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1.
Nat Med ; 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34992263

RESUMO

Cancers arising from germline DNA mismatch repair deficiency or polymerase proofreading deficiency (MMRD and PPD) in children harbour the highest mutational and microsatellite insertion-deletion (MS-indel) burden in humans. MMRD and PPD cancers are commonly lethal due to the inherent resistance to chemo-irradiation. Although immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have failed to benefit children in previous studies, we hypothesized that hypermutation caused by MMRD and PPD will improve outcomes following ICI treatment in these patients. Using an international consortium registry study, we report on the ICI treatment of 45 progressive or recurrent tumors from 38 patients. Durable objective responses were observed in most patients, culminating in a 3 year survival of 41.4%. High mutation burden predicted response for ultra-hypermutant cancers (>100 mutations per Mb) enriched for combined MMRD + PPD, while MS-indels predicted response in MMRD tumors with lower mutation burden (10-100 mutations per Mb). Furthermore, both mechanisms were associated with increased immune infiltration even in 'immunologically cold' tumors such as gliomas, contributing to the favorable response. Pseudo-progression (flare) was common and was associated with immune activation in the tumor microenvironment and systemically. Furthermore, patients with flare who continued ICI treatment achieved durable responses. This study demonstrates improved survival for patients with tumors not previously known to respond to ICI treatment, including central nervous system and synchronous cancers, and identifies the dual roles of mutation burden and MS-indels in predicting sustained response to immunotherapy.

2.
Neuro Oncol ; 2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34850167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Larotrectinib is a first-in-class, highly selective tropomyosin receptor kinase (TRK) inhibitor approved to treat adult and pediatric patients with TRK fusion-positive cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of larotrectinib in patients with TRK fusion-positive primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors. METHODS: Patients with TRK fusion-positive primary CNS tumors from two clinical trials (NCT02637687, NCT02576431) were identified. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed objective response rate (ORR). RESULTS: As of July 2020, 33 patients with TRK fusion-positive CNS tumors were identified (median age: 8.9 years; range: 1.3-79.0). The most common histologies were high-grade glioma (HGG; n = 19) and low-grade glioma (LGG; n = 8). ORR was 30% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 16-49) for all patients. In all patients, the 24-week disease control rate was 73% (95% CI: 54-87). Twenty-three of 28 patients (82%) with measurable disease had tumor shrinkage. The 12-month rates for duration of response, progression-free survival, and overall survival were 75% (95% CI: 45-100), 56% (95% CI: 38-74), and 85% (95% CI: 71-99), respectively. Median time to response was 1.9 months (range 1.0-3.8 months). Duration of treatment ranged from 1.2-31.3+ months. Treatment-related adverse events were reported for 20 patients, with Grade 3-4 in 3 patients. No new safety signals were identified. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with TRK fusion-positive CNS tumors, larotrectinib demonstrated rapid and durable responses, high disease control rate, and a favorable safety profile.

3.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(24)2021 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34944870

RESUMO

Diffuse midline gliomas (DMGs) are invariably fatal pediatric brain tumours that are inherently resistant to conventional therapy. In recent years our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of DMG tumorigenicity has resulted in the identification of novel targets and the development of a range of potential therapies, with multiple agents now being progressed to clinical translation to test their therapeutic efficacy. Here, we provide an overview of the current therapies aimed at epigenetic and mutational drivers, cellular pathway aberrations and tumor microenvironment mechanisms in DMGs in order to aid therapy development and facilitate a holistic approach to patient treatment.

