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1.
Mol Metab ; : 101223, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798772

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The orexigenic hormone ghrelin exerts its physiological effects by binding to and activating the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). The recent development of a Ghsr-IRES-Cre knock-in mouse line has made it possible to genetically access GHSR-expressing neurons. Inserting a Cre construct using a knock-in strategy, even when following an upstream internal ribosome entry site (IRES) can, however, interfere with expression of a targeted gene, with consequences for the phenotype emerging. In this study, we aimed to phenotype, both physically and metabolically, heterozygous and homozygous Ghsr-IRES-Cre mice, with a view to discovering the extent to which the ghrelin signalling system remains functional in these mice. METHODS: We assessed feeding and arcuate nucleus (Arc) Fos activation in wild-type, heterozygous and homozygous Ghsr-IRES-cre mice in response to peripherally-administered ghrelin. We also characterised their developmental and growth phenotypes, as well as their metabolic responses upon an overnight fast. RESULTS: Insertion of the IRES-Cre cassette into the 3'-untranslated region of the Ghsr gene led to a gene-dosage GHSR depletion in the Arc. Whereas heterozygotes remained ghrelin-responsive and more closely resembled wild-types, ghrelin had reduced orexigenic efficacy and failed to induce Arc Fos expression in homozygous littermates. Homozygotes had a lower body weight accompanied by a shorter body length, less fat tissue content, altered bone parameters, and lower insulin-like growth factor-1 levels compared to wild-type and heterozygous littermates. Additionally, both heterozygous and homozygous Ghsr-IRES-Cre mice lacked the usual fasting-induced rise in growth hormone (GH) and displayed an exaggerated drop in blood glucose and insulin compared to wild-types. Unexpectedly, fasting acyl-ghrelin levels were allele-dependently increased. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that (i) heterozygous but not homozygous Ghsr-IRES-Cre mice retain the usual responsiveness to administered ghrelin, (ii) the impact of fasting on GH release and glucose homeostasis is altered even when only one copy of the Ghsr gene is non-functional (as in heterozygous Ghsr-IRES-Cre mice) and (iii) homozygous Ghsr-IRES-Cre mice exhibit growth retardation. Of the many transgenic models of suppressed ghrelin signalling, Ghsr-IRES-Cre mice emerge as best representing the full breadth of the expected phenotype with respect to body weight, growth, and metabolic parameters.

2.
Mol Metab ; : 101128, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33246141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The hormone ghrelin stimulates food intake, promotes adiposity, increases body weight, and elevates blood glucose. Consquently, alterations in plasma ghrelin levels and the functioning of other components of the broader ghrelin system have been proposed as potential contributors to obesity and diabetes. Furthermore, targeting the ghrelin system has been proposed as a novel therapeutic strategy for obesity and diabetes. SCOPE OF REVIEW: The current review focuses on the potential for targeting ghrelin and other proteins comprising the ghrelin system as a treatment for obesity and diabetes. The main components of the ghrelin system are introduced. Data supporting a role for the endogenous ghrelin system in the development of obesity and diabetes along with data that seemingly refute such a role are outlined. An argument for further research into the development of ghrelin system-targeted therapeutic agents is delineated. Also, an evidence-based discussion of potential factors and contexts that might influence the efficacy of this class of therapeutics is provided. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS: It would not be a "leap to" conclusions to suggest that agents which target the ghrelin system - including those that lower acyl-ghrelin levels, raise LEAP2 levels, block GHSR activity, and/or raise desacyl-ghrelin signaling - could represent efficacious novel treatments for obesity and diabetes.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33042003

RESUMO

Insulin-induced hypoglycemia is a major limiting factor in maintaining optimal blood glucose in patients with type 1 diabetes and advanced type 2 diabetes. Luckily, a counterregulatory response (1) system exists to help minimize and reverse hypoglycemia, although more studies are needed to better characterize its components. Recently, we showed that the hormone ghrelin is permissive for the normal CRR to insulin-induced hypoglycemia when assessed in mice without diabetes. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ghrelin also is protective against insulin-induced hypoglycemia in the streptozotocin (2) mouse model of type 1 diabetes. STZ-treated ghrelin-knockout (KO) (3) mice as well as STZ-treated wild-type (WT) littermates were subjected to a low-dose hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemic clamp procedure. The STZ-treated ghrelin-KO mice required a much higher glucose infusion rate than the STZ-treated WT mice. Also, the STZ-treated ghrelin-KO mice exhibited attenuated plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine responses to the insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Taken together, our data suggest that without ghrelin, STZ-treated mice modeling type 1 diabetes are unable to mount the usual CRR to insulin-induced hypoglycemia.

