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1.
J Am Coll Surg ; 234(4): 419-427, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35290260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on duration of antibiotics in patients managed with an open abdomen (OA) due to intra-abdominal infection (IAI) are scarce. We hypothesized that patients with IAI managed with OA rather than closed abdomen (CA) would have higher rates of secondary infections (SIs) independent of the duration of the antibiotic treatment. METHODS: This was an observational, prospective, multicenter, international study of patients with IAI requiring laparotomy for source control. Demographic and antibiotic duration values were collected. Primary outcomes were SI (surgical site, bloodstream, pneumonia, urinary tract) and mortality. Statistical analysis included ANOVA, chi-square/Fisher's exact test, and logistic regression. RESULTS: Twenty-one centers contributed 752 patients. The average age was 59.6 years, 43.6% were women, and 43.9% were managed with OA. Overall mortality was 16.1%, with higher rates among OA patients (31.6% vs 4.4%, p < 0.001). OA patients had higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (4.7 vs 1.8, p < 0.001), American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status (3.6 vs 2.7, p < 0.001), and APACHE II scores (16.1 vs 9.4, p < 0.001). The mean duration of antibiotics was 6.5 days (8.0 OA vs 5.4 CA, p < 0.001). A total of 179 (23.8%) patients developed SI (33.1% OA vs 16.8% CA, p < 0.001). Longer antibiotic duration was associated with increased rates of SI: 1 to 2 days, 15.8%; 3 to 5 days, 20.4%; 6 to 14 days, 26.6%; and more than 14 days, 46.8% (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with IAI managed with OA had higher rates of SI and increased mortality compared with CA. A prolonged duration of antibiotics was associated with increased rates of SI. Increased antibiotic duration is not associated with improved outcomes in patients with IAI and OA.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Infecções Intra-Abdominais , Abdome/cirurgia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Infecções Intra-Abdominais/complicações , Infecções Intra-Abdominais/etiologia , Laparotomia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
2.
Am Surg ; 88(5): 953-958, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35275764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) has developed a grading system for emergency general surgery (EGS) conditions. We sought to validate the AAST EGS grades for patients undergoing urgent/emergent colorectal resection. METHODS: Patients enrolled in the "Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma Multicenter Colorectal Resection in EGS-to anastomose or not to anastomose" study undergoing urgent/emergent surgery for obstruction, ischemia, or diverticulitis were included. Baseline demographics, comorbidity severity as defined by Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), procedure type, and AAST grade were prospectively collected. Outcomes included length of stay (LOS) in-hospital mortality, and surgical complications (superficial/deep/organ-space surgical site infection, anastomotic leak, stoma complication, fascial dehiscence, and need for further intervention). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to describe outcomes and risk factors for surgical complication or mortality. RESULTS: There were 367 patients, with a mean (± SD) age of 62 ± 15 years. 39% were women. The median interquartile range (IQR) CCI was 4 (2-6). Overall, the pathologies encompassed the following AAST EGS grades: I (17, 5%), II (54, 15%), III (115, 31%), IV (95, 26%), and V (86, 23%). Management included laparoscopic (24, 7%), open (319, 87%), and laparoscopy converted to laparotomy (24, 6%). Higher AAST grade was associated with laparotomy (P = .01). The median LOS was 13 days (8-22). At least 1 surgical complication occurred in 33% of patients and the mortality rate was 14%. Development of at least 1 surgical complication, need for unplanned intervention, mortality, and increased LOS were associated with increasing AAST severity grade. On multivariable analysis, factors predictive of in-hospital mortality included AAST organ grade, CCI, and preoperative vasopressor use (odds ratio (OR) 1.9, 1.6, 3.1, respectively). The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma emergency general surgery grade was also associated with the development of at least 1 surgical complication (OR 2.5), while CCI, preoperative vasopressor use, respiratory failure, and pneumoperitoneum were not. CONCLUSION: The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma emergency general surgery grading systems display construct validity for mortality and surgical complications after urgent/emergent colorectal resection. These results support incorporation of AAST EGS grades for quality benchmarking and surgical outcomes research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Cirurgia Geral , Laparoscopia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
3.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 92(2): 305-312, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34813581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy and Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons provide guidelines for managing suspected common bile duct (CBD) stones. We sought to evaluate adherence to the guidelines among patients with choledocholithiasis and/or acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP) and to evaluate the ability of these guidelines to predict choledocholithiasis. METHODS: We prospectively identified patients undergoing same-admission cholecystectomy for choledocholithiasis and/or ABP from 2016 to 2019 at 12 United States medical centers. Predictors of suspected CBD stones were very strong (CBD stone on ultrasound; bilirubin >4 mg/dL), strong (CBD > 6 mm; bilirubin ≥1.8 to ≤4 mg/dL), or moderate (abnormal liver function tests other than bilirubin; age >55 years; ABP). Patients were grouped by probability of CBD stones: high (any very strong or both strong predictors), low (no predictors), or intermediate (any other predictor combination). The management of each probability group was compared with the recommended management in the guidelines. RESULTS: The cohort was comprised of 844 patients. High-probability patients had 64.3% (n = 238/370) deviation from guidelines, intermediate-probability patients had 29% (n = 132/455) deviation, and low-probability patients had 78.9% (n = 15/19) deviation. Acute biliary pancreatitis increased the odds of deviation for the high- (odds ratio [OR], 1.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-2.8; p = 0.03) and intermediate-probability groups (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.07-2.42; p = 0.02). Age older than 55 years (OR, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.4-3.43; p < 0.001) also increased the odds of deviation for the intermediate group. A CBD greater than 6 mm predicted choledocholithiasis in the high (adjusted OR (aOR), 2.16; 95% CI, 1.17-3.97; p = 0.01) and intermediate group (aOR, 2.78; 95% CI, 1.59-4.86; p < 0.001). Any very strong predictor (aOR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.76-3.37; p < 0.0001) and both strong predictors predicted choledocholithiasis (aOR, 2; 95% CI, 1.35-2.96; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Almost 45% of patients with suspected CBD stones were managed discordantly from the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy and Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons guidelines. We believe these guidelines warrant revision to better reflect the ability of the clinical variables at predicting choledocholithiasis. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic/Care Management; Level IV.