4.
EMBO Mol Med ; : e14608, 2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34927798

RESUMO

Biomarkers which better match anticancer drugs with cancer driver genes hold the promise of improved clinical responses and cure rates. We developed a precision medicine platform of rapid high-throughput drug screening (HTS) and patient-derived xenografting (PDX) of primary tumor tissue, and evaluated its potential for treatment identification among 56 consecutively enrolled high-risk pediatric cancer patients, compared with conventional molecular genomics and transcriptomics. Drug hits were seen in the majority of HTS and PDX screens, which identified therapeutic options for 10 patients for whom no targetable molecular lesions could be found. Screens also provided orthogonal proof of drug efficacy suggested by molecular analyses and negative results for some molecular findings. We identified treatment options across the whole testing platform for 70% of patients. Only molecular therapeutic recommendations were provided to treating oncologists and led to a change in therapy in 53% of patients, of whom 29% had clinical benefit. These data indicate that in vitro and in vivo drug screening of tumor cells could increase therapeutic options and improve clinical outcomes for high-risk pediatric cancer patients.

5.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(12): 1764-1776, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several paediatric malignancies, including anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour (IMT), neuroblastoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma, harbour activation of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) through different mechanisms. Here, we report the safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of ceritinib in paediatric patients with ALK-positive malignancies. METHODS: This multicentre, open-label, phase 1 trial was done at 23 academic hospitals in ten countries. Children (aged ≥12 months to <18 years) diagnosed with locally advanced or metastatic ALK-positive malignancies that had progressed despite standard therapy, or for which no effective standard therapy were available, were eligible. ALK-positive malignancies were defined as those with ALK rearrangement, amplification, point mutation, or in the case of rhabdomyosarcoma, expression in the absence of any genetic alteration. Eligible patients had evaluable or measurable disease as defined by either Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours, version 1.1 for patients with non-haematological malignancies, International Neuroblastoma Response Criteria scan for patients with neuroblastoma, or International Working Group criteria for patients with lymphoma. Other eligibility criteria were Karnofsky performance status score of at least 60% for patients older than 12 years or Lansky score of at least 50% for patients aged 12 years or younger. This study included a dose-escalation part, followed by a dose-expansion part, in which all patients received treatment at the recommended dose for expansion (RDE) established in the dose-escalation part. Both parts of the study were done in fasted and fed states. In the dose-escalation part, patients were treated with once-daily ceritinib orally, with dose adjusted for body-surface area, rounded to the nearest multiple of the 50 mg dose strength. The starting dose in the fasted state was 300 mg/m2 daily and for the fed state was 320 mg/m2 daily. The primary objective of this study was to establish the maximum tolerated dose (ie, RDE) of ceritinib in the fasted and fed states. The RDE was established on the basis of the incidence of dose-limiting toxicities in patients who completed a minimum of 21 days of treatment with safety assessments and at least 75% drug exposure, or who discontinued treatment earlier because of dose-limiting toxicity. Overall response rate (defined as the proportion of patients with a best overall response of complete response or partial response) was a secondary endpoint. Activity and safety analyses were done in all patients who received at least one dose of ceritinib. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01742286) and is completed. FINDINGS: Between Aug 28, 2013, and Oct 17, 2017, 83 children with ALK-positive malignancies were enrolled to the dose-escalation (n=40) and dose-expansion (n=43) groups. The RDE of ceritinib was established as 510 mg/m2 (fasted) and 500 mg/m2 (fed). 55 patients (30 with neuroblastoma, ten with IMT, eight with ALCL, and seven with other tumour types) were treated with ceritinib at the RDE (13 patients at 510 mg/m2 fasted and 42 patients at 500 mg/m2 fed). The median follow-up was 33·3 months (IQR 24·8-39·3) for patients with neuroblastoma, 33·2 months (27·9-35·9) for those with IMT, 34·0 months (21·9-46·4) for those with ALCL, and 27·5 months (22·4-36·9) for patients with other tumour types. An overall response was recorded in six (20%; 95% CI 8-39) of 30 patients with neuroblastoma, seven (70%; 33-93) of ten patients with IMT, six (75%; 35-97) of eight patients with ALCL, and one (14%; <1-58) of seven patients with other tumours. The safety profile of ceritinib was consistent with that observed in adult patients. All patients had at least one adverse event. Grade 3 or 4 adverse events occurred in 67 (81%) of 83 patients and were mostly increases in aminotransferases (alanine aminotransferase increase in 38 [46%] patients and aspartate aminotransferase increase in 27 [33%] patients). At least one serious adverse event was reported in 40 (48%) of 83 patients and 31 (37%) of 83 patients had at least one grade 3 or 4 serious adverse event. 14 (17%) deaths occurred during the study, of which 12 were on-treatment deaths and two were after 30 days of the last dose. Of the 12 on-treatment deaths, ten were due to disease progression (neuroblastoma), one due to sepsis, and one due to intractable hypotension. INTERPRETATION: Ceritinib 500 mg/m2 once daily with food is the recommended dose for paediatric patients with ALK-positive malignancies. Ceritinib showed promising preliminary antitumour activity in patients with ALK-positive refractory or recurrent IMT or ALCL, and in a subset of patients with relapsed or refractory neuroblastoma, with a manageable safety profile. Our data support the notion that ALK inhibitors should be considered in therapeutic strategies for paediatric patients with malignancies with genetic ALK alterations. FUNDING: Novartis Pharmaceutical Corporation.