4.
Neuroscience ; 444: 183-195, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599122

RESUMO

Histaminergic neurons of the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN) are important regulators of behavioral and homeostatic processes. Previous work suggested that histaminergic neurons exhibit a characteristic electrophysiological signature, allowing for their identification in brain slice preparations. However, these previous investigations focused on neurons in the ventral subregion of the TMN of rats. Consequently, it remains unclear whether such electrophysiological properties extend to mice, including other subregions of the TMN, and the potential for differences between males and females. To further characterize the electrophysiological properties of histaminergic neurons, we performed whole-cell patch-clamp recordings on transgenic mice expressing Cre recombinase in histidine decarboxylase (HDC)-expressing cells; the sole enzyme for histamine synthesis (Hdc-cre::tdTomato). Despite similarities with the electrophysiological properties reported in rats, we observed considerable variability in mouse HDC neuron passive membrane properties, action potential firing, and intrinsic subthreshold active membrane properties. Overall, the electrophysiological properties of HDC neurons appeared similar across subregions of the TMN, consistent with a lack of topographical organization in this nucleus. Moreover, we found no obvious sex differences in the electrical excitability of HDC neurons. However, our data reveal a diversity in the electrophysiological properties of genetically identified histaminergic neurons from mice not previously appreciated from rat studies. Thus, these data highlight the utility of mouse genetics to target the widespread histaminergic neuronal population within the TMN and support the idea that histaminergic neurons are a heterogeneous neuronal population.

5.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 319(2): E330-E337, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543942

RESUMO

Ghrelin is a predominantly stomach-derived peptide hormone with many actions including regulation of food intake, body weight, and blood glucose. Plasma ghrelin levels are robustly regulated by feeding status, with its levels increasing upon caloric restriction and decreasing after food intake. At least some of this regulation might be due to direct responsiveness of ghrelin cells to changes in circulating nutrients, including glucose. Indeed, oral and parental glucose administration to humans and mice lower plasma ghrelin. Also, dissociated mouse gastric mucosal cell preparations, which contain ghrelin cells, decrease ghrelin secretion when cultured in high ambient glucose. Here, we used primary cultures of mouse gastric mucosal cells in combination with an array of pharmacological tools to examine the potential role of changed intracellular oxidative stress in glucose-restricted ghrelin secretion. The antioxidants resveratrol, SRT1720, and curcumin all markedly increased ghrelin secretion. Furthermore, three different selective activators of Nuclear factor erythroid-derived-2-like 2 (Nrf2), a master regulator of the antioxidative cellular response to oxidative stress, increased ghrelin secretion. These antioxidant compounds blocked the inhibitory effects of glucose on ghrelin secretion. Therefore, we conclude that lowering oxidative stress within ghrelin cells stimulates ghrelin secretion and blocks the direct effects of glucose on ghrelin cells to inhibit ghrelin secretion.


Assuntos
Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Grelina/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Células Cultivadas , Curcumina/farmacologia , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose/farmacologia , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/fisiologia , Resveratrol/farmacologia
6.
Mol Metab ; 39: 101004, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339772

