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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 27, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911640

RESUMO

Impaired lung function is often caused by cigarette smoking, making it challenging to disentangle its role in lung cancer susceptibility. Investigation of the shared genetic basis of these phenotypes in the UK Biobank and International Lung Cancer Consortium (29,266 cases, 56,450 controls) shows that lung cancer is genetically correlated with reduced forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1: rg = 0.098, p = 2.3 × 10-8) and the ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC: rg = 0.137, p = 2.0 × 10-12). Mendelian randomization analyses demonstrate that reduced FEV1 increases squamous cell carcinoma risk (odds ratio (OR) = 1.51, 95% confidence intervals: 1.21-1.88), while reduced FEV1/FVC increases the risk of adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.17, 1.01-1.35) and lung cancer in never smokers (OR = 1.56, 1.05-2.30). These findings support a causal role of pulmonary impairment in lung cancer etiology. Integrative analyses reveal that pulmonary function instruments, including 73 novel variants, influence lung tissue gene expression and implicate immune-related pathways in mediating the observed effects on lung carcinogenesis.

2.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(8): 1360-1369, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009812

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Inherited susceptibility to lung cancer risk in never-smokers is poorly understood. The major reason for this gap in knowledge is that this disease is relatively uncommon (except in Asians), making it difficult to assemble an adequate study sample. In this study we conducted a genome-wide association study on the largest, to date, set of European-descent never-smokers with lung cancer. METHODS: We conducted a two-phase (discovery and replication) genome-wide association study in never-smokers of European descent. We further augmented the sample by performing a meta-analysis with never-smokers from the recent OncoArray study, which resulted in a total of 3636 cases and 6295 controls. We also compare our findings with those in smokers with lung cancer. RESULTS: We detected three genome-wide statistically significant single nucleotide polymorphisms rs31490 (odds ratio [OR]: 0.769, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.722-0.820; p value 5.31 × 10-16), rs380286 (OR: 0.770, 95% CI: 0.723-0.820; p value 4.32 × 10-16), and rs4975616 (OR: 0.778, 95% CI: 0.730-0.829; p value 1.04 × 10-14). All three mapped to Chromosome 5 CLPTM1L-TERT region, previously shown to be associated with lung cancer risk in smokers and in never-smoker Asian women, and risk of other cancers including breast, ovarian, colorectal, and prostate. CONCLUSIONS: We found that genetic susceptibility to lung cancer in never-smokers is associated to genetic variants with pan-cancer risk effects. The comparison with smokers shows that top variants previously shown to be associated with lung cancer risk only confer risk in the presence of tobacco exposure, underscoring the importance of gene-environment interactions in the etiology of this disease.

3.
Oncotarget ; 10(19): 1760-1774, 2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30956756

RESUMO

The development of cancer is driven by the accumulation of many oncogenesis-related genetic alterations and tumorigenesis is triggered by complex networks of involved genes rather than independent actions. To explore the epistasis existing among oncogenesis-related genes in lung cancer development, we conducted pairwise genetic interaction analyses among 35,031 SNPs from 2027 oncogenesis-related genes. The genotypes from three independent genome-wide association studies including a total of 24,037 lung cancer patients and 20,401 healthy controls with Caucasian ancestry were analyzed in the study. Using a two-stage study design including discovery and replication studies, and stringent Bonferroni correction for multiple statistical analysis, we identified significant genetic interactions between SNPs in RGL1:RAD51B (OR=0.44, p value=3.27x10-11 in overall lung cancer and OR=0.41, p value=9.71x10-11 in non-small cell lung cancer), SYNE1:RNF43 (OR=0.73, p value=1.01x10-12 in adenocarcinoma) and FHIT:TSPAN8 (OR=1.82, p value=7.62x10-11 in squamous cell carcinoma) in our analysis. None of these genes have been identified from previous main effect association studies in lung cancer. Further eQTL gene expression analysis in lung tissues provided information supporting the functional role of the identified epistasis in lung tumorigenesis. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed potential pathways and gene networks underlying molecular mechanisms in overall lung cancer as well as histology subtypes development. Our results provide evidence that genetic interactions between oncogenesis-related genes play an important role in lung tumorigenesis and epistasis analysis, combined with functional annotation, provides a valuable tool for uncovering functional novel susceptibility genes that contribute to lung cancer development by interacting with other modifier genes.