6.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 5(11): 800-813, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Embryonal tumours with multi-layered rosettes (ETMRs) are a newly recognised, rare paediatric brain tumour with alterations of the C19MC microRNA locus. Due to varied diagnostic practices and scarce clinical data, disease features and determinants of outcomes for these tumours are poorly defined. We did an integrated clinicopathological and molecular analysis of primary ETMRs to define clinical phenotypes, and to identify prognostic factors of survival and key treatment modalities for this orphan disease. METHODS: Paediatric patients with primary ETMRs and tissue available for analyses were identified from the Rare Brain Tumor Consortium global registry. The institutional histopathological diagnoses were centrally re-reviewed as per the current WHO CNS tumour guidelines, using histopathological and molecular assays. Only patients with complete clinical, treatment, and survival data on Nov 30, 2019, were included in clinicopathological analyses. Among patients who received primary multi-modal curative regimens, event-free survival and overall survival were determined using Cox proportional hazard and log-rank analyses. Univariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs for clinical, molecular, or treatment-related prognostic factors. FINDINGS: 159 patients had a confirmed molecular diagnosis of primary ETMRs (median age at diagnosis 26 months, IQR 18-36) and were included in our clinicopathological analysis. ETMRs were predominantly non-metastatic (94 [73%] of 128 patients), arising from multiple sites; 84 (55%) of 154 were cerebral tumours and 70 (45%) of 154 arose at sites characteristic of other brain tumours. Hallmark C19MC alterations were seen in 144 (91%) of 159 patients; 15 (9%) were ETMR not otherwise specified. In patients treated with curative intent, event-free survival was 57% (95% CI 47-68) at 6 months and 31% (21-42) at 2 years; overall survival was 29% (20-38) at 2 years and 27% (18-37) at 4 years. Overall survival was associated with non-metastatic disease (HR 0·48, 95% CI 0·28-0·80; p=0·0057) and non-brainstem location (0·42 [0·22-0·81]; p=0·013) on univariate analysis, as well as with gross total resection (0·30, 0·16-0·58; p=0·0014), high-dose chemotherapy (0·35, 0·19-0·67; p=0·0020), and radiotherapy (0·21, 0·10-0·41; p<0·0001) on multivariable analysis. 2-year event-free and overall survival was 0% at 2 years in patients treated with conventional chemotherapy without radiotherapy (regardless of surgery extent), and 21% (95% CI 1-41) and 30% (6-54), respectively, in patients treated with high-dose chemotherapy, and gross total resection without radiotherapy. 2-year event-free survival in patients treated with high-dose chemotherapy and radiotherapy was 66% (95% CI 39-93) for patients with gross total resection and 44% (7-81) for patients with sub-total resection. 2-5-year overall survival was 66% (95% CI 33-99, p=0·038) for patients with gross total resection and 67% (36-98, p=0·0020) for patients with sub-total resection. INTERPRETATION: Prompt molecular diagnosis and post-surgical treatment with intensive multi-modal therapy tailored to patient-specific risk features could improve ETMR survival. FUNDING: Canadian Institute of Health Research, Canada Research Chair Awards, Australian Lions Childhood Cancer Research Foundation, Spanish Society of Pediatrics, Consejería de Salud y Familias de la Junta de Andalucía, Miracle Marnie, Phoebe Rose Rocks, Tali's Funds, Garron Cancer Centre, Grace's Walk, Meagan's Hug, Brainchild, Nelina's Hope, and Jean Martel Foundation.

