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1.
Circ Heart Fail ; 14(4): e007901, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33866828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a global public health problem with important regional differences. We investigated these differences in the PARAGON-HF trial (Prospective Comparison of Angiotensin Receptor Neprilysin Inhibitor With Angiotensin Receptor Blocker Global Outcomes in HFpEF), the largest and most inclusive global HFpEF trial. METHODS: We studied differences in clinical characteristics, outcomes, and treatment effects of sacubitril/valsartan in 4796 patients with HFpEF from the PARAGON-HF trial, grouped according to geographic region. RESULTS: Regional differences in patient characteristics and comorbidities were observed: patients from Western Europe were oldest (mean 75±7 years) with the highest prevalence of atrial fibrillation/flutter (36%); Central/Eastern European patients were youngest (mean 71±8 years) with the highest prevalence of coronary artery disease (50%); North American patients had the highest prevalence of obesity (65%) and diabetes (49%); Latin American patients were younger (73±9 years) and had a high prevalence of obesity (53%); and Asia-Pacific patients had a high prevalence of diabetes (44%), despite a low prevalence of obesity (26%). Rates of the primary composite end point of total hospitalizations for HF and death from cardiovascular causes were lower in patients from Central Europe (9 per 100 patient-years) and highest in patients from North America (28 per 100 patient-years), which was primarily driven by a greater number of total hospitalizations for HF. The effect of treatment with sacubitril-valsartan was not modified by region (interaction P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with HFpEF recruited worldwide in PARAGON-HF, there were important regional differences in clinical characteristics and outcomes, which may have implications for the design of future clinical trials. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01920711.

2.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(16): 1961-1973, 2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of pneumonia and subsequent outcomes has not been compared in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the rate and impact of pneumonia in the PARADIGM-HF (Prospective Comparison of Angiotensin Receptor-Neprilysin Inhibitor With Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure) and PARAGON-HF (Prospective Comparison of ARNI with ARB Global Outcomes in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction) trials. METHODS: The authors analyzed the incidence of investigator-reported pneumonia and the rates of HF hospitalization, cardiovascular death, and all-cause death before and after the occurrence of pneumonia, and estimated risk after the first occurrence of pneumonia in unadjusted and adjusted analyses (the latter including N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide). RESULTS: In PARADIGM-HF, 528 patients (6.3%) developed pneumonia after randomization, giving an incidence rate of 29 (95% CI: 27 to 32) per 1,000 patient-years. In PARAGON-HF, 510 patients (10.6%) developed pneumonia, giving an incidence rate of 39 (95% CI: 36 to 42) per 1,000 patient-years. The subsequent risk of all trial outcomes was elevated after the occurrence of pneumonia. In PARADIGM-HF, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for the risk of death from any cause was 4.34 (95% CI: 3.73 to 5.05). The corresponding adjusted HR in PARAGON-HF was 3.76 (95% CI: 3.09 to 4.58). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of pneumonia was high in patients with HF, especially HFpEF, at around 3 times the expected rate. A first episode of pneumonia was associated with 4-fold higher mortality. (Prospective Comparison of Angiotensin Receptor-Neprilysin Inhibitor With Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure [PARADIGM-HF], NCT01035255; Prospective Comparison of ARNI [Angiotensin Receptor-Neprilysin Inhibitor] With ARB [Angiotensin Receptor Blocker] Global Outcomes in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction [PARAGON-HF], NCT01920711).

