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1.
Patient Educ Couns ; 103(1): 5-14, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447194

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Several concepts on collaboration between patients and healthcare systems have emerged in the literature but there is little consensus on their meanings and differences. In this study, "patient participation" and related concepts were studied by focusing on the dimensions that compose them. This review follows two objectives: (1) to produce a detailed and comprehensive overview of the "patient participation" dimensions; (2) to identify differences and similarities between the related concepts. METHODS: A scoping review was performed to synthesize knowledge into a conceptual framework. An electronic protocol driven search was conducted in two bibliographic databases and a thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. RESULTS: The search process returned 39 articles after exclusion for full data extraction and analysis. Through the thematic analysis, the dimensions, influencing factors and expected outcomes of "patient participation" were determined. Finally, differences between the included concepts were identified. CONCLUSION: This global vision of "patient participation" allows us to go beyond the distinctions between the existing concepts and reveals their common goal to include the patient in the healthcare system. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: This scoping review provides useful information to propose a conceptual model of "patient participation", which could impact clinical practice and medical training programs.


Assuntos
Participação do Paciente , Humanos
2.
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; 121(1): 20-6, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23147209

RESUMO

In obesity, a dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system has been shown. The endocannabinoid receptor blockage by rimonabant demonstrated interesting metabolic effects. However, the role of rimonabant in weight loss of patients with binge eating disorder has not been investigated. Thus, our aim was to evaluate the effects of rimonabant on body weight in obese patients with binge eating disorders. This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study included 289 obese subjects (age 18-70 years, body mass index 30-45 kg/m(2)) with binge eating disorders. Subjects were randomized (1:1) to receive rimonabant 20 mg/day or placebo for 6 months. In total, 289 participants (age: 43.2±10.5 yrs, 91% of women) were randomized. The completer rate was similar (71%) in both treatment and placebo groups. Participants treated with rimonabant lost 4.7±5.2% of their initial body weight, vs. 0.4±4.5% in the placebo group (difference between both groups: 4.4±0.6 kg, p<0.0001). The rimonabant group showed a greater reduction on the binge eating scale total score (mean±SD - 40.9±35.2%) vs. placebo ( - 29.9±34.6%, p=0.02). The incidence of treatment emergent adverse events was comparable in both the rimonabant (82.5%) and placebo (76.0%) group. Discontinuations due to treatment emergent adverse events occurred in 13.3% rimonabant-treated vs. 6.2% placebo-treated participants. In conclusion, this is the only randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial having assessed the effect of rimonabant in patients with binge eating disorders. The rimonabant treatment reduced body weight significantly more than placebo in obese subjects with binge eating. Trial registration number (clinicaltrials.gov): NCT00481975.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Canabinoides/administração & dosagem , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Piperidinas/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/complicações , Antagonistas de Receptores de Canabinoides/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Piperidinas/efeitos adversos , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Rimonabanto , Perda de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 65(2): 262-8, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21119697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Carotenoids are potentially malabsorbed in patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP). The aims of this study were: (1) to determine the prevalence of low levels of each of the major carotenoids in subjects with CP; (2) to compare carotenoids in CP subjects with or without vascular disease and (3) to test the effect of an increase in dietary lycopene intake in patients with low plasma lycopene concentration. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Simultaneous determination of carotenoids was done in 80 patients with CP and 20 healthy subjects, using high-performance liquid chromatography. Of the CP patients who had low lycopene concentration, 22 (<120 µg/l) had to consume daily 40 g tomato paste (approximately 24 mg lycopene). RESULTS: Of these patients, 84.7% had at least one carotenoid deficiency and 27.5% had more than four carotenoid deficiencies. Low plasma concentrations in ß-carotene and lycopene were correlated, in CP group, with a low body mass index (BMI), a low low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentration, alcohol consumption and current smoking status, whereas low plasma concentration in ß-cryptoxanthine was correlated with a low BMI, a low LDL cholesterol concentration and alcohol consumption. Lycopene concentration was decreased in patients with vascular disease (171±197 vs 99±72 µg/l; P=0.02). After an intervention period of 8±2 months, lycopene concentration increased from 67.5±30 to 121.8±102 µg/l (P=0.025). CONCLUSION: Carotenoid concentrations are dramatically decreased in CP, especially lycopene in CP patients with vascular disease. Despite malabsorption, it is possible to increase lycopene plasma concentration by increasing heated tomato consumption.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Carotenoides/deficiência , Carotenoides/farmacocinética , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Pancreatite/sangue , Adulto , Antioxidantes , Disponibilidade Biológica , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Carotenoides/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Feminino , Humanos , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Absorção Intestinal/fisiologia , Licopeno , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pancreatite/metabolismo
4.
Diabetes Metab ; 35(6 Pt 2): 544-57, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20152742