7.
Neuro Oncol ; 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) remains a clinico-radiologic diagnosis without routine tissue acquisition. Reliable imaging distinction between DIPG and other pontine tumors with potentially more favorable prognoses and treatment considerations is essential. METHODS: Cases submitted to the International DIPG registry (IDIPGR) with histopathologic and/or radiologic data were analyzed. Central imaging review was performed on diagnostic brain MRIs (if available) by two neuro-radiologists. Imaging features suggestive of alternative diagnoses included non-pontine origin, <50% pontine involvement, focally exophytic morphology, sharply-defined margins, and/or marked diffusion restriction throughout. RESULTS: Among 286 patients with pathology from biopsy and/or autopsy, 23 (8%) had histologic diagnoses inconsistent with DIPG, most commonly non-diffuse low-grade gliomas and embryonal tumors. Among 569 patients with centrally-reviewed diagnostic MRIs, 40 (7%) were classified as non-DIPG, alternative diagnosis suspected. The combined analysis included 151 patients with both histopathology and centrally-reviewed MRI. Of 77 patients with imaging classified as characteristic of DIPG, 76 (99%) had histopathologic diagnoses consistent with DIPG (infiltrating grade II-IV gliomas). Of 57 patients classified as likely DIPG with some unusual imaging features, 55 (96%) had histopathologic diagnoses consistent with DIPG. Of 17 patients with imaging features suggestive of an alternative diagnosis, eight (47%) had histopathologic diagnoses inconsistent with DIPG (remaining patients were excluded due to non-pontine tumor origin). Association between central neuro-imaging review impression and histopathology was significant (p<0.001), and central neuro-imaging impression was prognostic of overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: The accuracy and important role of central neuro-imaging review in confirming the diagnosis of DIPG is demonstrated.

8.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(18)2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34572932

RESUMO

Sarcomas are a diverse group of bone and soft tissue tumors that account for over 10% of childhood cancers. Outcomes are particularly poor for children with refractory, relapsed, or metastatic disease. Chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR T) cells are an exciting form of adoptive cell therapy that potentially offers new hope for these children. In early trials, promising outcomes have been achieved in some pediatric patients with sarcoma. However, many children do not derive benefit despite significant expression of the targeted tumor antigen. The success of CAR T cell therapy in sarcomas and other solid tumors is limited by the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME). In this review, we provide an update of the CAR T cell therapies that are currently being tested in pediatric sarcoma clinical trials, including those targeting tumors that express HER2, NY-ESO, GD2, EGFR, GPC3, B7-H3, and MAGE-A4. We also outline promising new CAR T cells that are in pre-clinical development. Finally, we discuss strategies that are being used to overcome tumor-mediated immunosuppression in solid tumors; these strategies have the potential to improve clinical outcomes of CAR T cell therapy for children with sarcoma.

9.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 9(1): 147, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493325

RESUMO

Diffuse leptomeningeal glioneuronal tumours (DLGNT) represent rare enigmatic CNS tumours of childhood. Most patients with this disease share common radiological and histopathological features but the clinical course of this disease is variable. A radiological hallmark of this disease is widespread leptomeningeal enhancement that may involve the entire neuroaxis with predilection for the posterior fossa and spine. The classic pathologic features include low- to moderate-density cellular lesions with OLIG2 expression and evidence of 'oligodendroglioma-like' appearance. The MAPK/ERK signaling pathway has recently been reported as a potential driver of tumourigenesis in up to 80% of DLGNT with KIAA1549:BRAF fusions being the most common event seen. Until now, limited analysis of the biological drivers of tumourigenesis has been undertaken via targeted profiling, chromosomal analysis and immunohistochemistry. Our study represents the first examples of comprehensive genomic sequencing in DLGNT and shows that it is not only feasible but crucial to our understanding of this rare disease. Moreover, we demonstrate that DLGNT may be more genomically complex than single-event MAPK/ERK signaling pathway tumours.