3.
4.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 155, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study evaluated the cost of baroreflex activation therapy plus guideline directed therapy (BAT + GDT) compared to GDT alone for HF patients with reduced ejection fraction and New York Heart Association Class III or II (with a recent history of III). Baroreflex activation therapy (BAT) is delivered by an implantable device that stimulates the baroreceptors through an electrode attached to the outside of the carotid artery, which rebalances the autonomic nervous system to regain cardiovascular (CV) homeostasis. The BeAT-HF trial evaluated the safety and effectiveness of BAT. METHODS: A cost impact model was developed from a U.S. health care payer or integrated delivery network perspective over a 3-year period for BAT + GDT versus GDT alone. Expected costs were calculated by utilizing 6-month data from the BeAT-HF trial and existing literature. HF hospitalization rates were extrapolated based on improvement in NT-proBNP. RESULTS: At baseline the expected cost of BAT + GDT were $29,526 per patient more than GDT alone due to BAT device and implantation costs. After 3 years, the predicted cost per patient was $9521 less expensive for BAT + GDT versus GDT alone due to lower rates of significant HF hospitalizations, CV non-HF hospitalizations, and resource intensive late-stage procedures (LVADs and heart transplants) among the BAT + GDT group. CONCLUSIONS: BAT + GDT treatment becomes less costly than GDT alone beginning between years 1 and 2 and becomes less costly cumulatively between years 2 and 3, potentially providing significant savings over time. As additional BeAT-HF trial data become available, the model can be updated to show longer term effects.

5.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(6): e018127, 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663225

RESUMO

Background The hemodynamic effects of cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are uncharacterized. We aimed to quantify the hemodynamic effects of different ventricular pacing configurations in patients with LVADs, focusing on short-term changes in load-independent right ventricular (RV) contractility. Methods and Results Patients with LVADs underwent right heart catheterization during spontaneous respiration without sedation and with pressures recorded at end expiration. Right heart catheterization was performed at different pacemaker configurations (biventricular pacing, left ventricular pacing, RV pacing, and unpaced conduction) in a randomly generated sequence with >3 minutes between configuration change and hemodynamic assessment. The right heart catheterization operator was blinded to the sequence. RV maximal change in pressure over time normalized to instantaneous pressure was calculated from digitized hemodynamic waveforms, consistent with a previously validated protocol. Fifteen patients with LVADs who were in sinus rhythm were included. Load-independent RV contractility, as assessed by RV maximal change in pressure over time normalized to instantaneous pressure, was higher in biventricular pacing compared with unpaced conduction (15.7±7.6 versus 11.0±4.0 s-1; P=0.003). Thermodilution cardiac output was higher in biventricular pacing compared with unpaced conduction (4.48±0.7 versus 4.38±0.8 L/min; P=0.05). There were no significant differences in heart rate, ventricular filling pressures, or atrioventricular valvular regurgitation across all pacing configurations. Conclusions Biventricular pacing acutely improves load-independent RV contractility in patients with LVADs. Even in these patients with mechanical left ventricular unloading via LVAD who were relative pacing nonresponders (required LVAD support despite cardiac resynchronization therapy), biventricular pacing was acutely beneficial to RV contractility.

6.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(4): e019238, 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522249

RESUMO

Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common comorbidity in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, associated with undertreatment and worse outcomes. New treatments for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction may be particularly important in patients with concomitant COPD. Methods and Results We examined outcomes in 8399 patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, according to COPD status, in the PARADIGM-HF (Prospective Comparison of Angiotensin Receptor Blocker-Neprilysin Inhibitor With Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure) trial. Cox regression models were used to compare COPD versus non-COPD subgroups and the effects of sacubitril/valsartan versus enalapril. Patients with COPD (n=1080, 12.9%) were older than patients without COPD (mean 67 versus 63 years; P<0.001), with similar left ventricular ejection fraction (29.9% versus 29.4%), but higher NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide; median, 1741 pg/mL versus 1591 pg/mL; P=0.01), worse functional class (New York Heart Association III/IV 37% versus 23%; P<0.001) and Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire-Clinical Summary Score (73 versus 81; P<0.001), and more congestion and comorbidity. Medical therapy was similar in patients with and without COPD except for beta-blockade (87% versus 94%; P<0.001) and diuretics (85% versus 80%; P<0.001). After multivariable adjustment, COPD was associated with higher risks of heart failure hospitalization (hazard ratio [HR], 1.32; 95% CI, 1.13-1.54), and the composite of cardiovascular death or heart failure hospitalization (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.05-1.34), but not cardiovascular death (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.94-1.30), or all-cause mortality (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.99-1.31). COPD was also associated with higher risk of all cardiovascular hospitalization (HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.05-1.31) and noncardiovascular hospitalization (HR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.29-1.64). The benefit of sacubitril/valsartan over enalapril was consistent in patients with and without COPD for all end points. Conclusions In PARADIGM-HF, COPD was associated with lower use of beta-blockers and worse health status and was an independent predictor of cardiovascular and noncardiovascular hospitalization. Sacubitril/valsartan was beneficial in this high-risk subgroup. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01035255.