Assuntos
Coledocolitíase/diagnóstico , Coledocolitíase/terapia , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pancreatite/diagnóstico , Pancreatite/terapia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos
4.
J Pediatr Surg ; 57(3): 462-468, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34052006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of Behavioral Health Disorders (BHDs) on pediatric injury is poorly understood. We investigated the relationship between BHDs and outcomes following pediatric trauma. METHODS: We analyzed injured children (age 5-15) from 2014 to 2016 using the Pediatric Trauma Quality Improvement Program. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Univariable and multivariable analyses compared children with and without a comorbid BHD. RESULTS: Of 69,305 injured children, 3,448 (5%) had a BHD. These 3,448 children had a median of 1 [IQR: 1, 1] BHD diagnosis: ADHD (n = 2491), major psychiatric disorder (n = 1037), drug use disorder (n = 250), and alcohol use disorder (n = 29). A higher proportion of injured children with BHDs suffered intentional and penetrating injury. Firearm injuries were more common for BHD patients (3% vs 1%, p<0.001). Children with BHDs were more likely to have an ISS>25 compared to children without (5% vs 3%, p<0.001). While median LOS was longer for BHD patients (2 [1, 3] vs 2 [1, 4], p<0.001), mortality was similar (1% vs 1%, p = 0.76) and complications were less frequent (7% vs 8%, p = 0.002). BHD was associated with lower risk of mortality (OR 0.45, 95%CI [0.30, 0.69]) after controlling for age, sex, race, trauma type, and injury intent and severity. CONCLUSION: Children with BHDs experienced lower in-hospital mortality risk after traumatic injury despite more severe injury upon presentation. Intentional and penetrating injuries are particularly concerning, and future work should assess prevention efforts in this vulnerable group.


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo , Transtornos Mentais , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo , Ferimentos Penetrantes , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Am J Surg ; 223(4): 780-786, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215418

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We used interrupted time series (ITS) analysis to determine whether e-scooter shares' introduction in September 2017 increased serious scooter-related injury across the United States. METHODS: Using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System, we queried emergency department visits involving motorized scooter-related injuries from January 2010-December 2019. Cases originating where e-scooter shares launched between September 1, 2017-December 1, 2019 (intervention period) were considered exposed. The first month of launch (September 2017) was chosen as the time point for pre- and post-intervention analysis. The primary outcome was change in hospitalizations following scooter injury in association with the month/year launch. RESULTS: This analysis includes 2754 unweighted encounters, representing 102614 estimated injuries involving motorized scooters nationwide. Hospitals within 20 miles of e-scooter shares also experienced a significant monthly increase of 0.24 scooter-related injury hospitalizations/1000 product-related injury hospitalizations ([0.17,0.31]) compared to a non-significant change in hospitalizations of 0.02 [-0.05,0.09] for control hospitals. CONCLUSION: An increase in serious motorized scooter injuries coincides with e-scooter shares' introduction in the US. Future works should explore effective polices to improve public safety.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitalização , Acidentes de Trânsito , Eletrônica , Hospitais , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
J Biomed Inform ; 126: 103975, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34906736