4.
Biomaterials ; 203: 31-42, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30851491

RESUMO

Nanocellulose is a promising bio-nanomaterial with attractive properties suitable for multiple industrial applications. The increased use of nanocellulose may lead to occupational exposure and negative health outcomes. However, knowledge on its health effects is limited, and while nanocellulose exposure may induce acute inflammatory responses in the lung, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Alveolar macrophages are key cells in alveolar particle clearance. Their activation and function may be affected by various particles. Here, we investigated the uptake of pristine cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), and their effects on alveolar macrophage polarization and biological function. CNC uptake enhanced the secretion of several cytokines but did not on its own induce a complete macrophage polarization. In presence of macrophage activators, such as LPS/IFNG and IL4/IL13, CNC exposure enhanced the expression of M1 phenotype markers and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, while decreasing M2 markers. CNC exposure also affected the function of activated alveolar macrophages resulting in a prominent cytokine burst and altered phagocytic activity. In conclusion, CNC exposure may result in dysregulation of macrophage activation and function that are critical in inflammatory responses in the lung.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(3)2019 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30744184

RESUMO

Tremendous efforts are applied in the ferroalloy industry to control and reduce exposure to dust generated during the production process, as inhalable Mn-containing particulate matter has been linked to neurodegenerative diseases. This study aimed to investigate the toxicity and biological effects of dust particles from laboratory-scale processes where molten silicomanganese (SiMn) was exposed to air, using a human astrocytoma cell line, 1321N1, as model system. Characterization of the dust indicated presence of both nano-sized and larger particles averaging between 100 and 300 nm. The dust consisted mainly of Si, Mn and O. Investigation of cellular mechanisms showed a dose- and time-dependent effect on cell viability, with only minor changes in the expression of proteins involved in apoptosis. Moreover, gene expression of the neurotoxic biomarker amyloid precursor protein (APP) increased, whereas APP protein expression decreased. Finally, induction of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) increased with higher doses and correlated with the other endpoints. Thus, the effects of SiMn dust on 1321N1 cells are highly dependent on the dose of exposure and involves changes in APP, apoptosis-related proteins and intercellular communication.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Poeira , Manganês/farmacologia , Compostos de Silício/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Astrocitoma , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Manganês/química , Nanotecnologia , Exposição Ocupacional , Compostos de Silício/química
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(2)2019 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30654492

RESUMO

Despite the rigorous emission control measures in the ferroalloy industry, there are still emissions of dust during the production of various alloys. Dust particles were collected from laboratory scale processes where oxide particulate matter was formed from liquid silicon (metallurgical grade). The dust was produced in a dry air atmosphere to mimic industrial conditions. To investigate possible effects of ultrafine dust on the central nervous system, a human astrocytic cell line was employed to investigate inflammatory effects of particles as astrocytes play a number of active and neuron supporting roles in the brain. Toxicity on the astrocytes by amorphous silica generated in laboratory scale was compared to crystalline macro-sized silica using several doses to determine toxicological dose response curves. The cell viability experiments indicated that low particle doses of amorphous silica induced a small nonsignificant reduction in cell viability compared to crystalline silica which led to increased levels of toxicity. The gene expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP), a biomarker of neurodegenerative disease, was affected by particle exposure. Furthermore, particle exposure, in a dose-and time-dependent manner, affected the ability of the cells to communicate through gap junction channels. In conclusion, in vitro studies using low doses of particles are important to understand mechanisms of toxicity of occupational exposure to silica particles. However, these studies cannot be extrapolated to real exposure scenarios at work place, therefore, controlling and keeping the particle exposure levels low at the work place, would prevent potential negative health effects.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Poeira , Dióxido de Silício/toxicidade , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/metabolismo , Astrocitoma/patologia , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Junções Comunicantes/efeitos dos fármacos , Junções Comunicantes/metabolismo , Humanos
7.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(3): 751-766, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30059977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence from observational studies of telomere length (TL) has been conflicting regarding its direction of association with cancer risk. We investigated the causal relevance of TL for lung and head and neck cancers using Mendelian Randomization (MR) and mediation analyses. METHODS: We developed a novel genetic instrument for TL in chromosome 5p15.33, using variants identified through deep-sequencing, that were genotyped in 2051 cancer-free subjects. Next, we conducted an MR analysis of lung (16 396 cases, 13 013 controls) and head and neck cancer (4415 cases, 5013 controls) using eight genetic instruments for TL. Lastly, the 5p15.33 instrument and distinct 5p15.33 lung cancer risk loci were evaluated using two-sample mediation analysis, to quantify their direct and indirect, telomere-mediated, effects. RESULTS: The multi-allelic 5p15.33 instrument explained 1.49-2.00% of TL variation in our data (p = 2.6 × 10-9). The MR analysis estimated that a 1000 base-pair increase in TL increases risk of lung cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 1.41, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20-1.65] and lung adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.51-2.22), but not squamous lung carcinoma (OR = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.83-1.29) or head and neck cancers (OR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.70-1.05). Mediation analysis of the 5p15.33 instrument indicated an absence of direct effects on lung cancer risk (OR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.95-1.04). Analysis of distinct 5p15.33 susceptibility variants estimated that TL mediates up to 40% of the observed associations with lung cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support a causal role for long telomeres in lung cancer aetiology, particularly for adenocarcinoma, and demonstrate that telomere maintenance partially mediates the lung cancer susceptibility conferred by 5p15.33 loci.