7.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609066

RESUMO

AIMS: The relationship between serum potassium concentration and outcomes in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is not well-established. The aim of this study was to explore the association between serum potassium and clinical outcomes in the PARAGON-HF trial in which 4822 patients with HFpEF were randomised to treatment with sacubitril/valsartan or valsartan. METHODS AND RESULTS: The relationship between serum potassium concentrations and the primary study composite outcome of total (first and recurrent) heart failure hospitalisations and cardiovascular death was analysed. Hypo-, normo-, and hyperkalaemia were defined as serum potassium <4 mmol/L, 4-5 mmol/L and >5 mmol/L, respectively. Both screening and time-updated potassium (categorical and continuous spline-transformed) were studied. Patient mean age was 73 years and 52% were women. Patients with higher baseline potassium more often had an ischaemic aetiology and diabetes and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist treatment. Compared with normokalaemia, both time-updated (but not screening) hypo- and hyperkalaemia were associated with a higher risk of the primary outcome [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for hypokalaemia 1.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30-1.85; P < 0.001, and for hyperkalaemia HR 1.21, 95% CI 1.02-1.44; P = 0.025]. Hypokalaemia had a stronger association with a higher risk of all-cause, cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular death than hyperkalaemia. The association of hypokalaemia with increased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular death was most marked in participants with impaired kidney function (interaction P < 0.05). Serum potassium did not significantly differ between sacubitril/valsartan and valsartan throughout the follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Both hypo- and hyperkalaemia were associated with heart failure hospitalisation but only hypokalaemia was associated with mortality, especially in the context of renal impairment. Hypokalaemia was as strongly associated with death from non-cardiovascular causes as with cardiovascular death. Collectively, these findings suggest that potassium disturbances are a more of a marker of HFpEF severity rather than a direct cause of death.

8.
ESC Heart Fail ; 8(2): 1706-1710, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522140

RESUMO

AIMS: Sacubitril/valsartan combines renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibition with amplification of natriuretic peptides. In addition to well-described effects, natriuretic peptides exert direct effects on pulmonary vasculature. The effect of sacubitril/valsartan on pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) has not been fully defined. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a retrospective case-series of PAP changes following transition from angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) to sacubitril/valsartan in patients with heart failure reduced ejection fraction and a previously implanted CardioMEMS™ sensor. Pre-sacubitril/valsartan and post-sacubitril/valsartan PAPs were compared for each patient by examining averaged consecutive daily pressure readings from 1 to 5 days before and after sacubitril/valsartan exposure. PAP changes were also compared between patients based on elevated trans-pulmonary gradients (trans-pulmonary gradient ≥ 12 mmHg) at time of CardioMEMS™ sensor implantation. The cohort included 18 patients, 72% male, mean age 60.1 ± 13.6 years. There was a significant decrease in PAPs associated with transition from ACEI/ARB to sacubitril/valsartan. The median (interquartile range) pre-treatment and post-treatment change in mean, systolic and diastolic PAPs were -3.6 (-9.8, -0.7) mmHg (P < 0.001), -6.5 (-15.0, -2.0) mmHg (P = 0.001), and -2.5 (-5.7, -0.7) (P = 0.001), respectively. The decrease in PAPs was independent of trans-pulmonary gradient (F(1,16) = 0.49, P = 0.49). CONCLUSIONS: In this retrospective case series, transition from ACEI/ARB to sacubitril/valsartan was associated with an early and significant decrease in PAPs.