RESUMO

This review is an update of the long-term follow-up of nutritional and metabolic issues following bariatric surgery, and also discusses the most recent guidelines for the three most common procedures: adjustable gastric bands (AGB); sleeve gastrectomy (SG); and roux-en-Y gastric bypass (GBP). The risk of nutritional deficiencies depends on the percentage of weight loss and the type of surgical procedure performed. Purely restrictive procedures (AGB, SG), for example, can induce digestive symptoms, food intolerance or maladaptative eating behaviours due to pre- or postsurgical eating disorders. GBP also has a minor malabsorptive component. Iron deficiency is common with the three types of bariatric surgery, especially in menstruating women, and GBP is also associated with an increased risk of calcium, vitamin D and vitamin B12 deficiencies. Rare deficiencies can lead to serious complications such as encephalopathy or protein-energy malnutrition. Long-term problems such as changes in bone metabolism or neurological complications need to be carefully monitored. In addition, routine nutritional screening, recommendations for appropriate supplements and monitoring compliance are imperative, whatever the bariatric procedure. Key points are: (1) virtually routine mineral and multivitamin supplementation; (2) prevention of gallstone formation with the use of ursodeoxycholic acid during the first 6 months; and (3) regular, life-long, follow-up of all patients. Pre- and postoperative therapeutic patient education (TPE) programmes, involving a new multidisciplinary approach based on patient-centred education, may be useful for increasing patients'long-term compliance, which is often poor. The role of the general practitioner has also to be emphasized: clinical visits and follow-ups should be monitored and coordinated with the bariatric team, including the surgeon, the obesity specialist, the dietitian and mental health professionals.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica/efeitos adversos , Cirurgia Bariátrica/psicologia , Desnutrição/etiologia , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia Ferropriva/etiologia , Anemia Ferropriva/prevenção & controle , Deficiência de Vitaminas/etiologia , Deficiência de Vitaminas/prevenção & controle , Cirurgia Bariátrica/métodos , Desidratação/etiologia , Desidratação/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/etiologia , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/complicações , Feminino , Cálculos Biliares/etiologia , Cálculos Biliares/prevenção & controle , Gastrectomia/efeitos adversos , Derivação Gástrica/efeitos adversos , Gastroplastia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Síndromes de Malabsorção/etiologia , Síndromes de Malabsorção/prevenção & controle , Apoio Nutricional , Obesidade Mórbida/metabolismo , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Vigilância da População , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Desnutrição Proteico-Calórica/etiologia , Desnutrição Proteico-Calórica/prevenção & controle , Vômito/etiologia , Vômito/prevenção & controle , Perda de Peso
5.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 7(6): 699-708, 2005 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16219013

RESUMO

AIM: To determine the effect of two different levels of energy deficit on weight loss in obese patients treated with orlistat. METHODS: Patients (n=430) were randomized in a 1-year, multicentre, open-label, parallel group study conducted at 23 hospital centres and university medical departments worldwide. Obese outpatients (body mass index 30--43 kg/m(2)) aged 18--70 years with a body weight of >or=90 kg and a waist circumference of >or=88 cm (women) or >or=102 cm (men) were treated with orlistat 120 mg three times daily plus a diet that provided an energy deficit of either 500 or 1,000 kcal/day for 1 year. Orlistat treatment was discontinued in patients who did not achieve >or=5% weight loss after assessment at 3 and 6 months. The primary outcome measure was change in body weight from baseline at week 52. RESULTS: Reported mean difference in energy intake between the two groups (500-1,000 kcal/day deficit) at weeks 24 and 52 was actually 111 and 95 kcal/day respectively. Of the 430 patients involved in the study, 295 achieved >or=5% weight loss at both 3 and 6 months. In this population, at week 52, weight loss from baseline was similar for patients randomized to either the 500 or the 1,000 kcal/day deficit diet (-11.4 kg vs. -11.8 kg, respectively; p=0.778). After 12 months of treatment with orlistat, 84% (n=118/141) and 85% (n=131/154) of patients in the 500 and 1,000 kcal/day deficit groups, respectively, achieved >or=5% weight loss, and 50% (n=70/141) and 53% (n=82/154) of patients, respectively, achieved >or=10% weight loss. Patients in both the diet treatment groups showed similar significant improvements in blood pressure, lipid levels and waist circumference at week 52. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with orlistat was associated with a clinically beneficial weight loss, irrespective of the prescribed dietary energy restriction (-500 or -1000 kcal/day). Patients who achieved >or=5% weight loss at 3 months achieved long-term, clinically beneficial weight loss with orlistat plus either diet. Therefore, identifying patients who lose at least 5% weight after 3 months and who maintain this weight loss up to 6 months is a valuable treatment algorithm to select patients who will benefit most from orlistat treatment in combination with diet.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Lactonas/uso terapêutico , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Perda de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antropometria , Fármacos Antiobesidade/efeitos adversos , Peso Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Terapia Combinada , Dieta Redutora , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactonas/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Orlistate , Cooperação do Paciente , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Diabetes Metab ; 31(3 Pt 1): 273-83, 2005 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16142018