8.
Carcinogenesis ; 40(3): 432-440, 2019 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590402

RESUMO

DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHS) are abundant in regulatory elements, such as promoter, enhancer and transcription factor binding sites. Many studies have revealed that disease-associated variants were concentrated in DHS-related regions. However, limited studies are available on the roles of DHS-related variants in lung cancer. In this study, we performed a large-scale case-control study with 20 871 lung cancer cases and 15 971 controls to evaluate the associations between regulatory genetic variants in DHS and lung cancer susceptibility. The expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis and pathway-enrichment analysis were performed to identify the possible target genes and pathways. In addition, we performed motif-based analysis to explore the lung-cancer-related motifs using sequence kernel association test. Two novel variants, rs186332 in 20q13.3 (C>T, odds ratio [OR] = 1.17, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.10-1.24, P = 8.45 × 10-7) and rs4839323 in 1p13.2 (T>C, OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.89-0.95, P = 1.02 × 10-6) showed significant association with lung cancer risk. The eQTL analysis suggested that these two SNPs might regulate the expression of MRGBP and SLC16A1, respectively. What's more, the expression of both MRGBP and SLC16A1 was aberrantly elevated in lung tumor tissues. The motif-based analysis identified 10 motifs related to the risk of lung cancer (P < 1.71 × 10-4). Our findings suggested that variants in DHS might modify lung cancer susceptibility through regulating the expression of surrounding genes. This study provided us a deeper insight into the roles of DHS-related genetic variants for lung cancer.

9.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1856: 173-201, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30178252

RESUMO

Self-sustained and synchronized to environmental stimuli, circadian clocks are under genetic and epigenetic regulation. Recent findings have greatly increased our understanding of epigenetic plasticity governed by circadian clock. Thus, the link between circadian clock and epigenetic machinery is reciprocal. Circadian clock can affect epigenetic features including genomic DNA methylation, noncoding RNA, mainly miRNA expression, and histone modifications resulted in their 24-h rhythms. Concomitantly, these epigenetic events can directly modulate cyclic system of transcription and translation of core circadian genes and indirectly clock output genes. Significant findings interlocking circadian clock, epigenetics, and cancer have been revealed, particularly in breast, colorectal, and blood cancers. Aberrant methylation of circadian gene promoter regions and miRNA expression affected circadian gene expression, together with 24-h expression oscillation pace have been frequently observed.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Epigênese Genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia , Animais , Relógios Circadianos/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Metilação de DNA , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Mamíferos , MicroRNAs , Neoplasias/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro , RNA não Traduzido , Transcriptoma
10.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 91(8): 937-950, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29971594