9.
ESC Heart Fail ; 8(2): 849-860, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527654

RESUMO

AIMS: Determine the feasibility of implementing a heart failure (HF) management strategy that (i) uses a device-based, remote, dynamic, multimetric risk stratification model to predict the risk of HF events and (ii) uses a standardized, centrally administered, ambulatory medication intervention protocol to reproducibly and safely decrease elevated risk scores. METHODS AND RESULTS: Prospective, non-randomized, single-arm, multicenter feasibility study (Intervene-HF) was conducted in HF patients implanted with a cardiac resynchronization therapy with implantable cardio defibrillator (CRT-D) with TriageHF risk score feature. Certified HF nurses (CHFN) in the Medtronic Care Management Services Program implemented an ambulatory medication intervention strategy by following a standardized guided action pathway triggered by risk-based alert. When CHFN received notification of increased risk score (HF care alert), they implemented a 3 day course of diuretic up-titration (PRN) previously prescribed by a physician. Safety was monitored daily. Recovery after PRN was defined as ≥70% recovery of impedance toward baseline levels. Sixty-six patients followed for 8.2 ± 3.9 months had 49 HF care alerts. Twenty-three of 49 alerts did not receive PRN due to protocol-mandated criteria. Twenty-six of 49 alerts received PRN, 22 were completed, and 19 led to impedance recovery. Four interventions were stopped for safety without leading to an adverse event (AE). One of 26 PRNs was followed by a HF event. Eighty-five per cent (22/26) of PRNs were completed without an AE; 69% (18/26) met the recovery criteria. CONCLUSIONS: The Intervene-HF study supports the feasibility of testing, in a large randomized clinical trial, an ambulatory medication intervention strategy that is physician-directed, CHFN-implemented, and based on individualized device risk stratification.

10.
Am Heart J ; 237: 45-53, 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33621540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) plasma concentrations are independent prognostic markers in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Whether a differential risk association between NT-proBNP plasma concentrations and risk of cardiovascular (CV) vs non-CV adverse events exists is not well known. OBJECTIVE: To assess if there is a differential proportional risk of CV vs non-CV adverse events by NT-proBNP plasma concentrations. METHODS: In this post hoc combined analysis of PARADIGM-HF and ATMOSPHERE trials, proportion of CV vs non-CV mortality and hospitalizations were assessed by NT-proBNP levels (<400, 400-999, 1000-1999, 2000-2999, and >3000 pg/mL) at baseline using Cox regression adjusting for traditional risk factors. RESULTS: A total of 14,737 patients with mean age of 62 ± 8 years (24% history of atrial fibrillation [AF]) were studied. For CV deaths, the event rates per 1000 patient-years steeply increased from 33.8 in the ≤400 pg/mL group to 142.3 in the ≥3000 pg/mL group, while the non-CV death event rates modestly increased from 9.0 to 22.7, respectively. Proportion of non-CV deaths decreased across the 5 NT-proBNP groups (21.1%, 18.4%, 17.9%, 17.4%, and 13.7% respectively). Similar trend was observed for non-CV hospitalizations (46.4%, 42.6%, 42.9%, 42.0%, and 36.9% respectively). These results remained similar when stratified according to the presence of AF at baseline and prior HF hospitalization within last 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: The absolute CV event rates per patient years of follow-up were greater and had higher stepwise increases than non-CV event rates across a broad range of NT-proBNP plasma concentrations indicating a differential risk of CV events at varying baseline NT-proBNP values. These results have implications for future design of clinical trials.

