Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 69
Filtrar
1.
Cancer Res ; 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33472890

RESUMO

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death globally. An improved risk stratification strategy can increase efficiency of low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening. Here we assessed whether individual's genetic background has clinical utility for risk stratification in the context of LDCT screening. Based on 13,119 lung cancer patients and 10,008 controls with European ancestry in the International Lung Cancer Consortium, we constructed a polygenic risk score (PRS) via 10-fold cross-validation with regularized penalized regression. The performance of risk model integrating PRS, including calibration and ability to discriminate, was assessed using UK biobank data (N=335,931). Absolute risk was estimated based on age-specific lung cancer incidence and all-cause mortality as competing risk. To evaluate its potential clinical utility, the PRS distribution was simulated in the National Lung Screening Trial, N=50,772 participants). The lung cancer odds ratio (ORs) for individuals at the top decile of the PRS distribution versus those at bottom 10% was 2.39 (95%CI=1.92-3.00, P=1.80x10-14) in the validation set (trend p-value of 5.26 x 10-20). The OR per standard deviation of PRS increase was 1.26 (95%CI=1.20-1.32, P=9.69x10-23) for overall lung cancer risk in the validation set. When considering absolute risks, individuals at different PRS deciles showed differential trajectories of 5-year and cumulative absolute risk. The age reaching the LDCT screening recommendation threshold can vary by 4 to 8 years, depending on the individual's genetic background, smoking status and family history. Collectively, these results suggest that Individual's genetic background may inform the optimal lung cancer LDCT screening strategy.

2.
Toxicol Lett ; 338: 85-96, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309997

RESUMO

Disruption of neurite outgrowth is a marker for neurotoxicity. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are potential developmental neurotoxicants. We investigated their effect on neurite outgrowth in PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells, in absence or presence of nerve growth factor (NGF), an inducer of neuronal differentiation. Cells were exposed for 72 h to a defined mixture of POPs with chemical composition and concentrations based on blood levels in the Scandinavian population. We also evaluated perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) alone, the most abundant compound in the POP mixture. Only higher concentrations of POP mixture reduced tetrazolium salt (MTT) conversion. High-content analysis showed a decrease in cell number, but no changes for nuclear and mitochondrial cellular health parameters. Robust glutathione levels were observed in NGF-differentiated cells. Live imaging, using the IncuCyte ZOOM platform indicated ongoing cell proliferation over time, but slower in presence of NGF. The pollutants did not inhibit neuritogenesis, but rather increased NGF-induced neurite length. PFOS induced neurite outgrowth to about 50 % of the level seen with the POP mixture. Neither the POP mixture nor PFOS affected neurite length in the absence of NGF. Our observations indicate that realistic complex mixtures of environmental pollutants can affect neuronal connectivity via NGF-induced neurite outgrowth.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Fator de Crescimento Neural/farmacologia , Neuritos/efeitos dos fármacos , Crescimento Neuronal/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutamato-Cisteína Ligase/genética , Glutamato-Cisteína Ligase/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Neuritos/metabolismo , Neuritos/patologia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/metabolismo , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/patologia , Células PC12 , Ratos , Fatores de Tempo
3.
BMC Med Genomics ; 13(1): 162, 2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have proven successful in predicting genetic risk of disease using single-locus models; however, identifying single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) interactions at the genome-wide scale is limited due to computational and statistical challenges. We addressed the computational burden encountered when detecting SNP interactions for survival analysis, such as age of disease-onset. To confront this problem, we developed a novel algorithm, called the Efficient Survival Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (ES-MDR) method, which used Martingale Residuals as the outcome parameter to estimate survival outcomes, and implemented the Quantitative Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction method to identify significant interactions associated with age of disease-onset. METHODS: To demonstrate efficacy, we evaluated this method on two simulation data sets to estimate the type I error rate and power. Simulations showed that ES-MDR identified interactions using less computational workload and allowed for adjustment of covariates. We applied ES-MDR on the OncoArray-TRICL Consortium data with 14,935 cases and 12,787 controls for lung cancer (SNPs = 108,254) to search over all two-way interactions to identify genetic interactions associated with lung cancer age-of-onset. We tested the best model in an independent data set from the OncoArray-TRICL data. RESULTS: Our experiment on the OncoArray-TRICL data identified many one-way and two-way models with a single-base deletion in the noncoding region of BRCA1 (HR 1.24, P = 3.15 × 10-15), as the top marker to predict age of lung cancer onset. CONCLUSIONS: From the results of our extensive simulations and analysis of a large GWAS study, we demonstrated that our method is an efficient algorithm that identified genetic interactions to include in our models to predict survival outcomes.