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Radon is a risk factor for lung cancer and uranium miners are more exposed than the general population. A genome-wide interaction analysis was carried out to identify genomic loci, genes or gene sets that modify the susceptibility to lung cancer given occupational exposure to the radioactive gas radon. METHODS: Samples from 28 studies provided by the International Lung Cancer Consortium were pooled with samples of former uranium miners collected by the German Federal Office of Radiation Protection. In total, 15,077 cases and 13,522 controls, all of European ancestries, comprising 463 uranium miners were compared. The DNA of all participants was genotyped with the OncoArray. We fitted single-marker and in multi-marker models and performed an exploratory gene-set analysis to detect cumulative enrichment of significance in sets of genes. RESULTS: We discovered a genome-wide significant interaction of the marker rs12440014 within the gene CHRNB4 (OR = 0.26, 95% CI 0.11-0.60, p = 0.0386 corrected for multiple testing). At least suggestive significant interaction of linkage disequilibrium blocks was observed at the chromosomal regions 18q21.23 (p = 1.2 × 10-6), 5q23.2 (p = 2.5 × 10-6), 1q21.3 (p = 3.2 × 10-6), 10p13 (p = 1.3 × 10-5) and 12p12.1 (p = 7.1 × 10-5). Genes belonging to the Gene Ontology term "DNA dealkylation involved in DNA repair" (GO:0006307; p = 0.0139) or the gene family HGNC:476 "microRNAs" (p = 0.0159) were enriched with LD-blockwise significance. CONCLUSION: The well-established association of the genomic region 15q25 to lung cancer might be influenced by exposure to radon among uranium miners. Furthermore, lung cancer susceptibility is related to the functional capability of DNA damage signaling via ubiquitination processes and repair of radiation-induced double-strand breaks by the single-strand annealing mechanism.


Assuntos
Carcinógenos Ambientais/toxicidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Doenças Profissionais/genética , Radônio/toxicidade , Receptores Nicotínicos/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dano ao DNA/efeitos da radiação , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos/efeitos da radiação , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mineração , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Ubiquitinação/efeitos da radiação , Urânio
11.
Nanotoxicology ; 12(6): 522-538, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29742950

RESUMO

Upon inhalation, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) may reach the subpleura and pleural spaces, and induce pleural inflammation and/or mesothelioma in humans. However, the mechanisms of MWCNT-induced pathology after direct intrapleural injections are still only partly elucidated. In particular, a role of the proinflammatory interleukin-1 (IL-1) cytokines in pleural inflammation has so far not been published. We examined the MWCNT-induced pleural inflammation, gene expression abnormalities, and the modifying role of IL-1α and ß cytokines following intrapleural injection of two types of MWCNTs (CNT-1 and CNT-2) compared with crocidolite asbestos in IL-1 wild-type (WT) and IL-1α/ß KO (IL1-KO) mice. Histopathological examination of the pleura 28 days post-exposure revealed mesothelial cell hyperplasia, leukocyte infiltration, and fibrosis occurring in the CNT-1 (Mitsui-7)-exposed group. The pleura of these mice also showed the greatest changes in mRNA and miRNA expression levels, closely followed by CNT-2. In addition, the CNT-1-exposed group also presented the greatest infiltrations of leukocytes and proliferation of fibrous tissue. WT mice were more prone to development of sustained inflammation and fibrosis than IL1-KO mice. Prominent differences in genetic and epigenetic changes were also observed between the two genotypes. In conclusion, the fibrotic response to MWCNTs in the pleura depends on the particles' physico-chemical properties and on the presence or absence of the IL-1 genes. Furthermore, we found that CNT-1 was the most potent inducer of inflammatory responses, followed by CNT-2 and crocidolite asbestos.