11.
ESC Heart Fail ; 8(2): 1130-1138, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33438360

RESUMO

AIMS: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is common in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Patients with DM and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction have higher levels of cardiac, profibrotic, and proinflammatory biomarkers relative to non-diabetics. Limited data are available regarding the biomarker profiles of HFpEF patients with diabetes (DM) vs. no diabetes (non-DM) and the impact of spironolactone on these biomarkers. This study aims to address such gaps in the literature. METHODS AND RESULTS: Biomarkers were measured at randomization and at 12 months in 248 patients enrolled in Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure with an Aldosterone Antagonist's North American cohort. At baseline, DM patients had significantly lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and higher high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, pro-collagen type III amino-terminal peptide, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), and galectin-3 levels than those without diabetes. There was a significantly larger 12 month increase in levels of high-sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT), a marker of myocyte death, in DM patients. Elevated pro-collagen type III amino-terminal peptide and galectin-3 levels were associated with an increased risk of the primary outcome (cardiovascular mortality, aborted cardiac arrest, or heart failure hospitalization) in DM patients, but not in those without diabetes. A statistically significant interaction between spironolactone and diabetes status was observed for hs-TnT and for TIMP-1, with greater biomarker reductions among those with diabetes treated with spironolactone. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of diabetes is associated with higher levels of cardiac, profibrotic, and proinflammatory biomarkers in HFpEF. Spironolactone appears to alter the determinants of extracellular matrix remodelling in an anti-fibrotic fashion in patients with diabetes, reflected by changes in hs-TnT and TIMP-1 levels over time.

12.
Am J Med ; 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of loop diuretics on clinical outcomes in heart failure has not been evaluated in randomized controlled trials. In hospitalized patients with heart failure, a discharge loop diuretic prescription has been shown to be associated with improved 30-day outcomes, which appears to be more pronounced in subgroups with congestion. In the current study, we examined these associations and association modifications during longer follow-up. METHODS: We assembled a propensity score-matched cohort of 2191 pairs of hospitalized heart failure patients discharged with, vs without, a prescription for loop diuretics, balanced on 74 baseline characteristics (mean age 78 years; 54% women; 11% African American). RESULTS: Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for 6-year combined endpoint of heart failure readmission or all-cause mortality was 1.02 (0.96-1.09). HRs and 95% CIs for this combined endpoint in patients with no, mild-to-moderate, and severe pulmonary rales were 1.19 (1.07-1.33), 0.95 (0.86-1.04), and 0.77 (0.63-0.94), respectively (P for interaction, < .001). Respective HRs (95% CIs) for no, mild-to-moderate, and severe lower extremity edema were 1.16 (1.06-1.28), 0.94 (0.85-1.04), and 0.71 (0.56-0.89; interaction P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The association between a discharge loop diuretic prescription and long-term clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with heart failure is modified by admission congestion with worse, neutral, and better outcomes in patients with no, mild-to-moderate, and severe congestion, respectively. If these findings can be replicated, congestion may be used to risk-stratify patients with heart failure for potential optimization of loop diuretic prescription and outcomes.

13.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33301080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sudden death (SD) and pump failure death (PFD) are leading modes of death in heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Risk stratification for mode-specific death may aid in patient enrichment for new device trials in HFpEF. METHODS: Models were derived in 4116 patients in the Irbesartan in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction trial (I-Preserve), using competing risks regression analysis. A series of models were built in a stepwise manner, and were validated in the Candesartan in Heart failure: Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and morbidity (CHARM)-Preserved and Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure with an Aldosterone Antagonist (TOPCAT) trials. RESULTS: The clinical model for SD included older age, men, lower LVEF, higher heart rate, history of diabetes or myocardial infarction, and HF hospitalization within previous 6 months, all of which were associated with a higher SD risk. The clinical model predicting PFD included older age, men, lower LVEF or diastolic blood pressure, higher heart rate, and history of diabetes or atrial fibrillation, all for a higher PFD risk, and dyslipidaemia for a lower risk of PFD. In each model, the observed and predicted incidences were similar in each risk subgroup, suggesting good calibration. Model discrimination was good for SD and excellent for PFD with Harrell's C of 0.71 (95% CI 0.68-0.75) and 0.78 (95% CI 0.75-0.82), respectively. Both models were robust in external validation. Adding ECG and biochemical parameters, model performance improved little in the derivation cohort but decreased in validation. Including NT-proBNP substantially increased discrimination of the SD model, and simplified the PFD model with marginal increase in discrimination. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical models can predict risks for SD and PFD separately with good discrimination and calibration in HFpEF and are robust in external validation. Adding NT-proBNP further improved model performance. These models may help to identify high-risk individuals for device intervention in future trials. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: I-Preserve: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00095238; TOPCAT: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00094302; CHARM-Preserved: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00634712.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33306449