4.
Toxicol Ind Health ; : 748233720962685, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025859

RESUMO

Welders have an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) following exposure to welding fumes. The underlying mechanisms are largely unknown; however, oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction have been suggested as contributing factors to particle-induced CVD. We investigated effects of mild steel welding fume (MSWF) on three target cell types: macrophages, pulmonary epithelial, and vascular endothelial cells. Cells were exposed to MSWF at nontoxic doses for 6 h/day, for five consecutive days. The expression of 40 genes involved in inflammation, fibrosis, and endothelial activation was analyzed. Moreover, changes in the reactive oxygen species production and migration capacity of cells were assessed. The expression of matrix metallopeptidase 1 (MMP1) was induced in both epithelial and endothelial cells following repeated exposure to MSWF. Although MMP1 is important in inflammatory responses in vivo, this effect was not concurrent with changes in the inflammatory status, cell proliferation, and migration capacities, nor did it induce oxidative stress in the cells. Thus, repeated exposure with low doses of MSWF was sufficient neither for inducing inflammatory stress in epithelial cells and macrophages nor for endothelial activation, and higher concentrations of MSWF or the nonparticle fraction of MSWF may be critical in causing the increased risk of CVD observed among welders.

5.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914876

RESUMO

At the time of cancer diagnosis, body mass index (BMI) is inversely correlated with lung cancer risk, which may reflect reverse causality and confounding due to smoking behavior. We used two-sample univariable and multivariable Mendelian randomization (MR) to estimate causal relationships of BMI and smoking behaviors on lung cancer and histological subtypes based on an aggregated genome-wide association studies (GWASs) analysis of lung cancer in 29 266 cases and 56 450 controls. We observed a positive causal effect for high BMI on occurrence of small-cell lung cancer (odds ratio (OR) = 1.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.24-2.06, P = 2.70 × 10-4 ). After adjustment of smoking behaviors using multivariable Mendelian randomization (MVMR), a direct causal effect on small cell lung cancer (ORMVMR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.06-1.55, PMVMR = .011), and an inverse effect on lung adenocarcinoma (ORMVMR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77-0.96, PMVMR = .008) were observed. A weak increased risk of lung squamous cell carcinoma was observed for higher BMI in univariable Mendelian randomization (UVMR) analysis (ORUVMR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.01-1.40, PUVMR = .036), but this effect disappeared after adjustment of smoking (ORMVMR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.90-1.16, PMVMR = .746). These results highlight the histology-specific impact of BMI on lung carcinogenesis and imply mediator role of smoking behaviors in the association between BMI and lung cancer.

6.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(7): 1423-1429, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of cancer driver genes (CDG) are also cancer predisposition genes. However, the associations between genetic variants in lung CDGs and the susceptibility to lung cancer have rarely been investigated. METHODS: We selected expression-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (eSNP) and nonsynonymous variants of lung CDGs, and tested their associations with lung cancer risk in two large-scale genome-wide association studies (20,871 cases and 15,971 controls of European descent). Conditional and joint association analysis was performed to identify independent risk variants. The associations of independent risk variants with somatic alterations in lung CDGs or recurrently altered pathways were investigated using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. RESULTS: We identified seven independent SNPs in five lung CDGs that were consistently associated with lung cancer risk in discovery (P < 0.001) and validation (P < 0.05) stages. Among these loci, rs78062588 in TPM3 (1q21.3) was a new lung cancer susceptibility locus (OR = 0.86, P = 1.65 × 10-6). Subgroup analysis by histologic types further identified nine lung CDGs. Analysis of somatic alterations found that in lung adenocarcinomas, rs78062588[C] allele (TPM3 in 1q21.3) was associated with elevated somatic copy number of TPM3 (OR = 1.16, P = 0.02). In lung adenocarcinomas, rs1611182 (HLA-A in 6p22.1) was associated with truncation mutations of the transcriptional misregulation in cancer pathway (OR = 0.66, P = 1.76 × 10-3). CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variants can regulate functions of lung CDGs and influence lung cancer susceptibility. IMPACT: Our findings might help unravel biological mechanisms underlying lung cancer susceptibility.