Assuntos
Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Interleucina-1/genética , Nanotubos de Carbono/toxicidade , Cavidade Pleural/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Asbesto Crocidolita/toxicidade , Fibrose , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Cavidade Pleural/patologia
12.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 95: 270-279, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29614343

RESUMO

With the emergence of nanotechnology the number of manufactured nanomaterials (MNM) in production and use is constantly increasing. Exposure of workers to MNM is of concern, because still much is unknown about health effects. MNM may have different properties, testing of each material is time consuming and costly. Experts have proposed various approaches to categorize MNM to facilitate risk assessment of human health effects based on shared properties of various materials. A systematic literature survey was undertaken to identify expert opinions on grouping of MNM published between the years 2000 and 2015. We summarized and synthesized the opinions according to a systematic review of text and opinion. We identified 22 articles that fulfilled our inclusion criteria reporting 17 proposals with three proposals for groups and 14 proposals for criteria for grouping. Five proposals suggested one or more of the following groups of concern: fibrous, biopersistent, high solubility with high toxicity, chemically active. Criteria proposed in multiple studies were: viable testing options, mode of action, physicochemical properties predicting toxicity. We conclude that a limited number of groups have been proposed to categorize MNM according to human health concern. Further research should be conducted to underpin the proposed groups with empirical evidence.


Assuntos
Nanoestruturas/classificação , Nanoestruturas/toxicidade , Medição de Risco/métodos , Animais , Prova Pericial , Humanos
13.
Nanotoxicology ; 12(2): 138-152, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29350075

RESUMO

The effects of long-term chronic exposure of human lung cells to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and their impact upon cellular proteins and lipids were investigated. Since the lung is the major target organ, an in vitro normal bronchial epithelial cell line model was used. Additionally, to better mimic exposure to manufactured nanomaterials at occupational settings, cells were continuously exposed to two non-toxic and low doses of a MWCNT for 13-weeks. MWCNT-treatment increased ROS levels in cells without increasing oxidative DNA damage and resulted in differential expression of multiple anti- and pro-apoptotic proteins. The proteomic analysis of the MWCNT-exposed cells showed that among more than 5000 identified proteins; more than 200 were differentially expressed in the treated cells. Functional analyses revealed association of these differentially regulated proteins to cellular processes such as cell death and survival, cellular assembly, and organization. Similarly, shotgun lipidomic profiling revealed accumulation of multiple lipid classes. Our results indicate that long-term MWCNT-exposure of human normal lung cells at occupationally relevant low-doses may alter both the proteome and the lipidome profiles of the target epithelial cells in the lung.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanotubos de Carbono/toxicidade , Proteoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Brônquios/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteômica , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
14.
Neurotoxicology ; 65: 241-247, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29113734

RESUMO

Silicon carbide (SiC) is largely used in various products such as diesel particulate filters and solar panels. It is produced through the Acheson process where aerosolized fractions of SiC and other by-products are generated in the work environment and may potentially affect the workers' health. In this study, dust was collected directly on a filter in a furnace hall over a time period of 24h. The collected dust was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and found to contain a high content of graphite particles, and carbon and silicon containing particles. Only 6% was classified as SiC, whereof only 10% had a fibrous structure. To study effects of exposure beyond the respiratory system, neurotoxic effects on human astrocytic cells, were investigated. Both low, occupationally relevant, and high doses from 9E-6µg/cm2 up to 4.5µg/cm2 were used, respectively. Cytotoxicity assay indicated no effects of low doses but an effect of the higher doses after 24h. Furthermore, investigation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) indicated no effects with low doses, whereas a higher dose of 0.9µg/cm2 induced a significant increase in ROS and DNA damage. In summary, low doses of dust from the Acheson process may exert no or little toxic effects, at least experimentally in the laboratory on human astrocytes. However, higher doses have implications and are likely a result of the complex composition of the dust.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Poeira/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Carbono/análise , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Grafite/análise , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Tamanho da Partícula , Silício/análise
15.
Carcinogenesis ; 39(3): 336-346, 2018 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29059373