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a new health related quality of life (HRQOL) questionnaire specific to obesity and its management. METHODS: This study was in two parts. The first (Study 1) consisted of the creation of a new tool derived from the American "Impact of Weight on Quality of Life Questionnaire" (IWQOL, 74 items) by adding to it a 17 items specific complementary module. This initial questionnaire (91 items) was reduced so as to obtain a questionnaire adapted to socio-cultural factors of obesity and dietary weight management in France. The objective of the second (Study 2) was to validate this final questionnaire by evaluating its psychometric properties: construction validity, internal reliability, concurrent validity in relation to a generic questionnaire, the SF-12, clinical validity by studying the effects of age, gender and body mass index (BMI), and reproducibility. RESULTS: The results of Study 1, obtained in 128 obese patients (mean age: 42.5 12.1, BMI: 34.5 2.8 kg/m2, women: 83.6%) enabled reduction of the 91 questionnaire items to 36, grouped into 5 dimensions: physical impact, psycho-social impact, sex life, comfort with food and diet experience. Two hundred and twelve patients (mean age: 43.3 12.2, BMI: 35.8 7.4 kg/m2, women: 77.7%) were included in Study 2, among whom 75 filled out the questionnaire twice at a one week interval. Analyses enabled verification of the construction validity and internal reliability (Cronbach alpha > 0.7) of the questionnaire as well as its concurrent validity in relation to summarized SF-12 scores and its clinical validity. The "physical impact" dimension was significantly influenced by BMI and age, the dimensions "sex life" and "diet experience" by the factors gender and BMI, while "psycho-social impact" was influenced by the 3 factors cited. Its reproducibility was also deemed satisfactory (intra-class correlation coefficient > 0.8). CONCLUSION: This new questionnaire, called the "Echelle Qualité de Vie, Obésité et Diététique (EQVOD)"/"Quality of Life, Obesity and Dietetics (QOLOD)" rating scale is sufficiently reliable and reproducible to be used in clinical practice. It is a simple tool adapted to socio-cultural factors of obesity in France, enabling taking into account of the effects of dietary management on the HRQOL of obese people.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Feminino , França , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Civil , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 29(11): 1321-8, 2005 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16116494

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The present study was undertaken to assess the differential impact of insulin resistance, leptin and body composition on myocardial mass and serum markers of cardiac fibrosis in obese subjects, within a small range of elevated BMI (30-40 kg/m(2)), without pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy or other cardiovascular disease. BACKGROUND: Obesity is an independent predictor of left ventricular mass (LVM) and is associated with disturbances in cardiac structure. The extent of the interstitial fibrosis in obese patients is not known, especially in the absence of cardiac hypertrophy. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 160 obese subjects. The LVM was obtained using the Devereux formula. Body composition was estimated from a total body scan. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), and cardiac collagen turnover by measurement of procollagen type III aminopeptide (PIIINP). PIIINP was correlated to the E/A ratio (r=0.24; P=0.012), a marker of ventricular function. PIIINP was independently correlated with glucose concentration (r=0.27; P=0.004), indexes of insulin resistance (HOMA (r=0.27; P=0.003), insulin (r=0.24; P=0.008)), and parameters associated with the insulin-resistance syndrome (HDL-cholesterol r=-0.27; P=0.004) and fat trunk/fat leg ratio (r=0.24; P=0.053)). The variable most correlated with PIIINP was HDL-cholesterol, followed by HOMA (r (2)=0.13). When HOMA was substituted for blood glucose concentration and insulinemia (Model 2), HDL-cholesterol was strongly related to lower PIIINP levels, followed by higher glucose concentration (r (2)=0.21). Regression analyses showed that LVM had the strongest independent positive correlation with fat-free mass (FFM) (r=0.39; P=0.0002), followed by systolic blood pressure (r=0.19; P=0.034). Neither adipose mass nor height independently added information to multivariate models. The ratio leptin/fat mass was correlated with LVM (r=-0.27; P=0.004), but not independently of the FFM. Markers for fibrosis were not significantly correlated with LVM. As a result, FFM was the most predictive factor of LVM in obese subjects. CONCLUSION: We found that serum levels of markers of cardiac collagen synthesis were significantly associated with insulin resistance in normotensive, nondiabetic obese subjects, and not related to the LVM. As a result, PIIINP could be a very early marker of ventricular dysfunction in these patients. Furthermore, we suggest that, for better detection of left ventricle hypertrophy in obese subjects, LVM should be indexed to FFM rather than to body surface area, or height.