7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 27, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911640

RESUMO

Impaired lung function is often caused by cigarette smoking, making it challenging to disentangle its role in lung cancer susceptibility. Investigation of the shared genetic basis of these phenotypes in the UK Biobank and International Lung Cancer Consortium (29,266 cases, 56,450 controls) shows that lung cancer is genetically correlated with reduced forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1: rg = 0.098, p = 2.3 × 10-8) and the ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC: rg = 0.137, p = 2.0 × 10-12). Mendelian randomization analyses demonstrate that reduced FEV1 increases squamous cell carcinoma risk (odds ratio (OR) = 1.51, 95% confidence intervals: 1.21-1.88), while reduced FEV1/FVC increases the risk of adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.17, 1.01-1.35) and lung cancer in never smokers (OR = 1.56, 1.05-2.30). These findings support a causal role of pulmonary impairment in lung cancer etiology. Integrative analyses reveal that pulmonary function instruments, including 73 novel variants, influence lung tissue gene expression and implicate immune-related pathways in mediating the observed effects on lung carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Testes de Função Respiratória , Capacidade Vital
8.
Oncotarget ; 10(19): 1760-1774, 2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30956756

RESUMO

The development of cancer is driven by the accumulation of many oncogenesis-related genetic alterations and tumorigenesis is triggered by complex networks of involved genes rather than independent actions. To explore the epistasis existing among oncogenesis-related genes in lung cancer development, we conducted pairwise genetic interaction analyses among 35,031 SNPs from 2027 oncogenesis-related genes. The genotypes from three independent genome-wide association studies including a total of 24,037 lung cancer patients and 20,401 healthy controls with Caucasian ancestry were analyzed in the study. Using a two-stage study design including discovery and replication studies, and stringent Bonferroni correction for multiple statistical analysis, we identified significant genetic interactions between SNPs in RGL1:RAD51B (OR=0.44, p value=3.27x10-11 in overall lung cancer and OR=0.41, p value=9.71x10-11 in non-small cell lung cancer), SYNE1:RNF43 (OR=0.73, p value=1.01x10-12 in adenocarcinoma) and FHIT:TSPAN8 (OR=1.82, p value=7.62x10-11 in squamous cell carcinoma) in our analysis. None of these genes have been identified from previous main effect association studies in lung cancer. Further eQTL gene expression analysis in lung tissues provided information supporting the functional role of the identified epistasis in lung tumorigenesis. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed potential pathways and gene networks underlying molecular mechanisms in overall lung cancer as well as histology subtypes development. Our results provide evidence that genetic interactions between oncogenesis-related genes play an important role in lung tumorigenesis and epistasis analysis, combined with functional annotation, provides a valuable tool for uncovering functional novel susceptibility genes that contribute to lung cancer development by interacting with other modifier genes.