RESUMO

Uncontrolled hemorrhage is a leading cause of preventable death among patients with trauma. Early recognition of hemorrhage can aid in the decision to administer blood transfusion and improve patient outcomes. To provide real-time measurement and continuous monitoring of hemoglobin concentration, the non-invasive and continuous hemoglobin (SpHb) measurement device has drawn extensive attention in clinical practice. However, the accuracy of such a device varies in different scenarios, so the use is not yet widely accepted. This article focuses on using statistical nonparametric models to improve the accuracy of SpHb measurement device by considering measurement bias among instantaneous measurements and individual evolution trends. In the proposed method, the robust locally estimated scatterplot smoothing (LOESS) method and the Kernel regression model are considered to address those issues. Overall performance of the proposed method was evaluated by cross-validation, which showed a substantial improvement in accuracy with an 11.3% reduction of standard deviation, 23.7% reduction of mean absolute error, and 28% reduction of mean absolute percentage error compared to the original measurements. The effects of patient demographics and initial medical condition were analyzed and deemed to not have a significant effect on accuracy. Because of its high accuracy, the proposed method is highly promising to be considered to support transfusion decision-making and continuous monitoring of hemoglobin concentration. The method also has promise for similar advancement of other diagnostic devices in healthcare.


Assuntos
Hemoglobinas , Oximetria , Testes Hematológicos , Hemoglobinas/análise , Hemorragia , Humanos , Oximetria/métodos
7.
Surgery ; 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34815095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Small bowel obstruction management has evolved to incorporate the Gastrografin challenge. We expanded its use to the emergency department observation unit, potentially avoiding hospital admission for highly select small bowel obstruction patients. We hypothesized that the emergency department observation unit small bowel obstruction protocol would reduce admissions, costs, and the total time spent in the hospital without compromising outcomes. METHODS: We reviewed patients who presented with small bowel obstruction from January 2015 to December 2018. Patients deemed to require urgent surgical intervention were admitted directly and excluded. The emergency department observation unit small bowel obstruction guidelines were introduced in November 2016. Patients were divided into pre and postintervention groups based on this date. The postintervention group was further subclassified to examine the emergency department observation unit patients. Cost analysis for each patient was performed looking at number of charges, direct costs, indirect cost, and total costs during their admission. RESULTS: In total, 125 patients were included (mean age 69 ± 14.3 years). The preintervention group (n = 62) and postintervention group (n = 63) had no significant difference in demographics. The postintervention group had a 51% (36.7 hours, P < .001) reduction in median duration of stay and a total cost reduction of 49% (P < .001). The emergency department observation unit subgroup (n = 46) median length of stay was 23.6 hours. The readmission rate was 16% preintervention compared to 8% in the postintervention group (P = .18). CONCLUSION: Management of highly selected small bowel obstruction patients with the emergency department observation unit small bowel obstruction protocol was associated with decreased length of stay and total cost, without an increase in complications, surgical intervention, or readmissions.

8.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 91(1): 234-240, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial guidance for common bile duct (CBD) stones is limited. We sought to examine the effect of antibiotic duration on infectious complications in patients with choledocholithiasis and/or gallstone pancreatitis. METHODS: We performed a post hoc analysis of a prospective, observational, multicenter study of patients undergoing same admission cholecystectomy for choledocholithiasis and gallstone pancreatitis between 2016 and 2019. We excluded patients with cholangitis and/or cholecystitis. Patients were divided into groups based on duration of antibiotics: prophylactic (<24 hours) or prolonged (≥24 hours). We analyzed these two groups in the preoperative and postoperative periods. Outcomes included infectious complications, acute kidney injury (AKI), and hospital length of stay (LOS). RESULTS: There were 755 patients in the cohort. Increasing age, CBD diameter, and a preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (odds ratio, 1.91; 95% confidence interval, 1.34-2.73; p < 0.001) significantly predicted prolonged preoperative antibiotic use. Increasing age, operative duration, and a postoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (odds ratio, 4.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.85-13.65; p < 0.001) significantly predicted prolonged postoperative antibiotic use. Rates of infectious complications were similar between groups, but LOS was 2 days longer for patients receiving overall prolonged antibiotics (p < 0.0001). Patients with AKI received two more days of overall antibiotic therapy (p = 0.02) compared with those without AKI. CONCLUSION: Rates of postoperative infectious complications were similar among patients treated with a prolonged or prophylactic course of antibiotics. Prolonged antibiotic use was associated with a longer LOS and AKI. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, Level IV.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Colecistectomia/efeitos adversos , Coledocolitíase/cirurgia , Pancreatite/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica , Ducto Colédoco/cirurgia , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos
9.
J Pediatr Surg ; 56(12): 2342-2347, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546900