10.
Neurooncol Adv ; 3(1): vdab087, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34458732

RESUMO

Background: Pediatric high-grade glioma is a devastating diagnosis. There has been no improvement in outcomes for several decades, with few children surviving 2 years postdiagnosis. Research progress has been hampered by a lack of tumor samples, which can be used to develop and test novel therapies. Postmortem tumor donations are therefore a valuable opportunity to collect tissue. In this study, we explored Australian parents' experiences of donating their child's tumor for research after their child had died. Methods: We collected qualitative data from 11 bereaved parents who consented to donate samples of their child's high-grade glioma for research postmortem. We asked parents about their perceived benefits/burdens of the autopsy, recommendations for improving consent discussions, and decision regret. Results: Parents hoped that their donation would help to find a cure for future children with high-grade glioma. They described feeling comforted knowing that their child's suffering may help others. Some parents also felt that the donation would help them better understand their child's tumor. Although some parents described discomfort about procedures leading up to the autopsy, parents reported minimal regret regarding their decision to donate their child's tumor. Parents provided recommendations to improve consent discussions, such as providing more information about the autopsy logistics and why the donation was needed. Conclusion: Parents consented to autopsy for altruistic reasons, although donation may also assist parents in their grieving. There is a strong need to improve access to tumor donations for any family who wishes to donate.

11.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(14)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298664

RESUMO

Medulloblastoma is a rare brain malignancy. Patients after puberty are rare and bear an intermediate prognosis. Standard treatment consists of maximal resection plus radio-chemotherapy. Treatment toxicity is high and produces disabling long-term side effects. The sonic hedgehog (SHH) subgroup is highly overrepresented in the post-pubertal and adult population and can be targeted by smoothened (SMO) inhibitors. No practice-changing prospective randomized data have been generated in adults. The EORTC 1634-BTG/NOA-23 trial will randomize patients between standard-dose vs. reduced-dosed craniospinal radiotherapy and SHH-subgroup patients between the SMO inhibitor sonidegib (OdomzoTM, Sun Pharmaceuticals Industries, Inc., New York, USA) in addition to standard radio-chemotherapy vs. standard radio-chemotherapy alone to improve outcomes in view of decreased radiotherapy-related toxicity and increased efficacy. We will further investigate tumor tissue, blood, and cerebrospinal fluid as well as magnetic resonance imaging and radiotherapy plans to generate information that helps to further improve treatment outcomes. Given that treatment side effects typically occur late, long-term follow-up will monitor classic side effects of therapy, but also health-related quality of life, cognition, social and professional outcome, and reproduction and fertility. In summary, we will generate unprecedented data that will be translated into treatment changes in post-pubertal patients with medulloblastoma and will help to design future clinical trials.

12.
Neuro Oncol ; 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DIPG generally occurs in young school-age children, although can occur in adolescents and young adults. The purpose of this study was to describe clinical, radiological, pathologic, and molecular characteristics in patients ≥10 years of age with DIPG enrolled in the International DIPG Registry (IDIPGR). METHODS: Patients ≥10 years of age at diagnosis enrolled in the IDIPGR with imaging confirmed DIPG diagnosis were included. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS) categorized as long-term survivors (LTS) (≥24 months) or short-term survivors (STS) (<24 months). RESULTS: Among 1010 patients, 208 (21%) were ≥10 years of age at diagnosis; 152 were eligible with a median age of 12 years [range 10-26.8]. Median OS was 13 [2-82] months. The 1-, 3- and 5- years OS was 61.9%, 3.7%, and 1.5%, respectively. The 18/152 (11.8%) LTS were more likely to be older (P<0.01) and present with longer symptom duration (P<0.01). Biopsy and/or autopsy were performed in 50 (33%) patients; 77%, 61%, 33%, and 6% of patients tested had H3K27M (H3F3A or HIST1H3B), TP53, ATRX, and ACVR1 mutations/genome alterations, respectively. Two of 18 patients with IDH1 testing were IDH1-mutant and one was a LTS. The presence or absence of H3 alterations did not affect survival. CONCLUSION: Patients ≥10 years old with DIPG have a median survival of 13 months. LTS present with longer symptom duration and are likely to be older at presentation compared to STS. ATRX mutation rates were higher in this population than the general DIPG population.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166569