Assuntos
Colágeno/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/análise , Pressão Sanguínea , Composição Corporal , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Leptina , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocárdio/patologia , Obesidade/patologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Pró-Colágeno/sangue
8.
Rev Med Liege ; 60(5-6): 374-82, 2005.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16035297

RESUMO

Obesity is an epidemic disease associated with numerous cardiovascular risk factors as diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, hypertension. Insulin resistance seems to be an important promoter for the development of most of these abnormalities. Besides genetic background, obesity, especially abdominal adiposity, is by far the most important factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. The treatment of a diabetic obese subject begins with diet and regular physical activity, eventually with a psychological support. In case of failure of such lifestyle approach alone, addition of drug therapy should be considered. It may include pharmacological agents able to promote weight loss (orlistat, sibutramine, possibly rimonabant) and/or antihyperglycaemic compounds capable of reducing insulin resistance (metformin, glitazones, acarbose). In case of severe/morbid obesity complicated with type 2 diabetes not well controlled with medical means, bariatric surgery is the only treatment that can induce an important and sustained weight loss, associated with marked improvement of metabolic control and amelioration of overall prognosis.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/complicações , Abdome , Tecido Adiposo , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Fatores de Risco , Perda de Peso
9.
Ann Endocrinol (Paris) ; 66(2 Pt 3): 2S36-45, 2005 Apr.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15959395

RESUMO

The metabolic syndrome represents the association in a single individual of a cluster of metabolic and hemodynamic factors, leading to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and/or cardiovascular diseases. Several definitions exist (WHO, EGIR, NCEP-ATP III, AACE), but all of them include a cluster of criteria (hyper glycemia or type 2 diabetes, arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, abdominal obesity) which increased these risks in parallel to their aggregation. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in industrialized countries represents 10 to 30% of the adult population, depending on the definition used and of the range of age, with a regular progression, particularly in women. Thus, it is needed to identify subjects with metabolic syndrome in the general population, and not only in overweight/obese subjects. This review, briefly presents the main definitions, as well as current data on pathophysiology, prevalence and consequences of the metabolic syndrome. Steps to diagnose it and guidance for the therapeutic management of metabolic syndrome in primary care practice are described.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco
10.
Diabetes Metab ; 29(3): 307-14, 2003 Jun.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12909821

RESUMO

An opinion poll was carried out during the ALFEDIAM Congress Bordeaux 2003. One hundred and thirty-seven participants (mean age 43.6 +/- 8.3 years/sex Ratio approximately 1) among whom 22.6% run private practices, 51.8% work in hospitals and 21.3% are both private and hospital practitioners, have been questioned about their conception of the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Prediabetes is an acknowledged entity for 61% of the people surveyed. Two thirds use as a diagnostical criterion, moderate fasting hyperglycemia and/or a impaired glucose tolerance. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is still commonly practised among 51.9% but that is done sparingly only to confirm the diagnosis of diabetes in presence either of several risk factors or of a moderate fasting hyperglycemia. According to 70% of the answers, the detection of diabetes must be repeated every year among at risk subjects aged over 45. The metabolic syndrome is defined according to diverse criteria. The right definition of ATP III is given only in 5% of the cases. As regards the treatment, the combined requirements of physical activity and dietary rules are approved by 97% of the answers. The majority of the persons questioned in the survey consider that a slight loss of weight (less than 5% of the initial weight) is sufficient in a high risk risk individual.On the other hand, opinions are divided as regards the use of drugs at the pre-diabetes stage. Metformin is the only one that is accepted by more than 50% with a rate of 58.4% of positive answers, acarbose and orlistat rating respectively 37.2% and 35%. However a great majority (83.6%) are in favour of the reimbursement of antidiabetic drugs in this indication, for high risk individuals, provided a study has clearly demonstrated the efficiency of the molecule concerned.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Jejum , França/epidemiologia , Intolerância à Glucose/epidemiologia , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia
11.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 57(3): 496-503, 2003 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12627189