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sustained efforts in high-income countries have decreased the rate of unnecessary computed tomography (CT) among children, aiming to minimize radiation exposure. There are little data regarding CT use for pediatric trauma in low- and middle-income countries. We aimed to assess the pattern and utility of CT performed during evaluation of trauma patients presenting to a middle-income country (MIC) trauma center. METHODS: We reviewed pediatric (age<18) trauma admissions at a single tertiary referral center in South Africa. Patient demographics, injury details, surgical intervention(s), and mortality were abstracted from the medical record. CT indications, results, and necessity were determined by review. RESULTS: Of 1,630 children admitted to the trauma center, 826 (51%) had CT imaging. Children undergoing imaging were younger (median age 11 [IQR: 6, 16] vs 13 [IQR: 7, 17]) and had higher median ISS [9 [IQR: 4, 13] vs 4 [2, 9]) compared to those without imaging (both p<0.001). Overall, 1,224 scans were performed with normal findings in 609 (50%). A median of 1 scan was performed per patient (range: 1-5). The most common location was CT head (n = 695, 57%). Among patients with positive findings on CT head (n = 443), 31 (7%) underwent either intracranial pressure monitoring or surgery. CT of the cervical spine had positive findings in 12 (7%) with no patients undergoing spine surgery. Of 173 patients with abdominal CT imaging, 83 (48%) had abnormal findings and 18 (10%) required operative exploration. Thirteen (16%) patients with abnormal findings on abdominal CT had exploratory laparotomy. Of 111 children undergoing whole body CT, 8 (7%) underwent thoracic and/or abdominal operations. CONCLUSION: Use of CT during evaluation of pediatric trauma is common in an MIC center. A high rate of normal findings and low rates of intervention following head, cervical spine, and abdominal CT suggest potential overuse of this resource. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III.


Assuntos
Centros de Traumatologia , Ferimentos não Penetrantes , Adolescente , Vértebras Cervicais/lesões , Criança , Cabeça , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
10.
JAMA ; 324(10): 961-974, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897344

RESUMO

Importance: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability due to trauma. Early administration of tranexamic acid may benefit patients with TBI. Objective: To determine whether tranexamic acid treatment initiated in the out-of-hospital setting within 2 hours of injury improves neurologic outcome in patients with moderate or severe TBI. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial at 20 trauma centers and 39 emergency medical services agencies in the US and Canada from May 2015 to November 2017. Eligible participants (N = 1280) included out-of-hospital patients with TBI aged 15 years or older with Glasgow Coma Scale score of 12 or less and systolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or higher. Interventions: Three interventions were evaluated, with treatment initiated within 2 hours of TBI: out-of-hospital tranexamic acid (1 g) bolus and in-hospital tranexamic acid (1 g) 8-hour infusion (bolus maintenance group; n = 312), out-of-hospital tranexamic acid (2 g) bolus and in-hospital placebo 8-hour infusion (bolus only group; n = 345), and out-of-hospital placebo bolus and in-hospital placebo 8-hour infusion (placebo group; n = 309). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was favorable neurologic function at 6 months (Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended score >4 [moderate disability or good recovery]) in the combined tranexamic acid group vs the placebo group. Asymmetric significance thresholds were set at 0.1 for benefit and 0.025 for harm. There were 18 secondary end points, of which 5 are reported in this article: 28-day mortality, 6-month Disability Rating Scale score (range, 0 [no disability] to 30 [death]), progression of intracranial hemorrhage, incidence of seizures, and incidence of thromboembolic events. Results: Among 1063 participants, a study drug was not administered to 96 randomized participants and 1 participant was excluded, resulting in 966 participants in the analysis population (mean age, 42 years; 255 [74%] male participants; mean Glasgow Coma Scale score, 8). Of these participants, 819 (84.8%) were available for primary outcome analysis at 6-month follow-up. The primary outcome occurred in 65% of patients in the tranexamic acid groups vs 62% in the placebo group (difference, 3.5%; [90% 1-sided confidence limit for benefit, -0.9%]; P = .16; [97.5% 1-sided confidence limit for harm, 10.2%]; P = .84). There was no statistically significant difference in 28-day mortality between the tranexamic acid groups vs the placebo group (14% vs 17%; difference, -2.9% [95% CI, -7.9% to 2.1%]; P = .26), 6-month Disability Rating Scale score (6.8 vs 7.6; difference, -0.9 [95% CI, -2.5 to 0.7]; P = .29), or progression of intracranial hemorrhage (16% vs 20%; difference, -5.4% [95% CI, -12.8% to 2.1%]; P = .16). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with moderate to severe TBI, out-of-hospital tranexamic acid administration within 2 hours of injury compared with placebo did not significantly improve 6-month neurologic outcome as measured by the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01990768.