RESUMO

AIM: The neuro-oncology community in Australia is well positioned to collaborate internationally, with a motivated trials group, strong regulatory bodies and an attractive fiscal environment. We sought to identify gaps in the Australian neuro-oncology clinical trials landscape and describe strategies to increase international trial access in Australia. METHODS: We searched clinical trial registries to identify active adult primary brain cancer trials. We compared the participation rate and phase of these trials between tumour types and countries. A survey was distributed to the Cooperative Trials Group for Neuro-Oncology membership to identify barriers and solutions to effective international collaboration. RESULTS: Globally, 307 trials for adult primary brain cancers were identified. These included 50% pharmaceutical agents, 18% cellular therapies and 9% radiation therapy. Twelve adult primary brain cancer trials were actively recruiting in Australia at the time the survey was sent out. There were more early phase brain cancer trials (34%) compared with colorectal and breast cancer (21% and 24%, respectively). In Australia, 92% of brain cancer trials were involving pharmaceutical agents. The most commonly cited barrier was lack of funding for international trials (86%) and insufficient research time (75%). High ranking solutions included increasing the availability of funding for international trials and creating opportunities to develop personal relationships with collaborators. Accreditation of clinical research key performance indicators into practice (88%) and hospital accreditation (73%) also ranked highly. CONCLUSIONS: Participation in international research in Australia could be improved by embedding clinical research targets into institutional funding, provision of funding for early phase studies and streamlining mutual ethics schemes.

14.
Front Oncol ; 11: 660172, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33996584

RESUMO

Objectives: Unlike adults, malignant melanoma in children and adolescents is rare. In adult melanoma, significant progress in understanding tumor biology and new treatments, including targeted therapies and immunotherapy have markedly improved overall survival. In sharp contrast, there is a paucity of data on the biology and clinical behavior of pediatric melanoma. We report a national case series of all pediatric and adolescent malignant melanoma presenting to ANZCHOG Childhood Cancer Centers in Australia and New Zealand. Methods: A retrospective, descriptive, multi-center study was undertaken to identify patients less than 18 years of age treated for cutaneous malignant melanoma over a twenty-year period (1994 to 2014). Data on clinical characteristics, histopathology, and extent of disease, treatment and follow-up are described. Results: A total of 37 cases of malignant melanoma were identified from all of the Australasian tertiary Childhood Cancer Centers. The median age was 10 years (range 1 month - 17 years). Clinically, the most common type of lesion was pigmented, occurring in sixteen (57%) patients, whilst amelanotic was seen in 7 patients (25%). In 11 (27.9%) the Breslow thickness was greater than 4mm. A total of 11 (29.7%) patients relapsed and 90% of these died of disease. Five-year event free survival (EFS) and overall survival were 63.2 (95% CI: 40.6 - 79.1) and 67.7% (95% CI: 45.1 - 82.6) respectively. Conclusion: Our data confirms that melanoma is a rare presentation of cancer to tertiary Australasian Childhood Cancer Centers with only 37 cases identified over two decades. Notably, melanoma managed in Childhood Cancer Centers is frequently at an advanced stage, with a high percentage of patients relapsing and the majority of these patients who relapsed died of disease. This study confirms previous clinical and prognostic information to support the early multidisciplinary management in Childhood Cancer Centers, in conjunction with expert adult melanoma centers, of this rare and challenging patient group.