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with chronic pancreatitis suffer from malabsorption and nutritional deficiencies. However there is little data available concerning the fatty acid profile in chronic pancreatitis. Diabetes mellitus, a common complication of this disease, could interfere with the metabolism of fatty acids. SUBJECTS: We therefore compared the fatty acid composition of LDL from four groups of male patients with (a) chronic pancreatitis without diabetes (ND-CP; n=12), (b) diabetes secondary to chronic pancreatitis and insulin-treated (CP-D; n=35); (c) type 1 diabetes (n=25); and (d) controls (n=20). RESULTS: The patients in both groups of chronic pancreatitis (ND-CP and CP-D) had lower mean values for linoleic acid than that seen in the type 1 DM and control groups, whereas monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA; 18 : 1(n-9) and (16 : 1(n-7)) were significantly increased in these two groups (ND-CP and CP-D). Docosa-hexaenoic-acid (22 : 6(n-3)) was significantly decreased in the CP-D group (P>0.05), a response that could be explained by the effects of diabetes mellitus and by selenium deficiency. In this way, diabetes was associated with a decrease in the docosa-hexaenoic-acid (22 : 6(n-3); r=0.30, P=0.005), and selenium was correlated with DHA (r=0.28, P=0.029) and with the 22 : 6(n-3)/20 : 5(n-3) ratio (evaluating the delta 4 desaturation); r=0.31, P=0.022), independently of the diabetes effect. Selenium was negatively correlated with 20 : 4(n-6)/20 : 3(n-6) ratio (evaluating the delta 5 desaturase; r=-0.30; P=0.025). These results suggest that these two factors may have a role in the regulation of the desaturation process. If we consider that a ratio of 16 : 1(n-7)/18 : 2(n-6) greater than 0.086 in plasma indicates an EFAn-6 deficiency, 40% of our CP patients, 57.6% of CP-D patients and 13.6% of type 1 DM patients were involved. CONCLUSIONS: The consequences of these deficiencies are not evaluated in this disease. However, correction of the fundamental deficiencies in essential fatty acids and in selenium seems desirable in chronic pancreatitis.


Assuntos
LDL-Colesterol/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Essenciais/sangue , Pancreatite/sangue , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença Crônica , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/etiologia , Humanos , Síndromes de Malabsorção/sangue , Síndromes de Malabsorção/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pancreatite/complicações , Selênio/sangue
12.
Ann Endocrinol (Paris) ; 64(5 Pt 2): S45-51, 2003 Nov.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14707904

RESUMO

Obesity prevalence is rapidly growing, particularly in children and young adolescents. It is proved to be important to prevent it within a public health strategy. Primary prevention of obesity should not be focused on obesity itself, but should be part of a global public health national policy, targeted to improve the nutritional status of the community, to reduce the risk for chronic diseases, to improve the health status and the quality of life of the general population. This overall prevention programme should be conducted on a large scale, at all level of the country infrastructure and sectors of society, and should acquired a strong local and regional support from communities, consumers and government, but it has also to be particularly focused on young subjects (and their family and school workers), especially in groups with low socio-economic status. Secondary prevention should be particularly focused on children with a high-risk for obesity and/or those with potential associated risk factors. Medical involvement is of a particular importance in this secondary prevention, to identify and to manage these at-risk children and young adolescents. The various approaches from a paediatrician, a physician specialised in human nutrition, a sociologist and a consumer representative are presented in this review.