Assuntos
Antifibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Tranexâmico/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Antifibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Encefalopatias/etiologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/mortalidade , Método Duplo-Cego , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Feminino , Seguimentos , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Gravidade do Paciente , Análise de Sobrevida , Tempo para o Tratamento , Ácido Tranexâmico/efeitos adversos
11.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 89(6): 1023-1031, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890337

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Evidence comparing stoma creation (STM) versus anastomosis after urgent or emergent colorectal resection is limited. This study examined outcomes after colorectal resection in emergency general surgery patients. METHODS: This was an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma-sponsored prospective observational multicenter study of patients undergoing urgent/emergent colorectal resection. Twenty-one centers enrolled patients for 11 months. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were recorded. χ, Mann-Whitney U test, and multivariable logistic regression models were used to describe outcomes and risk factors for surgical complication/mortality. RESULTS: A total of 439 patients were enrolled (ANST, 184; STM, 255). The median (interquartile range) age was 62 (53-71) years, and the median Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) was 4 (1-6). The most common indication for surgery was diverticulitis (28%). Stoma group was older (64 vs. 58 years, p < 0.001), had a higher CCI, and were more likely to be immunosuppressed. Preoperatively, STM patients were more likely to be intubated (57 vs. 15, p < 0.001), on vasopressors (61 vs. 13, p < 0.001), have pneumoperitoneum (131 vs. 41, p < 0.001) or fecal contamination (114 vs. 33, p < 0.001), and had a higher incidence of elevated lactate (149 vs. 67, p < 0.001). Overall mortality was 13%, which was higher in STM patients (18% vs. 8%, p = 0.02). Surgical complications were more common in STM patients (35% vs. 25%, p = 0.02). On multivariable analysis, management with an open abdomen, intraoperative blood transfusion, and larger hospital size were associated with development of a surgical complication, while CCI, preoperative vasopressor use, steroid use, open abdomen, and intraoperative blood transfusion were independently associated with mortality. CONCLUSION: This study highlights a tendency to perform fecal diversion in patients who are acutely ill at presentation. There is a higher morbidity and mortality rate in STM patients. Independent predictors of mortality include CCI, preoperative vasopressor use, steroid use, open abdomen, and intraoperative blood transfusion. Following adjustment by clinical factors, method of colon management was not associated with surgical complications or mortality. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic study, level IV.


Assuntos
Colectomia/métodos , Cirurgia Colorretal/educação , Doença Diverticular do Colo/cirurgia , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Idoso , Anastomose Cirúrgica , Colectomia/educação , Colectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Emergências , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
12.
World J Surg ; 44(12): 3993-3998, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Comprehensive analysis of trauma care between high-, middle-, and low-income countries (HIC/MIC/LIC) is needed to improve global health. Comparison of HIC and MIC outcomes after damage control laparotomy (DCL) for patients is unknown. We evaluated DCL utilization among patients treated at high-volume trauma centers in the USA and South Africa, an MIC, hypothesizing similar mortality outcomes despite differences in resources and setting. METHODS: Post hoc analysis of prospectively collected trauma databases from participating centers was performed. Injury severity, physiologic, operative data and post-operative outcomes were abstracted. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed to assess differences between HIC/MIC for the primary outcome of mortality. RESULTS: There were 967 HIC and 602 MIC patients who underwent laparotomy. DCL occurred in 144 MIC patients (25%) and 241 HIC (24%) patients. Most sustained (58%) penetrating trauma with higher rates in the MIC compared to the HIC (71 vs. 32%, p = 0.001). Between groups, no differences were found for admission physiology, coagulopathy, or markers of shock except for increased presence of hypotension among patients in the HIC. Crystalloid infusion volumes were greater among MIC patients, and MIC patients received fewer blood products than those in the HIC. Overall mortality was 30% with similar rates between groups (29 in HIC vs. 33% in MIC, p = 0.4). On regression, base excess and penetrating injury were independent predictors of mortality but not patient residential status. CONCLUSION: Use and survival of DCL for patients with severe abdominal trauma was similar between trauma centers in HIC and MIC settings despite increased penetrating trauma and less transfusion in the MIC center. While the results overall suggest no gap in care for patients requiring DCL in this MIC, it highlights improvements that can be made in damage control resuscitation.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Abdominais/cirurgia , Hospitais com Alto Volume de Atendimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Laparotomia/efeitos adversos , Laparotomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatismos Abdominais/mortalidade , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Laparotomia/mortalidade , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Centros de Traumatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Injury ; 51(8): 1791-1797, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The phenomenon of extrajudicial "mob justice" and community assault (CA) has been documented in news reports and anecdotes from a number of low- and middle-income countries, but there is little literature on its burden on trauma systems. This study reviews a single center's management of CA victims and compares the spectrum of injuries seen following mob assault with those sustained via other forms of interpersonal violence (IPV). METHODS: Clinical data, injury details, and mortality among injured patients (age≥18) hospitalized in a South African tertiary referral center from 2012-2018 were abstracted. Patients with penetrating injury or missing ISS were excluded. CA was determined at time of admission by either self-designation or by patients' escorts. Univariate analyses compared the presentation and outcomes for CAs and non-CAs. RESULTS: Overall, CA constituted 5% of total trauma admissions and 8% of IPV-related admissions during the study period. Of 1,323 incidents of blunt injury following IPV, 239 (18%) were CAs. One in two CA victims (n=119, 50%) were struck by an identifiable weapon. Patients injured in CA were more frequently male (97% vs 85%), presented with ISS>15 (28% vs 21%), and had a shock index>0.9 (25% vs 19%) compared to non-CA (all p<0.001). Rates of operative intervention, ICU admission, and mortality did not differ (all p>0.05). CAs were more likely to be complicated by acute kidney injury (9% vs 1%, p<0.001) but less likely to involve neurologic complications (3% vs 10%. P<0.001) compared to non-CAs. Acute kidney injury in CA showed a pattern of significant musculocutaneous injury with rhabdomyolysis. CONCLUSION: CA contributes considerably to the high rates of IPV in a single South African center. Victims of such assaults sustain more severe injury with unique mechanisms and subsequent complications. This evidence supports the need to strengthen local governance and improve law enforcement efforts to prevent such violence.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Ferimentos não Penetrantes , Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino , Justiça Social , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Violência , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/epidemiologia
14.
Surgery ; 168(1): 62-66, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32466829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We sought to prospectively identify risk factors for biliary complications and 30-day readmission after cholecystectomy for choledocholithiasis and gallstone pancreatitis across multiple US hospitals. METHODS: We performed a prospective, observational study of patients who underwent same admission cholecystectomy for choledocholithiasis and gallstone pancreatitis between 2016 and 2019 at 12 US centers. Patients with prior history of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography or diagnosis of cholangitis were excluded. We used logistic regression to determine associations between preoperative demographics, labs, and imaging on primary outcomes: postoperative biliary complications and 30-day readmission. RESULTS: There were 989 patients in the cohort. There were 16 (1.6%) patients with postoperative biliary complications, including intra-abdominal abscesses, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography-induced pancreatitis, and biliary leaks. Increasing operative time (odds ratio 1.01, 95% confidence interval 1.00-1.01, P = .02), worsening leukocytosis (odds ratio 1.16, 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.25, P = .0002), and jaundice (odds ratio 3.25, 95% confidence interval 1.01-10.42, P = .04) were associated with postoperative biliary complications. There were 36 (3.6%) patients readmitted within 30 days owing to a surgical complication. A prior postoperative biliary complication (odds ratio 7.8, 95% confidence interval 1.63-37.27, P = .01), male sex (odds ratio 2.42, 95% confidence interval 1.2-4.87, P = .01), and index operative duration (odds ratio 1.01, 95% confidence interval 1.00-1.01, P = .03) were associated with 30-day readmission. CONCLUSION: Among patients undergoing cholecystectomy for common bile duct stones, jaundice, worsening leukocytosis, and longer operations are associated with postoperative biliary complications. A prior biliary complication is also predictive of a 30-day readmission. Surgeons should recognize these factors and avoid prematurely discharging at-risk patients given their propensity to develop complications and require readmission.