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Binding of ghrelin to its receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), stimulates GH release, induces eating, and increases blood glucose. These processes may also be influenced by constitutive (ghrelin-independent) GHSR activity, as suggested by findings in short people with naturally occurring GHSR-A204E mutations and reduced food intake and blood glucose in rodents administered GHSR inverse agonists, both of which impair constitutive GHSR activity. In this study, we aimed to more fully determine the physiologic relevance of constitutive GHSR activity. METHODS: We generated mice with a GHSR mutation that replaces alanine at position 203 with glutamate (GHSR-A203E), which corresponds to the previously described human GHSR-A204E mutation, and used them to conduct ex vivo neuronal electrophysiology and in vivo metabolic assessments. We also measured signaling within COS-7 and HEK293T cells transfected with wild-type GHSR (GHSR-WT) or GHSR-A203E constructs. RESULTS: In COS-7 cells, GHSR-A203E resulted in lower baseline IP3 accumulation than GHSR-WT; ghrelin-induced IP3 accumulation was observed in both constructs. In HEK293T cells co-transfected with voltage-gated CaV2.2 calcium channel complex, GHSR-A203E had no effect on basal CaV2.2 current density while GHSR-WT did; both GHSR-A203E and GHSR-WT inhibited CaV2.2 current in the presence of ghrelin. In cultured hypothalamic neurons from GHSR-A203E and GHSR-deficient mice, native calcium currents were greater than those in neurons from wild-type mice; ghrelin inhibited calcium currents in cultured hypothalamic neurons from both GHSR-A203E and wild-type mice. In brain slices, resting membrane potentials of arcuate NPY neurons from GHSR-A203E mice were hyperpolarized compared to those from wild-type mice; the same percentage of arcuate NPY neurons from GHSR-A203E and wild-type mice depolarized upon ghrelin exposure. The GHSR-A203E mutation did not significantly affect body weight, body length, or femur length in the first ∼6 months of life, yet these parameters were lower in GHSR-A203E mice after 1 year of age. During a 7-d 60% caloric restriction regimen, GHSR-A203E mice lacked the usual marked rise in plasma GH and demonstrated an exaggerated drop in blood glucose. Administered ghrelin also exhibited reduced orexigenic and GH secretagogue efficacies in GHSR-A203E mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that the A203E mutation ablates constitutive GHSR activity and that constitutive GHSR activity contributes to the native depolarizing conductance of GHSR-expressing arcuate NPY neurons. Although the A203E mutation does not block ghrelin-evoked signaling as assessed using in vitro and ex vivo models, GHSR-A203E mice lack the usual acute food intake response to administered ghrelin in vivo. The GHSR-A203E mutation also blunts GH release, and in aged mice leads to reduced body length and femur length, which are consistent with the short stature of human carriers of the GHSR-A204E mutation.

7.
Mol Metab ; 35: 100956, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244183

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Histaminergic neurons of the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN) are wake-promoting and contribute to the regulation of energy homeostasis. Evidence indicates that melanocortin 4 receptors (MC4R) are expressed within the TMN. However, whether the melanocortin system influences the activity and function of TMN neurons expressing histidine decarboxylase (HDC), the enzyme required for histamine synthesis, remains undefined. METHODS: We utilized Hdc-Cre mice in combination with whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology and in vivo chemogenetic techniques to determine whether HDC neurons receive metabolically relevant information via the melanocortin system. RESULTS: We found that subsets of HDC-expressing neurons were excited by melanotan II (MTII), a non-selective melanocortin receptor agonist. Use of melanocortin receptor selective agonists (THIQ, [D-Trp8]-γ-MSH) and inhibitors of synaptic transmission (TTX, CNQX, AP5) indicated that the effect was mediated specifically by MC4Rs and involved a glutamatergic dependent presynaptic mechanism. MTII enhanced evoked excitatory post-synaptic currents (EPSCs) originating from electrical stimulation of the perifornical lateral hypothalamic area (PeFLH), supportive of melanocortin effects on the glutamatergic PeFLH projection to the TMN. Finally, in vivo chemogenetic inhibition of HDC neurons strikingly enhanced the anorexigenic effects of intracerebroventricular administration of MTII, suggesting that MC4R activation of histaminergic neurons may restrain the anorexigenic effects of melanocortin system activation. CONCLUSIONS: These experiments identify a functional interaction between the melanocortin and histaminergic systems and suggest that HDC neurons act naturally to restrain the anorexigenic effect of melanocortin system activation. These findings may have implications for the control of arousal and metabolic homeostasis, especially in the context of obesity, in which both processes are subjected to alterations.