9.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(8): 1360-1369, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009812

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Inherited susceptibility to lung cancer risk in never-smokers is poorly understood. The major reason for this gap in knowledge is that this disease is relatively uncommon (except in Asians), making it difficult to assemble an adequate study sample. In this study we conducted a genome-wide association study on the largest, to date, set of European-descent never-smokers with lung cancer. METHODS: We conducted a two-phase (discovery and replication) genome-wide association study in never-smokers of European descent. We further augmented the sample by performing a meta-analysis with never-smokers from the recent OncoArray study, which resulted in a total of 3636 cases and 6295 controls. We also compare our findings with those in smokers with lung cancer. RESULTS: We detected three genome-wide statistically significant single nucleotide polymorphisms rs31490 (odds ratio [OR]: 0.769, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.722-0.820; p value 5.31 × 10-16), rs380286 (OR: 0.770, 95% CI: 0.723-0.820; p value 4.32 × 10-16), and rs4975616 (OR: 0.778, 95% CI: 0.730-0.829; p value 1.04 × 10-14). All three mapped to Chromosome 5 CLPTM1L-TERT region, previously shown to be associated with lung cancer risk in smokers and in never-smoker Asian women, and risk of other cancers including breast, ovarian, colorectal, and prostate. CONCLUSIONS: We found that genetic susceptibility to lung cancer in never-smokers is associated to genetic variants with pan-cancer risk effects. The comparison with smokers shows that top variants previously shown to be associated with lung cancer risk only confer risk in the presence of tobacco exposure, underscoring the importance of gene-environment interactions in the etiology of this disease.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 5 , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Telomerase/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
10.
Biomaterials ; 203: 31-42, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30851491

RESUMO

Nanocellulose is a promising bio-nanomaterial with attractive properties suitable for multiple industrial applications. The increased use of nanocellulose may lead to occupational exposure and negative health outcomes. However, knowledge on its health effects is limited, and while nanocellulose exposure may induce acute inflammatory responses in the lung, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Alveolar macrophages are key cells in alveolar particle clearance. Their activation and function may be affected by various particles. Here, we investigated the uptake of pristine cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), and their effects on alveolar macrophage polarization and biological function. CNC uptake enhanced the secretion of several cytokines but did not on its own induce a complete macrophage polarization. In presence of macrophage activators, such as LPS/IFNG and IL4/IL13, CNC exposure enhanced the expression of M1 phenotype markers and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, while decreasing M2 markers. CNC exposure also affected the function of activated alveolar macrophages resulting in a prominent cytokine burst and altered phagocytic activity. In conclusion, CNC exposure may result in dysregulation of macrophage activation and function that are critical in inflammatory responses in the lung.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Celulose/farmacologia , Macrófagos Alveolares/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos Alveolares/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Fagócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos Alveolares/ultraestrutura , Camundongos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Fagócitos/metabolismo , Fagócitos/ultraestrutura , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenótipo
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(3)2019 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30744184

RESUMO

Tremendous efforts are applied in the ferroalloy industry to control and reduce exposure to dust generated during the production process, as inhalable Mn-containing particulate matter has been linked to neurodegenerative diseases. This study aimed to investigate the toxicity and biological effects of dust particles from laboratory-scale processes where molten silicomanganese (SiMn) was exposed to air, using a human astrocytoma cell line, 1321N1, as model system. Characterization of the dust indicated presence of both nano-sized and larger particles averaging between 100 and 300 nm. The dust consisted mainly of Si, Mn and O. Investigation of cellular mechanisms showed a dose- and time-dependent effect on cell viability, with only minor changes in the expression of proteins involved in apoptosis. Moreover, gene expression of the neurotoxic biomarker amyloid precursor protein (APP) increased, whereas APP protein expression decreased. Finally, induction of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) increased with higher doses and correlated with the other endpoints. Thus, the effects of SiMn dust on 1321N1 cells are highly dependent on the dose of exposure and involves changes in APP, apoptosis-related proteins and intercellular communication.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Poeira , Manganês/farmacologia , Compostos de Silício/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Astrocitoma , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Manganês/química , Nanotecnologia , Exposição Ocupacional , Compostos de Silício/química
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(2)2019 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30654492

