Behav ; 30: 5-8, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29751192

RESUMO

Picky eating (PE) may be an important individual-level factor related to fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption in adulthood. Past studies showing negative relationships between Adult PE and F&V servings and variety have been limited by measurement issues. The purpose of the present study was replicate these relationships in college students using a well-validated F&V screener and comprehensive measure of adult PE. 1219 college students completed an online survey which included measures of adult PE, F&V daily servings, F&V variety, and other eating behaviors. Partial correlations were calculated, controlling for demographic factors and traditional disordered eating behavior, between the variables of interest. Factor analysis was also utilized to confirm the factor structure of the Adult Picky Eating Questionnaire (APEQ) in a college sample. Partial correlations revealed significant negative relationships between PE and measures of F&V servings and variety. Factor analysis confirmed the utility of the APEQ in a college sample. College students who reported higher levels of PE behaviors and attitudes were more likely to eat less fruits and vegetables, and reported lower F&V variety. Given that F&V servings and variety are related to adequate nutrient intake, and greater F&V consumption is a protective factor against chronic disease risk, the rigid inflexible eating patterns associated with adult PE should be further explored in future research aimed at increasing F&V consumption.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Preferências Alimentares , Frutas , Estudantes/psicologia , Verduras , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
18.
Appetite ; 126: 36-42, 2018 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29496603

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore selective eating in two samples: young adults and their middle aged parents, including the relationship between food neophobia and picky eating in each, resemblance between children and parents in these eating behaviors, agreement between child self-report and parent report on children's eating, and the relationship between parent eating behavior and parent-report on children's eating. We also explored the relationship between socioeconomic status and picky eating and food neophobia in each sample. METHOD: University students responded to questionnaires assessing picky eating and food neophobia. Their parents were contacted and asked to complete the same measure about their own picky- and food neophobic behaviors and to report on their child's current picky eating and food neophobia. The final sample included 109 biological parent-child pairs. RESULTS: There were large positive correlations between food neophobia and picky eating in both samples. There were positive associations between parents' and children's self-reported selective eating behaviors. There was evidence of parent-child agreement in reporting on the child's selective eating, but also considerable variability between raters. This variability between child self-report and parent report was partially accounted for by parental selective eating. Finally, young adults from a lower-SES background (e.g., lower parent educational attainment and income) reported higher levels of pickiness and food neophobia. CONCLUSIONS: Young adult children and their parents resemble each other in pickiness and food neophobia.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento de Escolha , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
Appetite ; 125: 1-9, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29378295

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Adult picky eating (PE) has received increased attention in the eating behavior literature due to its important association with adult avoidant-restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID). The current study tested a model of potential risk factors of adult PE behavior, including perceived early parental feeding practices. An exploratory model was also utilized to understand associations with different aspects of adult PE behaviors. METHODS: A sample of 1339 US adults recruited through Amazon's MTurk completed an online survey that included the recently developed Adult Picky Eating Questionnaire (APEQ), retrospective reports of parental feeding practices, and other measures of eating behavior and demographic variables. A structural equation modeling procedure tested a series of regression models that included BMI and disordered eating behaviors as covariates. RESULTS: SEM modeling indicated that retrospective reports of greater parental pressure to eat, higher disgust sensitivity, lower PE age of onset, and experiencing an aversive food event were associated with general adult PE behavior. Results also indicated parental encouragement of healthy eating may be a protective factor, and that men endorsed higher levels of adult PE. Exploratory analyses indicated that cross-sectional predictors and covariates were differentially related to specific aspects of PE as measured by the APEQ subscales. CONCLUSIONS: Early experiences, including parental approaches to feeding, appear to be potential risk factors of PE behavior in adults. A nuanced understanding of adult PE is important for the prevention and treatment of severe PE behaviors, related psychosocial impairment, and ARFID.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/etiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
20.
Appetite ; 123: 32-42, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29208483

RESUMO

Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) is an eating or feeding disorder characterized by inadequate nutritional or caloric intake leading to weight loss, nutritional deficiency, supplement dependence, and/or significant psychosocial impairment. DSM-5 lists three different eating patterns that can lead to symptoms of ARFID: avoidance of foods due to their sensory properties (e.g., picky eating), poor appetite or limited interest in eating, or fear of negative consequences from eating. Research on the prevalence and psychopathology of ARFID is limited by the lack of validated instruments to measure these eating behaviors. The present study describes the development and validation of the nine-item ARFID screen (NIAS), a brief multidimensional instrument to measure ARFID-associated eating behaviors. Participants were 455 adults recruited on Amazon's Mechanical Turk, 505 adults recruited from a nationally-representative subject pool, and 311 undergraduates participating in research for course credit. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provided evidence for three factors. The NIAS subscales demonstrated high internal consistency, test-retest reliability, invariant item loadings between two samples, and convergent/discriminant validity with other measures of picky eating, appetite, fear of negative consequences, and psychopathology. The scales were also correlated with measures of ARFID-like symptoms (e.g., low BMI, low fruit/vegetable variety and intake, and eating-related psychosocial interference/distress), although the picky eating, appetite, and fear scales had distinct independent relationships with these constructs. The NIAS is a brief, reliable instrument that may be used to further investigate ARFID-related eating behaviors.


Assuntos
Dieta/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Prevalência , Psicopatologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
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