15.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(15): 4338-4352, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33994371

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We investigated whether targeting chromatin stability through a combination of the curaxin CBL0137 with the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, panobinostat, constitutes an effective multimodal treatment for high-risk neuroblastoma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The effects of the drug combination on cancer growth were examined in vitro and in animal models of MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma. The molecular mechanisms of action were analyzed by multiple techniques including whole transcriptome profiling, immune deconvolution analysis, immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, assays to assess cell growth and apoptosis, and a range of cell-based reporter systems to examine histone eviction, heterochromatin transcription, and chromatin compaction. RESULTS: The combination of CBL0137 and panobinostat enhanced nucleosome destabilization, induced an IFN response, inhibited DNA damage repair, and synergistically suppressed cancer cell growth. Similar synergistic effects were observed when combining CBL0137 with other HDAC inhibitors. The CBL0137/panobinostat combination significantly delayed cancer progression in xenograft models of poor outcome high-risk neuroblastoma. Complete tumor regression was achieved in the transgenic Th-MYCN neuroblastoma model which was accompanied by induction of a type I IFN and immune response. Tumor transplantation experiments further confirmed that the presence of a competent adaptive immune system component allowed the exploitation of the full potential of the drug combination. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of CBL0137 and panobinostat is effective and well-tolerated in preclinical models of aggressive high-risk neuroblastoma, warranting further preclinical and clinical investigation in other pediatric cancers. On the basis of its potential to boost IFN and immune responses in cancer models, the drug combination holds promising potential for addition to immunotherapies.

16.
Cancer Cytopathol ; 129(10): 805-818, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The development of high-throughput drug screening (HTS) using primary cultures provides a promising, clinically translatable approach to tailoring treatment strategies for patients with cancer. However, this has been challenging for solid tumors because of often limited amounts of tissue available. In most cases, in vitro expansion is required before HTS, which may lead to overgrowth and contamination by non-neoplastic cells. METHODS: In this study, hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemical staining were performed on 129 cytopathology cases from 95 patients. These cytopathology cases comprised cell block preparations derived from primary tumor specimens or patient-derived xenografts as part of a pediatric precision oncology trial. Cytopathology cases were compared with the morphology and immunohistochemical staining profile of the original tumor. Cases were reported as tumor cells present, equivocal, or tumor cells absent. The HTS results from cytopathologically validated cultures were incorporated into a multidisciplinary tumor board report issued to the treating clinician to guide clinical decision making. RESULTS: On cytopathologic examination, tumor cells were present in 77 of 129 cases (60%) and were absent in 38 of 129 cases (29%), whereas 14 of 129 cases (11%) were equivocal. Cultures that contained tumor cells resembled the tumors from which they were derived. CONCLUSIONS: Cytopathologic examination of tumor cell block preparations is feasible and provides detailed morphologic characterization. Cytopathologic examination is essential for ensuring that samples submitted for HTS contain representative tumor cells and that in vitro drug sensitivity data are clinically translatable.

17.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(6)2021 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805713

RESUMO

Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Gliomas (DIPGs) are highly aggressive paediatric brain tumours. Currently, irradiation is the only standard treatment, but is palliative in nature and most patients die within 12 months of diagnosis. Novel therapeutic approaches are urgently needed for the treatment of this devastating disease. We have developed non-persistent gold nano-architectures (NAs) functionalised with human serum albumin (HSA) for the delivery of doxorubicin. Doxorubicin has been previously reported to be cytotoxic in DIPG cells. In this study, we have preclinically evaluated the cytotoxic efficacy of doxorubicin delivered through gold nanoarchitectures (NAs-HSA-Dox). We found that DIPG neurospheres were equally sensitive to doxorubicin and doxorubicin-loaded NAs. Colony formation assays demonstrated greater potency of NAs-HSA-Dox on colony formation compared to doxorubicin. Western blot analysis indicated increased apoptotic markers cleaved Parp, cleaved caspase 3 and phosphorylated H2AX in NAs-HSA-Dox treated DIPG neurospheres. Live cell content and confocal imaging demonstrated significantly higher uptake of NAs-HSA-Dox into DIPG neurospheres compared to doxorubicin alone. Despite the potency of the NAs in vitro, treatment of an orthotopic model of DIPG showed no antitumour effect. This disparate outcome may be due to the integrity of the blood-brain barrier and highlights the need to develop therapies to enhance penetration of drugs into DIPG.