Assuntos
Colecistectomia Laparoscópica , Cálculos Biliares/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
World J Surg ; 44(8): 2518-2525, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pediatric resuscitation and trauma outcome (PRESTO) model was developed to aid comparisons of risk-adjusted mortality after injury in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We sought to validate PRESTO using data from a middle-income country (MIC) trauma registry and compare its performance to the Pediatric Trauma Score (PTS), Revised Trauma Score, and pediatric age-adjusted shock index (SIPA). METHODS: We included children (age < 15 years) admitted to a single trauma center in South Africa from December 2012 to January 2019. We excluded patients missing variables necessary for the PRESTO model-age, systolic blood pressure, pulse, oxygen saturation, neurologic status, and airway support. Trauma scores were assigned retrospectively. PRESTO's previously high-income country (HIC)-validated optimal threshold was compared to MIC-validated threshold using area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC). Prediction of in-hospital death using trauma scoring systems was compared using ROC analysis. RESULTS: Of 1160 injured children, 988 (85%) had complete data for calculation of PRESTO. Median age was 7 (IQR: 4, 11), and 67% were male. Mortality was 2% (n = 23). Mean predicted mortality was 0.5% (range 0-25.7%, AUROC 0.93). Using the HIC-validated threshold, PRESTO had a sensitivity of 26.1% and a specificity of 99.7%. The MIC threshold showed a sensitivity of 82.6% and specificity of 89.4%. The MIC threshold yielded superior discrimination (AUROC 0.86 [CI 0.78, 0.94]) compared to the previously established HIC threshold (0.63 [CI 0.54, 0.72], p < 0.0001). PRESTO showed superior prediction of in-hospital death compared to PTS and SIPA (all p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: PRESTO can be applied in MIC settings and discriminates between children at risk for in-hospital death following trauma. Further research should clarify optimal decision thresholds for quality improvement and benchmarking in LMIC settings.