8.
Diabetes ; 69(2): 228-237, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685528

RESUMO

Insulin-induced hypoglycemia leads to far-ranging negative consequences in patients with diabetes. Components of the counterregulatory response (CRR) system that help minimize and reverse hypoglycemia and coordination between those components are well studied but not yet fully characterized. Here, we tested the hypothesis that acyl-ghrelin, a hormone that defends against hypoglycemia in a preclinical starvation model, is permissive for the normal CRR to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Ghrelin knockout (KO) mice and wild-type (WT) littermates underwent an insulin bolus-induced hypoglycemia test and a low-dose hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemic clamp procedure. Clamps also were performed in ghrelin-KO mice and C57BL/6N mice administered the growth hormone secretagogue receptor agonist HM01 or vehicle. Results show that hypoglycemia, as induced by an insulin bolus, was more pronounced and prolonged in ghrelin-KO mice, supporting previous studies suggesting increased insulin sensitivity upon ghrelin deletion. Furthermore, during hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemic clamps, ghrelin-KO mice required a 10-fold higher glucose infusion rate (GIR) and exhibited less robust corticosterone and growth hormone responses. Conversely, HM01 administration, which reduced the GIR required by ghrelin-KO mice during the clamps, increased plasma corticosterone and growth hormone. Thus, our data suggest that endogenously produced acyl-ghrelin not only influences insulin sensitivity but also is permissive for the normal CRR to insulin-induced hypoglycemia.


Assuntos
Grelina/metabolismo , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Insulina/toxicidade , Animais , Grelina/genética , Técnica Clamp de Glucose , Hipoglicemia/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Receptores de Grelina/agonistas
9.
Neuroscience ; 447: 53-62, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520709

RESUMO

Ghrelin administration increases food intake, body weight (BW), adiposity, and blood glucose. In contrast, although mouse models lacking ghrelin or its receptor (Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor (GHSR)) exhibit life-threatening hypoglycemia in starvation-like states, they do not exhibit appreciable reductions in food intake, BW, adiposity, blood glucose, or survival when food availability is unrestricted. This suggests the existence of a parallel neuromodulatory system that can compensate for disruptions in the ghrelin system in certain settings. Here, we hypothesized that the cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) may encode this putative redundancy, and as such, that genetic deletion of both GHSR and CB1R would exaggerate the metabolic deficits associated with deletion of GHSR alone. To test this hypothesis, we assessed food intake, BW, blood glucose, survival, and plasma acyl-ghrelin in ad libitum-fed male wild-type mice and those that genetically lack GHSR (GHSR-nulls), CB1R (CB1R-nulls), or both GHSR and CB1R (double-nulls). BW, fat mass, and lean mass were similar in GHSR-nulls and wild-types, lower in CB1R-nulls, but not further reduced in double-nulls. Food intake, plasma acyl-ghrelin, and blood glucose were similar among genotypes. Deletion of either GHSR or CB1R alone did not have a statistically-significant effect on survival, but double-nulls demonstrated a statistical trend towards decreased survival (p = 0.07). We conclude that CB1R is not responsible for the normal BW, adiposity, food intake, and blood glucose observed in GHSR-null mice in the setting of unrestricted food availability. Nor is CB1R required for plasma acyl-ghrelin secretion in that setting. However, GHSR may be protective against exaggerated mortality associated with CB1R deletion.

10.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(505)2019 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413143

RESUMO

Hippocampal lesions are a defining pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie hippocampal synaptic injury in AD have not been fully elucidated. Current therapeutic efforts for AD treatment are not effective in correcting hippocampal synaptic deficits. Growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1α (GHSR1α) is critical for hippocampal synaptic physiology. Here, we report that GHSR1α interaction with ß-amyloid (Aß) suppresses GHSR1α activation, leading to compromised GHSR1α regulation of dopamine receptor D1 (DRD1) in the hippocampus from patients with AD. The simultaneous application of the selective GHSR1α agonist MK0677 with the selective DRD1 agonist SKF81297 rescued Ghsr1α function from Aß inhibition, mitigating hippocampal synaptic injury and improving spatial memory in an AD mouse model. Our data reveal a mechanism of hippocampal vulnerability in AD and suggest that a combined activation of GHSR1α and DRD1 may be a promising approach for treating AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Receptores de Dopamina D1/metabolismo , Receptores de Grelina/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Ligação Proteica , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
11.
J Clin Invest ; 129(9): 3909-3923, 2019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424424