Assuntos
Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Criança , Governo , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Pediatria , Papel do Médico , Fatores de Risco
13.
Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord ; 26(4): 496-503, 2002 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12075576

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Leptin plays a major role in the regulation of body weight. It circulates in both free and bound form. One of the leptin receptor isoforms exists in a circulating soluble form that can bind leptin. In the present study, we measured the soluble leptin receptor (SLR) levels in lean and obese humans. We investigated the relationship between plasma SLR levels, plasma leptin levels and the degree of obesity. We also examined whether SLR concentrations could be modulated by fat mass loss induced by a 3 month weight-reducing diet. SUBJECTS: A total of 112 obese (age 18-50 y; body mass index (BMI) 30-44 kg/m2; 23 men and 89 women), 38 overweight (age 19-48 y; BMI 25-29 kg/m2; 10 men and 28 women) and 63 lean (age 18-50 y; BMI 17-24 kg/m2; 16 men and 47 women) humans. MEASUREMENTS: A direct double monoclonal sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for the quantitative measurement of the soluble human leptin receptor. Leptin was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Body composition was assessed by biphotonic absorptiometry DEXA (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry). RESULTS: We observed that the SLR is present in human plasma (range 10-100 ng/ml). SLR levels were lower in obese and overweight than lean subjects (28.7+/-8.8, 40.2+/-14.9, 51.2+/-12.5 ng/ml, respectively) and were inversely correlated to leptin and percentage of body fat (r=-0.74 and r=-0.76; respectively; P<0.0001). The ratio of circulating leptin to SLR was strongly related to the percentage of body fat (r=0.91; P<0.0001). Interestingly a gender difference was observed in SLR levels, which were higher in obese and overweight men than in obese and overweight women. In obese subjects after a 3 month low-calorie diet, SLR levels increased in proportion to the decrease in fat mass. In the gel filtration profile, SLR coeluted exactly with the bound leptin fractions. CONCLUSION: Obesity, in humans is associated with decreasing levels of the circulating soluble leptin receptor (SLR). The relationship of SLR with the degree of adiposity suggests that high SLR levels may enhance leptin action in lean subjects more than in obese subjects.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Receptores de Superfície Celular , Tecido Adiposo , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Cromatografia em Gel , Dieta Redutora , Ingestão de Energia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radioimunoensaio , Receptores para Leptina , Caracteres Sexuais
15.
Ann Endocrinol (Paris) ; 63(6 Pt 2): S38-51, 2002 Dec.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12733328

RESUMO

Obesity is known to predispose to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a condition characterized by repeated episodes of apnea or hypopnea during sleep, due to the interruption of airflow through the nose and mouth. These episodes lead to the fragmentation of sleep and to decrease in oxyhaemoglobin saturation. Patients with massive obesity, with or without daytime hypersomnolence should be systematically screened for OSA, because many of them appear to be asymptomatic and unaware of their breathing abnormalities during sleep. Polysomnography (PSG) in an attended hospital laboratory setting is the gold standard for the diagnosis of OSA. However portable recording devices can be used for screening with good sensibility and specificity, and even for diagnosis when the apnea-hypopnea index is high. However the final diagnosis can only be carried out in a sleep laboratory using PSG by highly-qualified personnel, because of the limitations of the portable recording device. There is a strong association between OSA and the risk of traffic accidents. It has been established that OSA affects quality of life. There is also increasing evidence that OSA is an independent risk factor for cardio-vascular diseases. This has been successfully demonstrated for hypertension by prospective studies. But the evidence remains weak for myocardial infarction, stroke or mortality. Treating OSA with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the treatment of choice. CPAP improves quality of life, driving simulator performance, blood pressure and sleepiness, as demonstrated by randomised placebo controlled trials. The majority of obese OSA patients are currently not being offered diagnosis testing and treatment. It's a real challenge due to the epidemic increase of obesity prevalence. Portable recording devices could be available outside the sleep laboratory in nutrition department, where morbid obesity is treated. This emphasizes the need for a real collaboration between these departments and sleep experts.


Assuntos
Obesidade/complicações , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/diagnóstico , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polissonografia , Fatores de Risco , Caracteres Sexuais , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/complicações , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/mortalidade , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia
16.
Clin Auton Res ; 11(2): 79-86, 2001 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11570607