Assuntos
Medicina de Emergência/normas , Ressuscitação/normas , Centros de Traumatologia/normas , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adolescente , Algoritmos , Área Sob a Curva , Pressão Sanguínea , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Renda , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Melhoria de Qualidade , Curva ROC , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Choque/terapia , África do Sul
16.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 89(1): 118-124, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Emergency Surgery Score (ESS) was recently developed and retrospectively validated as an accurate mortality risk calculator for emergency general surgery. We sought to prospectively validate ESS, specifically in the high-risk nontrauma emergency laparotomy (EL) patient. METHODS: This is an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma multicenter prospective observational study. Between April 2018 and June 2019, 19 centers enrolled all adults (aged >18 years) undergoing EL. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were prospectively and systematically collected. Emergency Surgery Score was calculated for each patient and validated using c-statistic methodology by correlating it with three postoperative outcomes: (1) 30-day mortality, (2) 30-day complications (e.g., respiratory/renal failure, infection), and (3) postoperative intensive care unit (ICU) admission. RESULTS: A total of 1,649 patients were included. The mean age was 60.5 years, 50.3% were female, and 71.4% were white. The mean ESS was 6, and the most common indication for EL was hollow viscus perforation. The 30-day mortality and complication rates were 14.8% and 53.3%; 57.0% of patients required ICU admission. Emergency Surgery Score gradually and accurately predicted 30-day mortality; 3.5%, 50.0%, and 85.7% of patients with ESS of 3, 12, and 17 died after surgery, respectively, with a c-statistic of 0.84. Similarly, ESS gradually and accurately predicted complications; 21.0%, 57.1%, and 88.9% of patients with ESS of 1, 6, and 13 developed postoperative complications, with a c-statistic of 0.74. Emergency Surgery Score also accurately predicted which patients required intensive care unit admission (c-statistic, 0.80). CONCLUSION: This is the first prospective multicenter study to validate ESS as an accurate predictor of outcome in the EL patient. Emergency Surgery Score can prove useful for (1) perioperative patient and family counseling, (2) triaging patients to the intensive care unit, and (3) benchmarking the quality of emergency general surgery care. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic study, level III.


Assuntos
Emergências , Cirurgia Geral , Medição de Risco/métodos , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Prospectivos , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade
17.
World J Surg ; 44(5): 1485-1491, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31933042

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to expand on the global surgical discussion around splenic trauma in order to understand locally and clinically relevant factors for operative (OP) and non-operative management (NOM) of splenic trauma in a South African setting. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed using 2013-2017 data from the Pietermaritzburg Metropolitan Trauma Service. All adult patients (≥15 years) were included. Those managed with OP or NOM for splenic trauma were identified and analyzed descriptively. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified patients and clinical factors associated with management type. RESULTS: There were 127 patients with splenic injury. Median age was 29 [19-35] years with 42 (33%) women and 85 (67%) men. Blunt injuries occurred in the majority (81, 64%). Organ Injury Scale (OIS) grades included I (25, 20%), II (43, 34%), III (36, 28%), IV (15, 11%), and V (8, 6%). Nine patients expired. On univariate analysis, increasing OIS was associated with OP management, need for intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and hospital and ICU duration of stay, but not mortality. In patients with a delayed compared to early presentation, ICU utilization (62% vs. 36%, p = 0.008) and mortality (14% vs. 4%, p = 0.03) were increased. After adjusting for age, sex, presence of shock, and splenic OIS, penetrating trauma (adjusted odds ratio, 5.7; 95%CI, 1.7-9.8) and admission lactate concentration (adjusted odds ratio, 1.4; 95%CI 1.1-1.9) were significantly associated with OP compared to NOM (p = 0.002; area under the curve 0.81). CONCLUSIONS: We have identified injury mechanism and admission lactate as factors predictive of OP in South African patients with splenic trauma. Timely presentation to definitive care affects both ICU duration of stay and mortality outcomes. Future global surgical efforts may focus on expanding non-operative management protocols and improving pre-hospital care in patients with splenic trauma.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Abdominais/terapia , Regras de Decisão Clínica , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/métodos , Tratamento Conservador , Baço/lesões , Traumatismos Abdominais/diagnóstico , Traumatismos Abdominais/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , África do Sul , Esplenectomia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Pediatr Surg ; 55(10): 2088-2093, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839370