RESUMO

Non-small cell lung cancer is the most common type of lung cancer. Both environmental and genetic risk factors contribute to lung carcinogenesis. We conducted a genome-wide interaction analysis between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and smoking status (never- versus ever-smokers) in a European-descent population. We adopted a two-step analysis strategy in the discovery stage: we first conducted a case-only interaction analysis to assess the relationship between SNPs and smoking behavior using 13336 non-small cell lung cancer cases. Candidate SNPs with P-value <0.001 were further analyzed using a standard case-control interaction analysis including 13970 controls. The significant SNPs with P-value <3.5 × 10-5 (correcting for multiple tests) from the case-control analysis in the discovery stage were further validated using an independent replication dataset comprising 5377 controls and 3054 non-small cell lung cancer cases. We further stratified the analysis by histological subtypes. Two novel SNPs, rs6441286 and rs17723637, were identified for overall lung cancer risk. The interaction odds ratio and meta-analysis P-value for these two SNPs were 1.24 with 6.96 × 10-7 and 1.37 with 3.49 × 10-7, respectively. In addition, interaction of smoking with rs4751674 was identified in squamous cell lung carcinoma with an odds ratio of 0.58 and P-value of 8.12 × 10-7. This study is by far the largest genome-wide SNP-smoking interaction analysis reported for lung cancer. The three identified novel SNPs provide potential candidate biomarkers for lung cancer risk screening and intervention. The results from our study reinforce that gene-smoking interactions play important roles in the etiology of lung cancer and account for part of the missing heritability of this disease.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/etiologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
16.
Chronobiol Int ; 35(1): 122-131, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29144154

RESUMO

Chronic sleep restriction may affect metabolism, hormone secretion patterns and inflammatory responses. Limited reports suggest also epigenetic effects, such as changes in DNA methylation profiles. The study aims to assess the potential association between poor sleep quality or sleep duration and the levels of 5-methylcytosine in the promoter regions of selected tumor suppressor genes. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 710 nurses and midwives aged 40-60 years. Data from interviews regarding sleep habits and potential confounders were used. The methylation status of tumor suppressor genes was determined via qMSP reactions using DNA samples derived from leucocytes. No significant findings were observed in the total study population or in the two subgroups of women stratified by the current system of work. A borderline significance association was observed between a shorter duration of sleep and an increased methylation level in CDKN2A among day working nurses and midwives. Further studies are warranted to explore this under-investigated topic.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Tocologia , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/genética , Sono/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Genes Supressores de Tumor/fisiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Fatores de Tempo , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado/fisiologia
17.
Chronobiol Int ; 35(1): 111-121, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29144171

RESUMO

Investigating the methylation status of the circadian genes may contribute to a better understanding of the shift work-related circadian disruption in individuals exposed to artificial light at night. In the present study, we determined the methylation status of the circadian genes associated with a shift work pattern among nurses and midwives participating in a cross-sectional study in Lodz, Poland. Quantitative methylation polymerase chain reaction assays were used to assess promoter CpG methylation in PER1, PER2, PER3, CRY1, CRY2, BMAL1, CLOCK, and NPAS2 in genomic DNA from whole blood of 347 women having a rotating-shift work schedule and 363 women working days only. The percentage of methylated reference (PMR) was assessed using fluorescent probes for PER1, PER2, PER3, CRY1, and NPAS2, and the percentage of gene methylation, as the methylation index (MI), using two sets of primers for BMAL1, CLOCK, and CRY2. We tested the possible association between current and lifetime rotating night-shift work characteristics and circadian gene methylation by using proportional odds regression model with blood DNA methylation, categorized into tertiles, and adjusted for age, current smoking status, folate intake and blood collection time. The findings indicated that CpG methylation in PER2 promoter was significantly decreased (P < 0.004) among nurses and midwives currently working rotating shifts, as compared with day-working nurses and midwives. The lower percentage of PER2 methylation was associated with a higher monthly frequency of current night duties (2-7 night shifts, and eight or more night shifts per month) (P = 0.012) and was associated at borderline significance (P = 0.092) with the lifetime duration of shift work (>10 ≤ 20 years and >20 ≤ 43 years of rotating-shift work) among nurses and midwives (N = 710). Moreover, women with a longer lifetime duration of shift work presented a lower status of PER1 methylation (P = 0.040) than did the women with up to 10 years of rotating-shift work. Long lifetime duration of shift work (> 10 years) among current rotating night-shift workers (N =  347) was associated with BMAL1 hypomethylation (P = 0.013). Among eight of the investigated circadian genes, only PER1, PER2, and BMAL1 showed differential methylation attributable to the rotating-shift work of nurses and midwives. The findings on blood-based DNA methylation in the circadian genes may provide a better insight into the mechanistic principles underlying the possible health effects of night-shift work but these should be verified in further studies recruiting larger populations of shift workers.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Metilação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 112: 86-96, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29258957