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to investigate cardiac and peripheral autonomic nervous system changes in normotensive overweight or obese subjects and the possible relation between these changes and insulin resistance independent of age. The authors used spectral analysis to measure simultaneously the short-term variability of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) using a Finapres device, in 67 normotensive overweight or obese patients (age 37 +/- 12 y, body mass index [BMI] = 37 +/- 9 kg/m2) and 45 never-obese subjects (controls; age 41 +/- 13 y, BMI 22 +/- 2 kg/m2). The spectral density was determined in three situations: subjects in the supine position, spontaneously breathing; subjects in the supine with controlled breathing; and subjects standing. The insulin sensitivity of overweight and obese subjects was determined from homeostatic model assessment (HOMA). The variability of normalized low-frequency (LF) spectral analysis of both HR and BP was lower in overweight or obese subjects than in controls, in the supine and standing positions (p <0.01). Normalized LF spectral analysis was negatively correlated to BMI independent of age, whatever the position. Homeostatic model assessment values were negatively correlated to the normalized LF spectral of HR, systolic BP and diastolic BP, in the standing position independent of BMI and age (p <0.05). Normalized high frequency (HF) of HR during controlled breathing decreased with age but not with BMI. In normotensive overweight or obese subjects, changes in sympathetic nervous system modulation are strongly correlated to insulin resistance. Decreased HR and BP variability could partly account for the higher cardiovascular risk and incidence of sudden death in obese persons.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Respiração , Fatores Sexuais , Nervo Vago/fisiopatologia
17.
Metabolism ; 50(9): 1019-24, 2001 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11555832

RESUMO

The metabolism of apolipoprotein (apo) A-IV in diabetes mellitus (DM) is poorly understood. Several factors, such as dietary fat intake, fat malabsorption, acute inflammation, and hormonal dysregulation can disturb the plasma apo A-IV concentration. We have compared the plasma apo A-IV concentrations in patients with type 1 DM and DM secondary to chronic pancreatitis to determine the effects of combinations of these factors. We examined 4 groups of male patients with chronic pancreatitis without diabetes (ND-CP) (n = 12), diabetes secondary to chronic pancreatitis and insulin-treated (CP-DM) (n = 32), type 1 diabetes (n = 25), and controls (n = 20). Plasma apo A-IV was significantly lower in the chronic pancreatitis patients (ND-CP and CP-DM) than in the other patients. Inflammatory proteins (fibrinogen, ceruloplasmin, and haptoglobin) were significantly elevated in the 2 chronic pancreatitis groups. The apo A-IV concentration was positively correlated with hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) percentage in each group of diabetic patients (CP-DM, r =.35; P =.046; type 1 DM, r =.53; P =.010), in both groups of diabetic patients (r =.472; P <.0001) and negatively correlated with ceruloplasmin concentration in each group of diabetic patients (CP-DM, r = -.48; P =.0052; type 1 DM, r = -.66; P =.003), in both groups of diabetic patients (r = -.561; P <.0001), and in the whole population (r = -.463; P <.0001). Apo A-IV was also negatively correlated with haptoglobin in type 1 DM patients (r = -.434; P =.0435), in the both groups of diabetic patients (r = -.349; P =.0154), and in the whole population (r = -.351; P =.0019). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that only HbA(1c) and ceruloplasmin were independent explanatory variables. Plasma apo A-IV is positively correlated with HbA(1c) suggesting that hyperglycemia per se selectively affects apo A-IV metabolism. The correlation between the concentrations of inflammatory protein and apo A-IV suggest a link between chronic inflammation and apo A-IV synthesis or catabolism. As apo A-IV is involved in reverse cholesterol transport, its low level in CP-DM may contribute to the accelerated development of atherosclerosis in these patients.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas A/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Hiperglicemia/sangue , Síndromes de Malabsorção/sangue , Pancreatite/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Ceruloplasmina/metabolismo , Doença Crônica , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/etiologia , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Haptoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/etiologia , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/complicações , Modelos Lineares , Síndromes de Malabsorção/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pancreatite/complicações , Pancreatite/diagnóstico , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
18.
Diabetes Metab ; 27(2 Pt 2): 261-70, 2001 Apr.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11452220