RESUMO

Acyl-ghrelin administration increases food intake, body weight, and blood glucose. In contrast, mice lacking ghrelin or ghrelin receptors (GHSRs) exhibit life-threatening hypoglycemia during starvation-like conditions, but do not consistently exhibit overt metabolic phenotypes when given ad libitum food access. These results, and findings of ghrelin resistance in obese states, imply nutritional state dependence of ghrelin's metabolic actions. Here, we hypothesized that liver-enriched antimicrobial peptide-2 (LEAP2), a recently characterized endogenous GHSR antagonist, blunts ghrelin action during obese states and postprandially. To test this hypothesis, we determined changes in plasma LEAP2 and acyl-ghrelin due to fasting, eating, obesity, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), oral glucose administration, and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) using humans and/or mice. Our results suggest that plasma LEAP2 is regulated by metabolic status: its levels increased with body mass and blood glucose and decreased with fasting, RYGB, and in postprandial states following VSG. These changes were mostly opposite of those of acyl-ghrelin. Furthermore, using electrophysiology, we showed that LEAP2 both hyperpolarizes and prevents acyl-ghrelin from activating arcuate NPY neurons. We predict that the plasma LEAP2/acyl-ghrelin molar ratio may be a key determinant modulating acyl-ghrelin activity in response to body mass, feeding status, and blood glucose.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Ingestão de Alimentos , Obesidade/sangue , Adulto , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Proteínas Sanguíneas , Feminino , Derivação Gástrica , Grelina/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Obesidade/patologia , Obesidade/cirurgia
12.
Endocrinology ; 160(5): 1247-1261, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30874792

RESUMO

Much effort has been directed at studying the orexigenic actions of administered ghrelin and the potential effects of the endogenous ghrelin system on food intake, food reward, body weight, adiposity, and energy expenditure. Although endogenous ghrelin's actions on some of these processes remain ambiguous, its glucoregulatory actions have emerged as well-recognized features during extreme metabolic conditions. The blood glucose-raising actions of ghrelin are beneficial during starvation-like conditions, defending against life-threatening falls in blood glucose, but they are seemingly detrimental in obese states and in certain monogenic forms of diabetes, contributing to hyperglycemia. Also of interest, blood glucose negatively regulates ghrelin secretion. This article reviews the literature suggesting the existence of a blood glucose-ghrelin axis and highlights the factors that mediate the glucoregulatory actions of ghrelin, especially during metabolic extremes such as starvation and diabetes.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Grelina/metabolismo , Grelina/farmacologia , Adiposidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Grelina/sangue , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/sangue , Hiperglicemia/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/fisiopatologia
13.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 44(7): 1319-1327, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30758330

RESUMO

The ghrelin system is a key component of the mood and metabolic responses to chronic psychosocial stress. For example, circulating acyl-ghrelin rises in several rodent and human stress models, administered acyl-ghrelin induces antidepressant-like behavioral responses in mice, and mice with deleted ghrelin receptors (GHSRs) exhibit exaggerated depressive-like behaviors, changed eating behaviors, and altered metabolism in response to chronic stress. However, the mechanisms mediating stress-induced rises in ghrelin are unknown and ghrelin's antidepressant-like efficacy in the setting of chronic stress is incompletely characterized. Here, we used a pharmacological approach in combination with a 10-day chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) model in male mice to investigate whether the sympathoadrenal system is involved in the ghrelin response to stress. We also examined the antidepressant-like efficacy of administered ghrelin and the synthetic GHSR agonist GHRP-2 during and/or after CSDS. We found that administration of the ß1-adrenergic receptor (ß1AR) blocker atenolol during CSDS blunts the elevation of plasma acyl-ghrelin and exaggerates depressive-like behavior. Neither acute injection of acyl-ghrelin directly following CSDS nor its chronic administration during or after CSDS nor chronic delivery of GHRP-2 during and after CSDS improved stress-induced depressive-like behavior. Thus, ß1ARs drive the acyl-ghrelin response to CSDS, but supplementing the natural increases in acyl-ghrelin with exogenous acyl-ghrelin or GHSR agonist does not further enhance the antidepressant-like actions of the endogenous ghrelin system in the setting of CSDS.