RESUMO

Despite the rigorous emission control measures in the ferroalloy industry, there are still emissions of dust during the production of various alloys. Dust particles were collected from laboratory scale processes where oxide particulate matter was formed from liquid silicon (metallurgical grade). The dust was produced in a dry air atmosphere to mimic industrial conditions. To investigate possible effects of ultrafine dust on the central nervous system, a human astrocytic cell line was employed to investigate inflammatory effects of particles as astrocytes play a number of active and neuron supporting roles in the brain. Toxicity on the astrocytes by amorphous silica generated in laboratory scale was compared to crystalline macro-sized silica using several doses to determine toxicological dose response curves. The cell viability experiments indicated that low particle doses of amorphous silica induced a small nonsignificant reduction in cell viability compared to crystalline silica which led to increased levels of toxicity. The gene expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP), a biomarker of neurodegenerative disease, was affected by particle exposure. Furthermore, particle exposure, in a dose-and time-dependent manner, affected the ability of the cells to communicate through gap junction channels. In conclusion, in vitro studies using low doses of particles are important to understand mechanisms of toxicity of occupational exposure to silica particles. However, these studies cannot be extrapolated to real exposure scenarios at work place, therefore, controlling and keeping the particle exposure levels low at the work place, would prevent potential negative health effects.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Poeira , Dióxido de Silício/toxicidade , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/metabolismo , Astrocitoma/patologia , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Junções Comunicantes/efeitos dos fármacos , Junções Comunicantes/metabolismo , Humanos
13.
Carcinogenesis ; 40(3): 432-440, 2019 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590402

RESUMO

DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHS) are abundant in regulatory elements, such as promoter, enhancer and transcription factor binding sites. Many studies have revealed that disease-associated variants were concentrated in DHS-related regions. However, limited studies are available on the roles of DHS-related variants in lung cancer. In this study, we performed a large-scale case-control study with 20 871 lung cancer cases and 15 971 controls to evaluate the associations between regulatory genetic variants in DHS and lung cancer susceptibility. The expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis and pathway-enrichment analysis were performed to identify the possible target genes and pathways. In addition, we performed motif-based analysis to explore the lung-cancer-related motifs using sequence kernel association test. Two novel variants, rs186332 in 20q13.3 (C>T, odds ratio [OR] = 1.17, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.10-1.24, P = 8.45 × 10-7) and rs4839323 in 1p13.2 (T>C, OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.89-0.95, P = 1.02 × 10-6) showed significant association with lung cancer risk. The eQTL analysis suggested that these two SNPs might regulate the expression of MRGBP and SLC16A1, respectively. What's more, the expression of both MRGBP and SLC16A1 was aberrantly elevated in lung tumor tissues. The motif-based analysis identified 10 motifs related to the risk of lung cancer (P < 1.71 × 10-4). Our findings suggested that variants in DHS might modify lung cancer susceptibility through regulating the expression of surrounding genes. This study provided us a deeper insight into the roles of DHS-related genetic variants for lung cancer.


Assuntos
Desoxirribonuclease I/metabolismo , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas
14.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(3): 751-766, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30059977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence from observational studies of telomere length (TL) has been conflicting regarding its direction of association with cancer risk. We investigated the causal relevance of TL for lung and head and neck cancers using Mendelian Randomization (MR) and mediation analyses. METHODS: We developed a novel genetic instrument for TL in chromosome 5p15.33, using variants identified through deep-sequencing, that were genotyped in 2051 cancer-free subjects. Next, we conducted an MR analysis of lung (16 396 cases, 13 013 controls) and head and neck cancer (4415 cases, 5013 controls) using eight genetic instruments for TL. Lastly, the 5p15.33 instrument and distinct 5p15.33 lung cancer risk loci were evaluated using two-sample mediation analysis, to quantify their direct and indirect, telomere-mediated, effects. RESULTS: The multi-allelic 5p15.33 instrument explained 1.49-2.00% of TL variation in our data (p = 2.6 × 10-9). The MR analysis estimated that a 1000 base-pair increase in TL increases risk of lung cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 1.41, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20-1.65] and lung adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.51-2.22), but not squamous lung carcinoma (OR = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.83-1.29) or head and neck cancers (OR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.70-1.05). Mediation analysis of the 5p15.33 instrument indicated an absence of direct effects on lung cancer risk (OR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.95-1.04). Analysis of distinct 5p15.33 susceptibility variants estimated that TL mediates up to 40% of the observed associations with lung cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support a causal role for long telomeres in lung cancer aetiology, particularly for adenocarcinoma, and demonstrate that telomere maintenance partially mediates the lung cancer susceptibility conferred by 5p15.33 loci.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Homeostase do Telômero/genética , Telômero/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cromossomos Humanos Par 5/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1856: 173-201, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30178252