18.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(8)2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918978

RESUMO

Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC1), a critical regulatory enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, is a direct transcriptional target of MYCN, amplification of which is a powerful marker of aggressive neuroblastoma. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), G316A, within the first intron of ODC1, results in genotypes wildtype GG, and variants AG/AA. CRISPR-cas9 technology was used to investigate the effects of AG clones from wildtype MYCN-amplified SK-N-BE(2)-C cells and the effect of the SNP on MYCN binding, and promoter activity was investigated using EMSA and luciferase assays. AG clones exhibited decreased ODC1 expression, growth rates, and histone acetylation and increased sensitivity to ODC1 inhibition. MYCN was a stronger transcriptional regulator of the ODC1 promoter containing the G allele, and preferentially bound the G allele over the A. Two neuroblastoma cohorts were used to investigate the clinical impact of the SNP. In the study cohort, the minor AA genotype was associated with improved survival, while poor prognosis was associated with the GG genotype and AG/GG genotypes in MYCN-amplified and non-amplified patients, respectively. These effects were lost in the GWAS cohort. We have demonstrated that the ODC1 G316A polymorphism has functional significance in neuroblastoma and is subject to allele-specific regulation by the MYCN oncoprotein.

19.
Cell Rep ; 35(2): 108994, 2021 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852836

RESUMO

Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is an aggressive and incurable childhood brain tumor for which new treatments are needed. CBL0137 is an anti-cancer compound developed from quinacrine that targets facilitates chromatin transcription (FACT), a chromatin remodeling complex involved in transcription, replication, and DNA repair. We show that CBL0137 displays profound cytotoxic activity against a panel of patient-derived DIPG cultures by restoring tumor suppressor TP53 and Rb activity. Moreover, in an orthotopic model of DIPG, treatment with CBL0137 significantly extends animal survival. The FACT subunit SPT16 is found to directly interact with H3.3K27M, and treatment with CBL0137 restores both histone H3 acetylation and trimethylation. Combined treatment of CBL0137 with the histone deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat leads to inhibition of the Rb/E2F1 pathway and induction of apoptosis. The combination of CBL0137 and panobinostat significantly prolongs the survival of mice bearing DIPG orthografts, suggesting a potential treatment strategy for DIPG.

20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 971, 2021 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579942

RESUMO

Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is an incurable malignant childhood brain tumor, with no active systemic therapies and a 5-year survival of less than 1%. Polyamines are small organic polycations that are essential for DNA replication, translation and cell proliferation. Ornithine decarboxylase 1 (ODC1), the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine synthesis, is irreversibly inhibited by difluoromethylornithine (DFMO). Herein we show that polyamine synthesis is upregulated in DIPG, leading to sensitivity to DFMO. DIPG cells compensate for ODC1 inhibition by upregulation of the polyamine transporter SLC3A2. Treatment with the polyamine transporter inhibitor AMXT 1501 reduces uptake of polyamines in DIPG cells, and co-administration of AMXT 1501 and DFMO leads to potent in vitro activity, and significant extension of survival in three aggressive DIPG orthotopic animal models. Collectively, these results demonstrate the potential of dual targeting of polyamine synthesis and uptake as a therapeutic strategy for incurable DIPG.


Assuntos
Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/tratamento farmacológico , Glioma Pontino Intrínseco Difuso/tratamento farmacológico , Poliaminas/metabolismo , Poliaminas/farmacologia , Animais , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Transportadores de Ácidos Dicarboxílicos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eflornitina/farmacologia , Eflornitina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Proteínas de Transporte da Membrana Mitocondrial , Ornitina Descarboxilase/efeitos dos fármacos , Ornitina Descarboxilase/metabolismo , Poliaminas/uso terapêutico
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