RESUMO

In human heart failure and in murine hearts with left ventricular pressure overload (LVPO), increases in fibrosis are associated with increases in stiffness. Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (SPARC) is necessary for both cardiac fibrosis and increases in myocardial stiffness in response to LVPO, however cellular sources of cardiac SPARC are incompletely defined. Irradiation and bone marrow transfer were undertaken to test the hypothesis that SPARC expression by bone marrow-derived cells is an important mediator of fibrosis in LVPO. In recipient SPARC-null mice transplanted with donor wild-type (WT) bone marrow and subjected to LVPO, levels of fibrosis similar to that of WT hearts were found despite the lack of SPARC expression by resident cells. In recipient WT mice with donor SPARC-null bone marrow, significantly less fibrosis versus that of WT was found despite the expression of SPARC by resident cells. Increases in myocardial stiffness followed a similar pattern to that of collagen deposition. Myocardial macrophages were significantly reduced in SPARC-null mice with LVPO versus that of WT hearts. Recipient SPARC-null mice transplanted with donor WT bone marrow exhibited an increase in cardiac macrophages versus that of SPARC-null LVPO and donor WT mice with recipient SPARC-null bone marrow. Expression of Vascular Cellular Adhesion Molecule (VCAM) was found to be in increased in all groups with LVPO with the exception of WT mice. In conclusion, SPARC expression by bone marrow-derived cells was critical for fibrotic deposition of collagen and influenced the expansion of myocardial macrophages in response to LVPO.

16.
Am J Med ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New hypertension and heart failure guidelines recommend that systolic blood pressure (SBP) in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and hypertension be lowered to <130 mm Hg. METHODS: Of the 6778 hospitalized patients with HFpEF and a history of hypertension in the Medicare-linked OPTIMIZE-HF registry, 3111 had a discharge SBP <130 mm Hg. Using propensity scores for SBP <130 mm Hg, we assembled a matched cohort of 1979 pairs with SBP <130 versus ≥130 mm Hg, balanced on 66 baseline characteristics (mean age, 79 years; 69% women; 12% African American). We then assembled a second matched cohort of 1326 pairs with SBP <120 versus ≥130 mm Hg. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for outcomes associated with SBP <130 and <120 mm Hg were separately estimated in the matched cohorts using SBP ≥130 mm Hg as the reference. RESULTS: HRs (95% CIs) for 30-day, 12-month, and 6-year all-cause mortality associated with SBP <130 mm Hg were 1.20 (0.91-1.59; P = 0.200), 1.11 (0.99-1.26; P = 0.080), and 1.05 (0.98-1.14; P = 0.186), respectively. Respective HRs (95% CIs) associated with SBP <120 mm Hg were 1.68 (1.21-2.34; P = 0.002), 1.28 (1.11-1.48; P = 0.001), and 1.11 (1.02-1.22; P = 0.022). There was no association with readmission. CONCLUSIONS: Among older patients with HFpEF and hypertension, compared with SBP ≥130 mm Hg, the new target SBP <130 mm Hg had no association with outcomes but SBP <120 mm Hg was associated with a higher risk of death but not of readmission. Future prospective studies need to evaluate optimal SBP treatment goals in these patients.