RESUMO

Self-sustained and synchronized to environmental stimuli, circadian clocks are under genetic and epigenetic regulation. Recent findings have greatly increased our understanding of epigenetic plasticity governed by circadian clock. Thus, the link between circadian clock and epigenetic machinery is reciprocal. Circadian clock can affect epigenetic features including genomic DNA methylation, noncoding RNA, mainly miRNA expression, and histone modifications resulted in their 24-h rhythms. Concomitantly, these epigenetic events can directly modulate cyclic system of transcription and translation of core circadian genes and indirectly clock output genes. Significant findings interlocking circadian clock, epigenetics, and cancer have been revealed, particularly in breast, colorectal, and blood cancers. Aberrant methylation of circadian gene promoter regions and miRNA expression affected circadian gene expression, together with 24-h expression oscillation pace have been frequently observed.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Epigênese Genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia , Animais , Relógios Circadianos/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Metilação de DNA , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Mamíferos , MicroRNAs , Neoplasias/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro , RNA não Traduzido , Transcriptoma
16.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 91(8): 937-950, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29971594

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Radon is a risk factor for lung cancer and uranium miners are more exposed than the general population. A genome-wide interaction analysis was carried out to identify genomic loci, genes or gene sets that modify the susceptibility to lung cancer given occupational exposure to the radioactive gas radon. METHODS: Samples from 28 studies provided by the International Lung Cancer Consortium were pooled with samples of former uranium miners collected by the German Federal Office of Radiation Protection. In total, 15,077 cases and 13,522 controls, all of European ancestries, comprising 463 uranium miners were compared. The DNA of all participants was genotyped with the OncoArray. We fitted single-marker and in multi-marker models and performed an exploratory gene-set analysis to detect cumulative enrichment of significance in sets of genes. RESULTS: We discovered a genome-wide significant interaction of the marker rs12440014 within the gene CHRNB4 (OR = 0.26, 95% CI 0.11-0.60, p = 0.0386 corrected for multiple testing). At least suggestive significant interaction of linkage disequilibrium blocks was observed at the chromosomal regions 18q21.23 (p = 1.2 × 10-6), 5q23.2 (p = 2.5 × 10-6), 1q21.3 (p = 3.2 × 10-6), 10p13 (p = 1.3 × 10-5) and 12p12.1 (p = 7.1 × 10-5). Genes belonging to the Gene Ontology term "DNA dealkylation involved in DNA repair" (GO:0006307; p = 0.0139) or the gene family HGNC:476 "microRNAs" (p = 0.0159) were enriched with LD-blockwise significance. CONCLUSION: The well-established association of the genomic region 15q25 to lung cancer might be influenced by exposure to radon among uranium miners. Furthermore, lung cancer susceptibility is related to the functional capability of DNA damage signaling via ubiquitination processes and repair of radiation-induced double-strand breaks by the single-strand annealing mechanism.


Assuntos
Carcinógenos Ambientais/toxicidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Doenças Profissionais/genética , Radônio/toxicidade , Receptores Nicotínicos/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dano ao DNA/efeitos da radiação , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos/efeitos da radiação , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mineração , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Ubiquitinação/efeitos da radiação , Urânio
17.
Nanotoxicology ; 12(6): 522-538, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29742950