RESUMO

Both autoimmune disease prevalence and exposure to immunotoxic chemicals have increased the last decades. As a first screening of immunotoxic chemicals possibly affecting development of autoimmunity through attenuated macrophage function, we demonstrate a promising model measuring macrophage function in isolated peritoneal macrophages (PCM) from Wistar rats and C57Bl/6 mice. Immunotoxic effects of bisphenol A (BPA) and a selection of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) were analysed in vitro assessing phagocytic function of macrophages from different sources. Phagocytosis was reduced in PCM of C57Bl/6 mice and Wistar rats after BPA and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) exposure, but not in macrophages derived from human and rat monocyte derived macrophages (MDM). On the other hand, in vitro exposure to mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) showed similar reductions in rat PCM and rat and human MDM phagocytosis. Reduced phagocytosis was partly due to cytotoxicity. PCM isolated from non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, interleukin 1α/ß knockout (IL-1KO) mice and new-born rats were less sensitive to the xenobiotics than PCM from adult wild type rodents. Finally, in vivo studies with NOD mice verified that POP exposure also decreased the number of pancreatic macrophages in pancreatic islets, reflecting early signs of autoimmunity development, similarly as previously described for BPA.


Assuntos
Macrófagos Peritoneais/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Xenobióticos/toxicidade , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Ácidos Graxos/toxicidade , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Humanos , Interleucina-1/genética , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos Peritoneais/imunologia , Macrófagos Peritoneais/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos Knockout , Fenóis/toxicidade , Ratos Wistar , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
19.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1856: C1, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850986

RESUMO

The Chapter was inadvertently published with incorrect figure (Fig. 1). The same has been corrected in the chapter.

20.
Chronobiol Int ; 34(9): 1211-1223, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29106308

RESUMO

ABSTARCT Poor sleep quality or sleep restriction is associated with sleepiness and concentration problems. Moreover, chronic sleep restriction may affect metabolism, hormone secretion patterns and inflammatory responses. Limited recent reports suggest a potential link between sleep deprivation and epigenetic effects such as changes in DNA methylation profiles. The aim of the present study was to assess the potential association between poor sleep quality or sleep duration and the levels of 5-methylcytosine in the promoter regions of PER1, PER2, PER3, BMAL1, CLOCK, CRY1 CRY2 and NPAS2 genes, taking into account rotating night work and chronotype as potential confounders or modifiers. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 710 nurses and midwives (347 working on rotating nights and 363 working only during the day) aged 40-60 years. Data from in-person interviews about sleep quality, chronotype and potential confounders were used. Sleep quality and chronotype were assessed using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Questionnaire (PSQI) and Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), respectively. Morning blood samples were collected. The methylation status of the circadian rhythm genes was determined via quantitative methylation-specific real-time PCR assays (qMSP) reactions using DNA samples derived from leucocytes. The proportional odds regression model was fitted to quantify the relationship between methylation index (MI) as the dependent variable and sleep quality or sleep duration as the explanatory variable. Analyses were carried out for the total population as well as for subgroups of women stratified by the current system of work (rotating night shift/day work) and chronotype (morning type/intermediate type/evening type). A potential modifying effect of the system of work or the chronotype was examined using the likelihood ratio test. No significant findings were observed in the total study population. Subgroup analyses revealed two statistically significant associations between a shorter sleep duration and 1) methylation level in PER2 among day workers, especially those with the morning chronotype (OR = 2.31, 95%CI:1.24-4.33), and 2) methylation level in CRY2 among subjects with the intermediate chronotype, particularly among day workers (OR = 0.52, 95%CI:0.28-0.96). The study results demonstrated a positive association between average sleep duration of less than 6 hours and the methylation level of PER2 among morning chronotype subjects, and an inverse association for CRY2 among intermediate chronotype subjects, but only among day workers. Both the system of work and the chronotype turned out to be important confounders and modifiers in a number of analyses, making it necessary to consider them as potential covariates in future research on sleep deficiency outcomes. Further studies are warranted to explore this under-investigated topic.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Tocologia , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Sono/fisiologia , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Metilação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/fisiopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
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