RESUMO

Obesity and visceral or upper body fat distribution, have a major impact on insulin sensitivity. There is strong evidence to suggest that free fatty acids (FFA) contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. Increased FFA release from adipose tissue or failure of FFA using tissues to remove them normally, lead to increased triglycerides (TG) and FFA fluxes. Increased delivery of FFA to muscle reduces muscle glucose uptake and utilisation by substrate competition or direct inhibition of glucose transport. Insulin resistance has been correlated with the size of intramuscular TG store. Intracellular TG have been involved in beta cell failure the so called lipotoxicity phenomena. The rate of FFA to the liver is a major determinant of hepatic TG secretion. So the regulation of FFA distribution between FFA using tissues and the partition of FFA between storage and oxidation could be involved in the developpment of insulin resistance. The dietary macronutrients could play a role in nutrient partitioning but their role in the etiology of insulin resistance is poorly understood due to a paucity of credible intervention studies in humans. However deleterious effects of saturated fatty acids on insulin action and the beneficial effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) could be suspected from animal studies, and from epidemiological or clinical studies in humans. A very high intake of sucrose or fructose could be deleterious but low glycemic index foods, and fibers could have protective effects. Weight loss can induce marked improvement in insulin resistance, but weight maintenance is also required to keep long term good metabolic results.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo , Composição Corporal , Dieta , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Músculos/metabolismo , Obesidade/complicações , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Perda de Peso
19.
Pancreas ; 22(3): 299-306, 2001 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11291933

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus, a common complication of chronic pancreatitis, can disturb the metabolism of zinc, copper, and selenium. We analyzed the effects of hyperglycemia, malabsorption, and dietary intake on these factors in 35 men with alcohol-induced chronic pancreatitis complicated by insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (CP-D), 12 men with chronic pancreatitis but no diabetes (nondiabetic CP), 25 men with type 1 diabetes mellitus (type 1 DM), and 20 control subjects. Diabetes due to chronic pancreatitis was associated with decreased plasma zinc and selenium concentrations and with increased urinary copper excretion. Of the chronic pancreatitis patients, 17% had low plasma zinc, and 41% of them had low plasma selenium. None of the type 1 diabetic patients had low plasma concentrations of zinc, but 12% of them had a low selenium concentration. Hyperglycemia, as assessed by fasting plasma glucose and by plasma HbAlc, was responsible for the increased zinc excretion and the decreased superoxide dismutase activity. The perturbations of the copper, selenium, and zinc metabolism were particularly pronounced in subjects with chronic pancreatitis plus diabetes mellitus. We have yet to determine whether the differences in trace-element status contribute to the clinical expression of the disease.


Assuntos
Cobre/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Pancreatite/sangue , Selênio/sangue , Zinco/sangue , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , Doença Crônica , Cobre/urina , Eritrócitos/enzimologia , Glutationa Peroxidase/sangue , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Superóxido Dismutase/sangue , Zinco/urina
20.
Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord ; 24(12): 1600-7, 2000 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11126212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The cell functions involved in the action of insulin--receptor binding, enzyme and transporter activities--are controlled by membrane properties. We have previously shown that the fasting plasma insulin (FPI) concentration and the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) estimate of insulin resistance are associated with the sphingomyelin concentration in the erythrocyte membranes of obese women. OBJECTIVES: (1) To study the distribution of phospholipid classes in the plasma membrane and their association with insulin resistance markers in the adipocyte, an insulin-sensitive cell in obese women. (2) To investigate the influence of diabetes in a small group of obese women treated by diet alone. (3) To compare the distribution of phospholipids in erythrocyte membranes in a subgroup of obese nondiabetic and diabetic women. SUBJECTS: Subcutaneous fat biopsies were taken from the abdominal region of 19 obese non-diabetic and seven obese type 2 diabetic women. Erythrocyte membrane assessment was performed in a subgroup of 10 of the 19 obese nondiabetic and in the seven diabetic patients. METHODS: The phospholipid composition of adipocyte and erythrocyte plasma membranes was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: FPI was positively correlated with the adipocyte membrane contents of sphingomyelin (P < 0.001), phosphatidylethanolamine (P < 0.05), and phosphatidylcholine (P < 0.01) in the obese nondiabetic women. Similar correlations were obtained with HOMA. A stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that sphingomyelin accounted for 45.6 and 43.8% of the variance in FPI and HOMA values as an independent predictor. There was a similar positive independent association between FPI and SM in the erythrocyte membranes of the studied subgroup. Diabetes per se did not influence the independent association between SM membrane contents and FPI in both cell types. CONCLUSION: These results suggest a link between membrane phospholipid composition, especially SM, and hyperinsulinemia in obese women.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/ultraestrutura , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Membrana Eritrocítica/química , Hiperinsulinismo/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/análise , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Membrana Celular/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Jejum , Feminino , Homeostase , Humanos , Hiperinsulinismo/sangue , Hiperinsulinismo/patologia , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/patologia , Fosfatidilcolinas/análise , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/análise , Análise de Regressão , Esfingomielinas/análise
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