17.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078584

RESUMO

AIMS: Little is known about patient characteristics, outcomes, and the effect of treatment in relation to duration of heart failure (HF). We have investigated these questions in PARADIGM-HF. The aim of the study was to compare patient characteristics, outcomes, and the effect of sacubitril/valsartan, compared with enalapril, in relation to time from HF diagnosis in PARADIGM-HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: HF duration was categorized as 0-1, >1-2, >2-5, and >5 years. Outcomes were adjusted for prognostic variables, including N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). The primary endpoint was the composite of HF hospitalization or cardiovascular death. The number of patients in each group was as follows: 0-1 year, 2523 (30%); >1-2 years, 1178 (14%); >2-5 years, 2054 (24.5%); and >5 years, 2644 (31.5%). Patients with longer-duration HF were older, more often male, and had worse New York Heart Association class and quality of life, more co-morbidity, and higher troponin-T but similar NT-proBNP levels. The primary outcome rate (per 100 person-years) increased with HF duration: 0-1 year, 8.4 [95% confidence interval (CI) 7.6-9.2]; >1-2 years, 11.2 (10.0-12.7); >2-5 years, 13.4 (12.4-14.6); and >5 years, 14.2 (13.2-15.2); P < 0.001. The hazard ratio was 1.26 (95% CI 1.07-1.48), 1.52 (1.33-1.74), and 1.53 (1.33-1.75), respectively, for >1-2, >2-5, and >5 years, compared with 0-1 year. The benefit of sacubitril/valsartan was consistent across HF duration for all outcomes, with the primary endpoint hazard ratio 0.80 (95% CI 0.67-0.97) for 0-1 year and 0.73 (0.63-0.84) in the >5 year group. For the primary outcome, the number needed to treat for >5 years was 18, compared with 29 for 0-1 year. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with longer-duration HF had more co-morbidity, worse quality of life, and higher rates of HF hospitalization and death. The benefit of a neprilysin inhibitor was consistent, irrespective of HF duration. Switching to sacubitril/valsartan had substantial benefits, even in patients with long-standing HF.

18.
JAMA ; 324(15): 1522-1531, 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079154

RESUMO

Importance: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is often characterized by nitric oxide deficiency. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of praliciguat, an oral soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator, in patients with HFpEF. Design, Setting, and Participants: CAPACITY HFpEF was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial. Fifty-nine sites enrolled 196 patients with heart failure and an ejection fraction of at least 40%, impaired peak rate of oxygen consumption (peak V̇o2), and at least 2 conditions associated with nitric oxide deficiency (diabetes, hypertension, obesity, or advanced age). The trial randomized patients to 1 of 3 praliciguat dose groups or a placebo group, but was refocused early to a comparison of the 40-mg praliciguat dose vs placebo. Participants were enrolled from November 15, 2017, to April 30, 2019, with final follow-up on August 19, 2019. Interventions: Patients were randomized to receive 12 weeks of treatment with 40 mg of praliciguat daily (n = 91) or placebo (n = 90). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary efficacy end point was the change from baseline in peak V̇o2 in patients who completed at least 8 weeks of assigned dosing. Secondary end points included the change from baseline in 6-minute walk test distance and in ventilatory efficiency (ventilation/carbon dioxide production slope). The primary adverse event end point was the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs). Results: Among 181 patients (mean [SD] age, 70 [9] years; 75 [41%] women), 155 (86%) completed the trial. In the placebo (n = 78) and praliciguat (n = 65) groups, changes in peak V̇o2 were 0.04 mL/kg/min (95% CI, -0.49 to 0.56) and -0.26 mL/kg/min (95% CI, -0.83 to 0.31), respectively; the placebo-adjusted least-squares between-group difference in mean change from baseline was -0.30 mL/kg/min ([95% CI, -0.95 to 0.35]; P = .37). None of the 3 prespecified secondary end points were statistically significant. In the placebo and praliciguat groups, changes in 6-minute walk test distance were 58.1 m (95% CI, 26.1-90.1) and 41.4 m (95% CI, 8.2-74.5), respectively; the placebo-adjusted least-squares between-group difference in mean change from baseline was -16.7 m (95% CI, -47.4 to 13.9). In the placebo and praliciguat groups, the placebo-adjusted least-squares between-group difference in mean change in ventilation/carbon dioxide production slope was -0.3 (95% CI, -1.6 to 1.0). There were more dizziness (9.9% vs 1.1%), hypotension (8.8% vs 0%), and headache (11% vs 6.7%) TEAEs with praliciguat compared with placebo. The frequency of serious TEAEs was similar between the groups (10% in the praliciguat group and 11% in the placebo group). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with HFpEF, the soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator praliciguat, compared with placebo, did not significantly improve peak V̇o2 from baseline to week 12. These findings do not support the use of praliciguat in patients with HFpEF. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03254485.