Assuntos
Depressão/fisiopatologia , Grelina/fisiologia , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/administração & dosagem , Animais , Atenolol/administração & dosagem , Depressão/etiologia , Grelina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Oligopeptídeos/administração & dosagem , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/administração & dosagem , Comportamento Social , Estresse Psicológico/complicações
14.
Endocrinology ; 159(12): 4006-4022, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30380028

RESUMO

In the current study, we sought to determine the significance of the ghrelin system in Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS). PWS is characterized by hypotonia and difficulty feeding in neonates and hyperphagia and obesity beginning later in childhood. Other features include low GH, neonatal hypoglycemia, hypogonadism, and accelerated mortality. Although the hyperphagia and obesity in PWS have been attributed to elevated levels of the orexigenic hormone ghrelin, this link has never been firmly established, nor have ghrelin's potentially protective actions to increase GH secretion, blood glucose, and survival been investigated in a PWS context. In the current study, we show that placing Snord116del mice modeling PWS on ghrelin-deficient or ghrelin receptor [GH secretagogue receptor (GHSR)]-deficient backgrounds does not impact their characteristically reduced body weight, lower plasma IGF-1, delayed sexual maturation, or increased mortality in the period prior to weaning. However, blood glucose was further reduced in male Snord116del pups on a ghrelin-deficient background, and percentage body weight gain and percentage fat mass were further reduced in male Snord116del pups on a GHSR-deficient background. Strikingly, 2 weeks of daily administration of the GHSR agonist HM01 to Snord116del neonates markedly improved survival, resulting in a nearly complete rescue of the excess mortality owing to loss of the paternal Snord116 gene. These data support further exploration of the therapeutic potential of GHSR agonist administration in limiting PWS mortality, especially during the period characterized by failure to thrive.


Assuntos
Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/mortalidade , RNA Nucleolar Pequeno/genética , Receptores de Grelina/agonistas , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/genética , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/patologia
15.
Brain Struct Funct ; 223(7): 3133-3147, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29761230

RESUMO

Ghrelin is a stomach-derived hormone that regulates a variety of biological functions such as food intake, gastrointestinal function and blood glucose metabolism, among others. Ghrelin acts via the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), a G-protein-coupled receptor located in key brain areas that mediate specific actions of the hormone. GHSR is highly expressed in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), which is located in the medulla oblongata and controls essential functions, including orofacial, autonomic, neuroendocrine and behavioral responses. Here, we used a mouse model, in which the expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) is controlled by the promoter of GHSR (GHSR-eGFP mice), to gain neuroanatomical and functional insights of the GHSR-expressing neurons of the NTS. We found that GHSR-expressing neurons of the NTS are segregated in clusters that were symmetrically distributed to the midline: (1) a pair of rostral clusters, and (2) a caudal and medially located cluster. We also identified that a subset of GHSR neurons of the caudal NTS are GABAergic. Finally, we found that rostral NTS GHSR neurons increase the levels of the marker of neuronal activation c-Fos in mice exposed to fasting/refeeding or high-fat diet bingeing protocols, while caudal NTS GHSR neurons increase the levels of c-Fos in mice exposed to gastric distension or LiCl-induced malaise protocols. Thus, current data provide evidence that ghrelin receptor signaling seems to target segregated clusters of neurons within the NTS that, in turn, may be activated by different stimuli.