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The overwhelming burden of pediatric surgical need in humanitarian settings has prompted mutual interest between humanitarian organizations and pediatric surgeons. To assess adequate fit, we correlated pediatric surgery fellowship case mix and load with acute pediatric surgical relief efforts in conflict and disaster zones. METHODS: We reviewed pediatric (age < 18) cases logged by the Médecins Sans Frontières Operational Centre Brussels (MSF-OCB) from a previously validated and published database spanning 2008-2014 and cases performed by American College of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) pediatric surgery graduates from 2008 to 2018. Non-operative management for trauma, endoscopic procedures, and basic wound care were excluded as they were not tracked in either dataset. ACGME procedures were classified under 1 of 32 MSF pediatric surgery procedure categories and compared using chi-squared tests. RESULTS: ACGME fellows performed procedures in 44% of tracked MSF-OCB categories. Major MSF-OCB pediatric cases were comprised of 62% general surgery, 23% orthopedic surgery, 9% obstetrical surgery, 3% plastic/reconstructive surgery, 2% urogynecologic surgery, and 1% specialty surgery. In comparison, fellows' cases were 95% general surgery, 0% orthopedic surgery, 0% obstetrical surgery, 5% urogynecologic surgery, and 1% specialty surgery. Fellows more frequently performed abdominal, thoracic, other general surgical, urology/gynecologic, and specialty procedures, but performed fewer wound and burn procedures (all p < 0.05). Fellows received no experience in Cesarean section or open fracture repair. Fellows performed a greater proportion of surgeries for congenital conditions (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: While ACGME pediatric surgical trainees receive significant training in general and urogynecologic surgical techniques, they lack sufficient case load for orthopedic and obstetrical care - a common need among children in humanitarian settings. Trainees and program directors should evaluate the fellow's role and scope in a global surgery rotation or provide advanced preparation to fill these gaps. Upon graduation, pediatric surgeons interested in humanitarian missions should seek out additional orthopedic and obstetrical training, or select missions that do not require such skillsets. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Bolsas de Estudo , Pediatras , Cirurgiões , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Humanos , Estados Unidos
19.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 36(12): e709-e714, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29698341

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Helicopter air ambulance (HAA) of pediatric trauma patients is a life-saving intervention. Triage remains a challenge for both scene transport and interhospital transfer of injured children. We aimed to understand whether overtriage or undertriage was a feature of scene or interhospital transfer and how in or out of state transfers affected these rates. METHODS: Children (<18 years) who underwent trauma activation at a level I trauma center between 2011 and 2013 were identified and reviewed. Patients transported by HAA were compared with those transported by ground ambulance (GA). RESULTS: Of 399 pediatric patients (median age, 10.4 years; range, 0.1-17 years; 264 male [66%]), 71 (18%) were transported by HAA. Seventy-two percent of HAA patients went to the intensive care unit or the operating room from the trauma bay or suffered in-hospital mortality (vs 42% GA, P < 0.001). More patients were overtriaged (HAA with injury severity score [ISS] of <15) from interhospital transfers than from the scene (25% vs 3%, P = 0.002). Undertriage (GA with ISS >15) was acceptable at 5% from the scene and 14% from interhospital transfers (P = 0.08). Overtriage of patients with ISS less than 15 to HAA was significantly lower from in-state hospitals (22%) than out-of-state hospitals (45%) (P = 0.02). Undertriage of patients with ISS greater than 15 to GA was also lower from in-state hospitals (20%) versus out-of-state hospitals (38%) (P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Triage of pediatric trauma patients to HAA remains difficult. There remains potential for improvement, particularly as regards interhospital HAA overtriage, but well developed transfer protocols (such in-state protocols) may help.


Assuntos
Alta do Paciente , Centros de Traumatologia , Triagem , Ferimentos e Lesões , Adolescente , Aeronaves , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
J Gastrointest Surg ; 24(2): 418-425, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30671804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We evaluated whether TAP blocks performed at the time of appendectomy resulted in reduced total oral morphine equivalent (OME) prescribed and fewer 30-day opioid prescription (OP) refills. STUDY DESIGN: Single institution review of historical data (2010-2016) was performed. Adults (≥ 18 years) that underwent appendectomy for appendicitis with uniform disease severity (AAST EGS grades I, II) were included. Opioid tolerance was defined as any preoperative OP ordered 1-3 months prior to appendectomy or < 1 month unrelated to appendicitis; opioid naïve patients were without OP. Intraoperative TAP blocks (admixture of liposomal/regular bupivacaine) were performed at surgeon discretion. Risk factors for discharge prescription > 200 OME were assessed using logistic regression and quantified using odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULT: There were 960 patients with uniform appendicitis severity. During appendectomy, 145 (15%) patients received TAP blocks. There were 46 patients that were opioid tolerant (5%) and the majority of the cohort received discharge OP (n = 914, 95%) with a median prescription OME volume of 225 [150-300]. Only 76 patients required 30-day opioid prescription refill. On regression, factors associated with a discharge prescription > 200 OME included ≥ 65 years of age (OR 0.64 (95%CI 0.41-0.98)) and no TAP block (OR 1.7 (95%CI 1.2-2.5)) but not preoperative opioid utilization. CONCLUSIONS: TAP blocks in low-grade appendicitis were associated with reduced OME prescribed, hospital duration of stay, and fewer refills without impacting operative time or total hospital costs.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Apendicectomia/efeitos adversos , Bloqueio Nervoso , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Prescrições/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Anestésicos Locais , Apendicite/cirurgia , Bupivacaína , Tolerância a Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Alta do Paciente , Período Pós-Operatório , Período Pré-Operatório
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