Assuntos
Tolerância ao Exercício/efeitos dos fármacos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Guanilato Ciclase/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Volume Sistólico , Falha de Tratamento , Teste de Caminhada
19.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084860

RESUMO

TNNI3K expression worsens disease progression in several mouse heart pathology models. TNNI3K expression also reduces the number of diploid cardiomyocytes, which may be detrimental to adult heart regeneration. However, the gene is evolutionarily conserved, suggesting a beneficial function that has remained obscure. Here, we show that C57BL/6 J-inbred Tnni3k mutant mice develop concentric remodeling, characterized by ventricular wall thickening and substantial reduction of cardiomyocyte aspect ratio. This pathology occurs in mice carrying a Tnni3k null allele, a K489R point mutation rendering the protein kinase-dead, or an allele corresponding to human I686T, the most common human nonsynonymous TNNI3K variant, which is hypomorphic for kinase activity. Mutant mice develop these conditions in the absence of fibrosis or hypertension, implying a primary cardiomyocyte etiology. In culture, mutant cardiomyocytes were impaired in contractility and calcium dynamics and in protein kinase A signaling in response to isoproterenol, indicating diminished contractile reserve. These results demonstrate a beneficial function of TNNI3K in the adult heart that might explain its evolutionary conservation and imply that human TNNI3K variants, in particular the widespread I686T allele, may convey elevated risk for altered heart geometry and hypertrophy.

20.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33118331

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to examine the clinical utility of a multisensor, remote, ambulatory diagnostic risk score, TriageHF™, in a real-world, unselected, large patient sample to predict heart failure events (HFEs) and all-cause mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: TriageHF risk score was calculated in patients in the Optum® database who had Medtronic implantable cardiac defibrillator device from 2007 to 2016. Patients were categorized into three risk groups based on probability for having an HFE within 6 months (low risk <5.4%, medium risk ≥5.4 < 20%, and high risk ≥20%). Data were analysed using three strategies: (i) scheduled monthly data download; (ii) alert-triggered data download; and (iii) daily data download. Study population consisted of 22 901 patients followed for 1.8 ± 1.3 years. Using monthly downloads, HFE risk over 30 days incrementally increased across risk categories (odds ratio: 2.8, 95% confidence interval: 2.5-3.2 for HFE, P < 0.001, low vs. medium risk, and odds ratio: 9.2, 95% confidence interval: 8.1-10.3, P < 0.001, medium vs. high risk). Findings were similar using the other two analytic strategies. Using a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, sensitivity for predicting HFE over 30 days using high-risk score was 47% (alert triggered) and 51% (daily download) vs. 0.5 per patient year unexplained detection rate. TriageHF risk score also predicted all-cause mortality risk over 4 years. All-cause mortality risk was 14% in low risk, 20% in medium risk, and 38% in high risk. CONCLUSIONS: TriageHF risk score provides a multisensor remote, ambulatory diagnostic method that predicts both HFEs and all-cause mortality.

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