Assuntos
Neurônios GABAérgicos/metabolismo , Bulbo/metabolismo , Receptores de Grelina/metabolismo , Núcleo Solitário/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Fluorescência , Grelina/administração & dosagem , Grelina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Fenótipo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
16.
Mol Metab ; 9: 114-130, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29396372

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Exercise training has several well-established health benefits, including many related to body weight, appetite control, and blood glucose homeostasis. However, the molecular mechanisms and, in particular, the hormonal systems that mediate and integrate these beneficial effects are poorly understood. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the role of the hormone ghrelin and its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR; ghrelin receptor), in mediating the effects of exercise on food intake and blood glucose following exercise as well as in regulating exercise endurance capacity. METHODS: We used two mouse models of treadmill running to characterize the changes in plasma ghrelin with exercise. We also assessed the role of the ghrelin system to influence food intake and blood glucose after exercise, exercise endurance, and parameters potentially linked to responses to exercise. Mice lacking GHSRs (GHSR-null mice) and wild-type littermates were studied. RESULTS: An acute bout of exercise transiently elevated plasma acyl-ghrelin. Without the action of this increased ghrelin on GHSRs (as in GHSR-null mice), high intensity interval exercise markedly reduced food intake compared to control mice. The effect of exercise to acutely raise blood glucose remained unmodified in GHSR-null mice. Exercise-induced increases in plasma ghrelin positively correlated with endurance capacity, and time to exhaustion was reduced in GHSR-null mice as compared to wild-type littermates. In an effort to mechanistically explain their reduced exercise endurance, exercised GHSR-null mice exhibited an abrogated sympathoadrenal response, lower overall insulin-like growth factor-1 levels, and altered glycogen utilization. CONCLUSIONS: Exercise transiently increases plasma ghrelin. GHSR-null mice exhibit decreased food intake following high intensity interval exercise and decreased endurance when submitted to an exercise endurance protocol. These data suggest that an intact ghrelin system limits the capacity of exercise to restrict food intake following exercise, although it enhances exercise endurance.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Grelina/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Resistência Física , Receptores de Grelina/genética , Animais , Grelina/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Receptores de Grelina/metabolismo
17.
J Clin Invest ; 128(3): 900-902, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29376891

RESUMO

Hyperphagia and obesity are the best-known manifestations of Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and are responsible for most of the overall morbidity and mortality associated with the disease. Yet these PWS symptoms remain poorly understood and without effective pharmacologic therapies. Mouse models attempting to recapitulate both the genetic alterations and marked hyperphagia plus obesity of PWS have been enigmatic, leading to skepticism about the use of mouse models to investigate PWS. In this issue of the JCI, Polex-Wolf and colleagues challenge the skeptics by successfully inducing hyperphagia following bilateral mediobasal hypothalamic deletion of the Snord116 gene from adult mice. Obesity also resulted, although only in a subset of mice. While this approach represents an exciting advance, highlighting a pathologic effect of loss of mediobasal hypothalamic Snord116 expression on the development of PWS's hallmark symptoms, the variability in the body-weight and body composition responses to this site-selective gene deletion raises several questions.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Prader-Willi , Animais , Hiperfagia , Hipotálamo , Camundongos , Obesidade , RNA Nucleolar Pequeno
18.
Trends Endocrinol Metab ; 28(12): 843-854, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29097101

RESUMO

Ghrelin administration induces food intake and body weight gain. Based on these actions, the ghrelin system was initially proposed as an antiobesity target. Subsequent studies using genetic mouse models have raised doubts about the role of the endogenous ghrelin system in mediating body weight homeostasis or obesity. However, this is not to say that the endogenous ghrelin system is not important metabolically or otherwise. Here we review an emerging concept in which the endogenous ghrelin system serves an essential function during extreme nutritional and psychological challenges to defend blood glucose, protect body weight, avoid exaggerated depression, and ultimately allow survival.


Assuntos
Grelina/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Caquexia/metabolismo , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/metabolismo , Camundongos
19.
Mol Metab ; 6(8): 882-896, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28752052

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Ghrelin is a stomach-derived hormone that affects food intake and regulates blood glucose. The best-characterized actions of ghrelin are mediated by its binding to and activation of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR; ghrelin receptor). Adequate examination of the identity, function, and relevance of specific subsets of GHSR-expressing neurons has been hampered by the absence of a suitable Cre recombinase (Cre)-expressing mouse line with which to manipulate gene expression in a targeted fashion within GHSR-expressing neurons. The present study aims to characterize the functional significance and neurocircuitry of GHSR-expressing neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH), as they relate to ghrelin-induced food intake and fasting-associated rebound hyperphagia, using a novel mouse line in which Cre expression is controlled by the Ghsr promoter. METHODS: A Ghsr-IRES-Cre mouse line that expresses Cre directed by the Ghsr promoter was generated. The line was validated by comparing Cre activity in reporter mice to the known brain distribution pattern of GHSR. Next, the requirement of MBH GHSR-expressing neuronal activity in mediating food intake in response to administered ghrelin and in response to fasting was assessed after stereotaxic delivery of inhibitory designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) virus to the MBH. In a separate cohort of Ghsr-IRES-Cre mice, stereotaxic delivery of stimulatory DREADD virus to the MBH was performed to assess the sufficiency of MBH GHSR-expressing neuronal activity on food intake. Finally, the distribution of MBH GHSR-expressing neuronal axonal projections was assessed in the DREADD virus-injected animals. RESULTS: The pattern of Cre activity in the Ghsr-IRES-Cre mouse line mostly faithfully reproduced the known GHSR expression pattern. DREADD-assisted inhibition of MBH GHSR neuronal activity robustly suppressed the normal orexigenic response to ghrelin and fasting-associated rebound food intake. DREADD-assisted stimulation of MBH GHSR neuronal activity was sufficient to induce food intake. Axonal projections of GHSR-expressing MBH neurons were observed in a subset of hypothalamic and extra-hypothalamic regions. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that 1) activation of GHSR-expressing neurons in the MBH is required for the normal feeding responses following both peripheral administration of ghrelin and fasting, 2) activation of MBH GHSR-expressing neurons is sufficient to induce feeding, and 3) axonal projections to a subset of hypothalamic and/or extra-hypothalamic regions likely mediate these responses. The Ghsr-IRES-Cre line should serve as a valuable tool to further our understanding of the functional significance of ghrelin-responsive/GHSR-expressing neurons and the neuronal circuitry within which they act.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Jejum/metabolismo , Grelina/farmacologia , Hipotálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Jejum/fisiologia , Hipotálamo/citologia , Hipotálamo/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo
20.
Diabetes ; 66(7): 1847-1857, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28487437

RESUMO

Glucagon receptor (GcgR) blockade has been proposed as an alternative to insulin monotherapy for treating type 1 diabetes since deletion or inhibition of GcgRs corrects hyperglycemia in models of diabetes. The factors regulating glycemia in a setting devoid of insulin and glucagon function remain unclear but may include the hormone ghrelin. Not only is ghrelin release controlled by glucose but also ghrelin has many actions that can raise or reduce falls in blood glucose level. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ghrelin rises to prevent hypoglycemia in the absence of glucagon function. Both GcgR knockout (Gcgr-/-) mice and db/db mice that were administered GcgR monoclonal antibody displayed lower blood glucose levels accompanied by elevated plasma ghrelin levels. Although treatment with the pancreatic ß-cell toxin streptozotocin induced hyperglycemia and raised plasma ghrelin levels in wild-type mice, hyperglycemia was averted in similarly treated Gcgr-/- mice and the plasma ghrelin level was further increased. Notably, administration of a ghrelin receptor antagonist further reduced blood glucose levels into the markedly hypoglycemic range in overnight-fasted, streptozotocin-treated Gcgr-/- mice. A lowered blood glucose level also was observed in overnight-fasted, streptozotocin-treated ghrelin receptor-null mice that were administered GcgR monoclonal antibody. These data suggest that when glucagon activity is blocked in the setting of type 1 diabetes, the plasma ghrelin level rises, preventing hypoglycemia.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Grelina/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Receptores de Glucagon/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Glucagon/genética , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Atenolol/farmacologia , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Receptores de Grelina/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores para Leptina/genética , Simpatolíticos/farmacologia
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