RESUMO

Upon inhalation, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) may reach the subpleura and pleural spaces, and induce pleural inflammation and/or mesothelioma in humans. However, the mechanisms of MWCNT-induced pathology after direct intrapleural injections are still only partly elucidated. In particular, a role of the proinflammatory interleukin-1 (IL-1) cytokines in pleural inflammation has so far not been published. We examined the MWCNT-induced pleural inflammation, gene expression abnormalities, and the modifying role of IL-1α and ß cytokines following intrapleural injection of two types of MWCNTs (CNT-1 and CNT-2) compared with crocidolite asbestos in IL-1 wild-type (WT) and IL-1α/ß KO (IL1-KO) mice. Histopathological examination of the pleura 28 days post-exposure revealed mesothelial cell hyperplasia, leukocyte infiltration, and fibrosis occurring in the CNT-1 (Mitsui-7)-exposed group. The pleura of these mice also showed the greatest changes in mRNA and miRNA expression levels, closely followed by CNT-2. In addition, the CNT-1-exposed group also presented the greatest infiltrations of leukocytes and proliferation of fibrous tissue. WT mice were more prone to development of sustained inflammation and fibrosis than IL1-KO mice. Prominent differences in genetic and epigenetic changes were also observed between the two genotypes. In conclusion, the fibrotic response to MWCNTs in the pleura depends on the particles' physico-chemical properties and on the presence or absence of the IL-1 genes. Furthermore, we found that CNT-1 was the most potent inducer of inflammatory responses, followed by CNT-2 and crocidolite asbestos.


Assuntos
Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Interleucina-1/genética , Nanotubos de Carbono/toxicidade , Cavidade Pleural/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Asbesto Crocidolita/toxicidade , Fibrose , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Cavidade Pleural/patologia
18.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 95: 270-279, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29614343

RESUMO

With the emergence of nanotechnology the number of manufactured nanomaterials (MNM) in production and use is constantly increasing. Exposure of workers to MNM is of concern, because still much is unknown about health effects. MNM may have different properties, testing of each material is time consuming and costly. Experts have proposed various approaches to categorize MNM to facilitate risk assessment of human health effects based on shared properties of various materials. A systematic literature survey was undertaken to identify expert opinions on grouping of MNM published between the years 2000 and 2015. We summarized and synthesized the opinions according to a systematic review of text and opinion. We identified 22 articles that fulfilled our inclusion criteria reporting 17 proposals with three proposals for groups and 14 proposals for criteria for grouping. Five proposals suggested one or more of the following groups of concern: fibrous, biopersistent, high solubility with high toxicity, chemically active. Criteria proposed in multiple studies were: viable testing options, mode of action, physicochemical properties predicting toxicity. We conclude that a limited number of groups have been proposed to categorize MNM according to human health concern. Further research should be conducted to underpin the proposed groups with empirical evidence.


Assuntos
Nanoestruturas/classificação , Nanoestruturas/toxicidade , Medição de Risco/métodos , Animais , Prova Pericial , Humanos
19.
Nanotoxicology ; 12(2): 138-152, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29350075

RESUMO

The effects of long-term chronic exposure of human lung cells to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and their impact upon cellular proteins and lipids were investigated. Since the lung is the major target organ, an in vitro normal bronchial epithelial cell line model was used. Additionally, to better mimic exposure to manufactured nanomaterials at occupational settings, cells were continuously exposed to two non-toxic and low doses of a MWCNT for 13-weeks. MWCNT-treatment increased ROS levels in cells without increasing oxidative DNA damage and resulted in differential expression of multiple anti- and pro-apoptotic proteins. The proteomic analysis of the MWCNT-exposed cells showed that among more than 5000 identified proteins; more than 200 were differentially expressed in the treated cells. Functional analyses revealed association of these differentially regulated proteins to cellular processes such as cell death and survival, cellular assembly, and organization. Similarly, shotgun lipidomic profiling revealed accumulation of multiple lipid classes. Our results indicate that long-term MWCNT-exposure of human normal lung cells at occupationally relevant low-doses may alter both the proteome and the lipidome profiles of the target epithelial cells in the lung.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanotubos de Carbono/toxicidade , Proteoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Brônquios/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteômica , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
20.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1856: C1, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850986

RESUMO

The Chapter was inadvertently published with incorrect figure (Fig. 1). The same has been corrected in the chapter.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA