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1.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 46(4): e20192171, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644719

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the influence of the splenic flexure mobilization for the main surgical outcomes of patients submitted to resection of sigmoid and rectal cancer. METHODS: we searched the MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and LILACS, using the terms "splenic flexure mobilization", "colorectal surgery", "rectal cancer", "anterior resection", "sigmoid colon cancer", and "sigmoid resection". The main outcome was anastomotic dehiscence. Other outcomes analyzed were mortality, bleeding, infection and general complications. We estimated the effect sizes by grouping data from six case-control studies (1,433 patients) published until January 2018. RESULTS: our meta-analysis showed that patients undergoing complete mobilization of the splenic flexure had a higher risk of anastomotic dehiscence (RR=2.27, 95%CI: 1.22-4.23) compared with those not submitted to this procedure. There was no difference between the groups in terms of mortality, bleeding, infection and general complications. CONCLUSION: splenic flexure mobilization is associated with a higher risk of anastomotic dehiscence in resections of sigmoid and rectal cancer. This surgical maneuver should be used with caution in the surgical management of sigmoid or rectal cancers.


Assuntos
Colectomia/métodos , Protectomia/métodos , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Neoplasias do Colo Sigmoide/cirurgia , Colectomia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Protectomia/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Clin Oral Investig ; 23(4): 1499-1512, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30767069

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A systematic review and a network meta-analysis were performed to answer the following research question: "Is there any light-activation protocol capable of improving color change efficacy when associated with an in-office bleaching gel in adults?" MATERIAL AND METHODS: A search was performed in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, LILACS, BBO, Cochrane Library, and SIGLE without date and/or language restrictions in April 23, 2017 (updated on March 30, 2018). IADR abstracts (1990-2018), unpublished and ongoing trial registries, dissertations, and theses were also searched. Only randomized clinical trials conducted in adults that included at least one group treated with in-office dental bleaching with light activation were included. The risk of bias (RoB) was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration tool. A random-effects Bayesian-mixed treatment comparison (MTC) model was used to combine light-activated versus light-free in-office bleaching with direct light-free comparison trials. A meta-analysis with independent analysis (high- and low-concentrate hydrogen peroxide [HP]) was conducted for color change (∆E*, ∆SGU). RESULTS: After the removal of duplicates, title, and abstract screening, 28 studies remained. Nine were considered to be at a low RoB, five were at a high RoB, and the remaining were at an unclear RoB. The MTC analysis showed no significant difference in color change (ΔE* and ΔSGU) between light-activation protocols and light-free in-office bleaching, regardless of the HP concentration in the efficacy of the bleaching. CONCLUSION: No type of light-activated in-office bleaching was superior to light-free in-office bleaching for both high- and low-concentrate in-office bleaching gels (PROSPERO-CRD42017078743). CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Although many times dental professionals use "laser whitening" as a form of marketing, this study confirmed that no type of light-activation for in-office bleaching can improve the bleaching efficacy.

3.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 46(4): e20192171, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1041126

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar a influência da mobilização da flexura esplênica nos principais resultados cirúrgicos de pacientes submetidos à ressecção de câncer do cólon sigmoide ou reto. Métodos: os bancos de dados MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register de Ensaios Controlados e LILACS foram pesquisados usando os termos "mobilização da flexura esplênica", "cirurgia colorretal", "câncer retal", "ressecção anterior", "câncer de cólon sigmoide", "ressecção de sigmoide". O desfecho principal foi a deiscência da anastomose. Outros desfechos analisados foram mortalidade, sangramento, infecção e complicações gerais. Os tamanhos dos efeitos foram estimados por meio do agrupamento dos dados de seis estudos de caso-controle (1.433 pacientes) publicados até janeiro de 2018. Resultados: nossa meta-análise revelou que pacientes submetidos à mobilização completa da flexura esplênica tinham um risco maior de deiscência anastomótica (RR=2,27, IC95%: 1,22-4,23) em comparação àqueles não submetidos a esse procedimento. Nenhuma diferença pôde ser demonstrada entre os grupos em termos de mortalidade, sangramento, infecção e complicações gerais. Conclusão: a mobilização da flexura esplênica está associada a um maior risco de deiscência anastomótica nas ressecções de câncer de reto ou cólon sigmoide. Esta manobra cirúrgica deve ser utilizada com cautela no manejo cirúrgico dos tumores colorretais.


ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the influence of the splenic flexure mobilization for the main surgical outcomes of patients submitted to resection of sigmoid and rectal cancer. Methods: we searched the MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and LILACS, using the terms "splenic flexure mobilization", "colorectal surgery", "rectal cancer", "anterior resection", "sigmoid colon cancer", and "sigmoid resection". The main outcome was anastomotic dehiscence. Other outcomes analyzed were mortality, bleeding, infection and general complications. We estimated the effect sizes by grouping data from six case-control studies (1,433 patients) published until January 2018. Results: our meta-analysis showed that patients undergoing complete mobilization of the splenic flexure had a higher risk of anastomotic dehiscence (RR=2.27, 95%CI: 1.22-4.23) compared with those not submitted to this procedure. There was no difference between the groups in terms of mortality, bleeding, infection and general complications. Conclusion: splenic flexure mobilization is associated with a higher risk of anastomotic dehiscence in resections of sigmoid and rectal cancer. This surgical maneuver should be used with caution in the surgical management of sigmoid or rectal cancers.

4.
Endocr Connect ; 7(11): 1158-1167, 2018 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30352422

RESUMO

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age. PCOS has been associated with distinct metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and with autoimmune conditions, predominantly autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). AITD has been reported in 18-40% of PCOS women, depending on PCOS diagnostic criteria and ethnicity. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to summarize the available evidence regarding the likelihood of women with PCOS also having AITD in comparison to a reference group of non-PCOS women. We systematically searched EMBASE and MEDLINE for non-interventional case control, cross-sectional, or cohort studies published until August 2017. The Ottawa-Newcastle Scale was used to assess the methodological quality of studies. Statistical meta-analysis was performed with R. Thirteen studies were selected for the present analysis, including 1,210 women diagnosed with PCOS and 987 healthy controls. AITD was observed in 26.03% and 9.72% of PCOS and control groups respectively. A significant association was detected between PCOS and chance of AITD (OR= 3.27, 95%CI 2.32-4.63). Notably, after geographical stratification, the higher risk of AITD in PCOS women persisted for Asians (OR= 4.56, 95%CI 2.47-8.43), Europeans (OR= 3.27, 95%CI 2.07-5.15), and South Americans (OR= 1.86, 95 %CI 1.05-3.29). AIDT is a frequent condition in PCOS patients, and might affect thyroid function. Thus, screening for thyroid function and thyroid-specific autoantibodies should be considered in patients with PCOS even in the absence of overt symptoms. This systematic review and meta-analysis is registered in PROSPERO under number CRD42017079676.

5.
Value Health Reg Issues ; 17: 158-163, 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30316147

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of an algorithm for the treatment of mixed episodes in bipolar disorder (BD) using the medications available under the Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde) in Brazil. METHODS: The study included 107 individuals with BD in a current mixed episode, assessed biweekly for the outcomes of response and remission. The subjects were randomly assigned to start treatment with lithium, valproic acid, or carbamazepine, following a clinical protocol at a public outpatient clinic. Eligibility screening instruments, semistructured interview, and clinical psychiatric evaluation were used for diagnosis. To measure response and remission, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and the Young Mania Rating Scale were used. A parameter of 50% or less in the symptom scales was used to define responses, as assessed by Kaplan-Meier time-event analysis. RESULTS: For the main outcome, response to treatment, all interventions proposed were proven to be effective, with no difference in response time for any of them. There was a lack of placebo control and blinding for intervention or outcomes. Individuals with mixed episodes in BD often face contradictory symptoms, and these inherent difficulties are the main obstacles to stabilize such a condition. CONCLUSIONS: The findings presented in this study show that the treatments available under the Unified Health System are able to reduce the overall burden of disease in terms of symptom reduction.

6.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 40(1): 26-34, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-899409

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the effectiveness of three mood disorder treatment algorithms in a sample of patients seeking care in the Brazilian public healthcare system. Methods: A randomized pragmatic trial was conducted with an algorithm developed for treating episodes of major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar depressive episodes and mixed episodes of bipolar disorder (BD). Results: The sample consisted of 259 subjects diagnosed with BD or MDD (DSM-IV-TR). After the onset of symptoms, the first treatment occurred ∼6 years and the use of mood stabilizers began ∼12 years. All proposed algorithms were effective, with response rates around 80%. The majority of the subjects took 20 weeks to obtain a therapeutic response. Conclusions: The algorithms were effective with the medications available through the Brazilian Unified Health System. Because therapeutic response was achieved in most subjects by 20 weeks, a follow-up period longer than 12 weeks may be required to confirm adequate response to treatment. Remission of symptoms is still the main desired outcome. Subjects who achieved remission recovered more rapidly and remained more stable over time. Clinical trial registration: NCT02901249, NCT02870283, NCT02918097

7.
Braz J Psychiatr ; 40(1): 26-34, 2018 Jan-Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28832750

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of three mood disorder treatment algorithms in a sample of patients seeking care in the Brazilian public healthcare system. METHODS: A randomized pragmatic trial was conducted with an algorithm developed for treating episodes of major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar depressive episodes and mixed episodes of bipolar disorder (BD). RESULTS: The sample consisted of 259 subjects diagnosed with BD or MDD (DSM-IV-TR). After the onset of symptoms, the first treatment occurred ∼6 years and the use of mood stabilizers began ∼12 years. All proposed algorithms were effective, with response rates around 80%. The majority of the subjects took 20 weeks to obtain a therapeutic response. CONCLUSIONS: The algorithms were effective with the medications available through the Brazilian Unified Health System. Because therapeutic response was achieved in most subjects by 20 weeks, a follow-up period longer than 12 weeks may be required to confirm adequate response to treatment. Remission of symptoms is still the main desired outcome. Subjects who achieved remission recovered more rapidly and remained more stable over time. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02901249, NCT02870283, NCT02918097.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Humor/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Algoritmos , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Vaccine ; 34(50): 6133-6147, 2016 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27810313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dengue fever is one of the most rapidly advancing viral vector-borne diseases worldwide and vaccine candidates are in the final stages of clinical trials, representing a decisive opportunity to control the disease. To decide whether and where to support the introduction of new vaccines it is crucial to assess costs imposed by the disease and cost-effectiveness of vaccine programmes. OBJECTIVE: To identify economic evidence about dengue fever immunization, by systematic review, to assist future policy decisions and investment. METHODS: The electronic search stage was conducted on PubMed/Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Global Health, NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED) and Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) databases. Searches were restricted to papers published between January 1970 and February 2016. Selected papers were quality assessed using three recognized checklists. RESULTS: Eleven relevant studies were identified and there is economic evidence of a satisfactory quality level, derived through modelling approaches, to conclude that dengue fever vaccines will be economically advantageous when compared to vector preventive strategies, despite uncertainties surrounding vaccine efficacy and costs per vaccine dose. Quality assessment based on checklists showed similar findings and although overall quality was considered satisfactory, there were relevant methodological issues not considered among studies reviewed. CONCLUSION: Several uncertainties still remain about effectiveness of dengue fever vaccines; however, the reviewed economic evidence suggests that, when available, the vaccine can be economically advantageous at moderate prices. Future research needs to confirm findings from the economic models by using actual costs and effectiveness data.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Vacinas contra Dengue/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Dengue/economia , Dengue/economia , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Dengue/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Humanos
9.
Sci Rep ; 6: 17714, 2016 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26813008

RESUMO

An emerging body of evidence has implicated plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D), though findings have not always been consistent. We systematically reviewed epidemiological studies examining the association of PAI-1 with T2D. EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched to identify studies for inclusion. Fifty-two studies (44 cross-sectional with 47 unique analytical comparisons and 8 prospective) were included. In pooled random-effects analyses of prospective studies, a comparison of the top third vs. bottom third of baseline PAI-1 values generated a RR of T2D of 1.67 (95% CI 1.28-2.18) with moderate heterogeneity (I(2) = 38%). Additionally, of 47 cross-sectional comparisons, 34(72%) reported significantly elevated PAI-1 among diabetes cases versus controls, 2(4%) reported significantly elevated PAI-1 among controls, and 11(24%) reported null effects. Results from pooled analyses of prospective studies did not differ substantially by study design, length of follow-up, adjustment for various putative confounding factors, or study quality, and were robust to sensitivity analyses. Findings from this systematic review of the available epidemiological literature support a link between PAI-1 and T2D, independent of established diabetes risk factors. Given the moderate size of the association and heterogeneity across studies, future prospective studies are warranted.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos
10.
Phytopathology ; 105(3): 307-15, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25244347

RESUMO

Meta-analytic models were used to summarize and assess the heterogeneity in the relationship between soybean yield (Y, kg/ha) and rust severity (S, %) data from uniform fungicide trials (study, k) conducted over nine growing seasons in Brazil. For each selected study, correlation (k=231) and regression (k=210) analysis for the Y-S relationship were conducted and three effect-sizes were obtained from these analysis: Fisher's transformation of the Pearson's correlation coefficient (Zr) and the intercept (ß0) and slope (ß1) coefficients. These effect-sizes were summarized through random-effect and mixed-effect models, with the latter incorporating study-specific categorical moderators such as disease onset time (DOT) (70%, moderate=>40 and ≤70%, and low=≤40% S the check treatment), and growing season. The overall mean for r- (back-transformed Z-r) was -0.61, based on the random-effects model. DOT and DP explained 14 and 25%, respectively, of the variability in Z-r. Stronger associations (r-=-0.87 and -0.90) were estimated by mixed-effects models for the Zr data from studies with highest DP (DP>70%) and earliest rust onset (DOT0.73 pp/%(-1)) were estimated for studies with DOT70%; the latter possibly due to high fungicide efficacy when DP is low, thus leading to higher yield differences between fungicide-protected and nontreated plots. The critical-point meta-analytic models can provide general estimates of yield loss based on a composite measure of disease severity. They can also be useful for crop loss assessments and economic analysis under scenarios of varying DOT and weather favorableness for epidemic development.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Soja/microbiologia , Biomassa , Análise de Regressão , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
JAMA Dermatol ; 149(3): 341-9, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23553036

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Considering that most randomized controlled trials compare antifungals with placebo instead of other antifungals, conventional meta-analysis is insufficient to define superiority between the evaluated strategies. To our knowledge, this is the first mixed-treatment comparison meta-analysis on antifungal treatments in the literature and shows all the evidence available at the time of the study. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of topical antifungals used in dermatophytosis treatment, using mixed-treatment comparisons. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We performed a comprehensive search (up to July 31, 2012) for all entries in MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, Literatura Latino Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts. Randomized controlled trials that compared topical antifungals with one another or with placebo in dermatophytosis treatment were selected for analysis. Methodologic quality of the trials was assessed using the Jadad scale. We excluded studies that scored less than 3 points. The outcomes evaluated were mycologic cure at the end of treatment and sustained cure. A random-effects Bayesian mixed-treatment comparisons model was applied to combine placebo-controlled and direct topical antifungals comparison trials. RESULTS Pooled data of the 65 trials identified did not show any statistically significant differences among the antifungals concerning the outcome of mycologic cure at the end of treatment. Regarding the sustained cure outcome, butenafine hydrochloride and terbinafine hydrochloride were significantly more efficacious than were clotrimazole, oxiconazole nitrate, and sertaconazole nitrate. Terbinafine also demonstrated statistical superiority when compared with ciclopirox (ciclopiroxolamine), and naftifine hydrochloride showed better response compared with oxiconazole. No inconsistency was detected in the network of evidence for both outcomes, sustaining the validity of the mixed-treatment comparisons results. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: With the outcome mycologic cure at the end of treatment, there was no significant difference among the antifungals. Butenafine, naftifine, and terbinafine might be the best strategies for maintaining cured status. Because of the different costs of the antifungals, pharmacoeconomic analysis is required to identify the most efficient strategy for dermatophytosis management.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Dermatomicoses/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Cutânea , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
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